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University of Toronto 




From January 1, 1912, to June 30, 1912 


(Established in April, 1856) 











Fifty-second Quarto Volume— January 1, 1912 to June 30, 1912. 


Acworth, W. M., 470 
Archibald, J. D., 98 

Bacon, Charles G., Jr., 371 
Baird, D. C, 908 
Ballantine, N. D., 141 
Bateman, E., 505 
Benjamin, C. H., 1613 
Berry, J. B., 468 
Beyer, O. S., Jr., U08 
Bishop, Avard Longley, 960 
Black, R. P., nil 
Bougher, J. T., 989 
Bohl, William E., 1121 
Bowser, J. T., 1117 
Breinmer, Geo. H., 291 
Brentnall, Louis, 1614 
Brown, Paul W., 51 
Brown, Stephen H., 83 
Browne, Gilbert G., 1229 
Burlingame, Charles, 834 
Burrell, F. L.. 99 

Campbell, E. H., 1164 
Carruth, Arthur J., Jr., 1228 
Carter, Charles Frederick, 1227 
Caruthers, C. H., 269 
Chenoweth, E. G., 1561 
Church, S. R., 298, 904 
Clay, C, 908 
Clough, A. M., 293, 1107 
Cobb, N. T., 1147 
Collett, L. H., 743 
Connors, M. S., 675 
Cook, C. C, 1565 
Cook, William W., 190 
Corcoran, George, 1106 
Crabbs, F. E., 309, 910, 1567 
Cushing, W. C, 374 

Davis, L. D., 272 
Delano, F. A., 883 
Dixon, F. H., 466 
Dudley, P. H., 948 
Dunn, Samuel O., 951 

Fay, T., 788 
Finan, J. P., 418 
Finley, W. W., 1000 
Finley, W. H., 913 
Foote, A. M., 487 
Forman, H. W., 467 
Francis, J. R., 1114 
Freeman, Lewis R., 898 

Fritch, L. C, 204, 468, 847 
Fry, Lawford H., 1536 

Gaines, F. F., 1035 
Gaines, Morrell W., 10, 1599 
Ganley, M., 97, 496, 920 
Gardiner, George S., 83 
Gauley, M., 1575 
Gilman, C. R., 149 
Godley, Philip, 1085 
Goltra, W. F., 59, 292 
Goss, W. F. M., 419, 1347 
Greenland, W. W., Illl 
Greensfelder, A. P., 1345 
Gulley, E. W., 908 

Haggander, G. A., 307 

Hamilton, P. H., 97, 293, 294, 909, 

Hansen, A. E., 905 
Harvey, D. F., 1567 
Henkel, C. C, 907 
Hodges, George, 1594 

Isaacs, John D., 1086 
Ives, D. O., 988 

Job, Robert, 1227 
Jonah, F. G., 503 
Jones, S. J., 787 

Keough, E., 1566 
King, Coleman, 1117 
Kirby, John, Jr., 370 

Lawrence, F. E., 1104 

Lawton, L. C, 910 

Le Boutillier, G., 502 

Leroy-Beaulieu, Paul, 1047 

Lewis, E. R., 98, 302, 310, 500, 

Lindsay, C. E., 1112 
Low, Emile, 1149 
Lowe, George E., 905 

MacFarland, H. B., 750 
McAndrews, P. J., 1104, 1571 
McNally, J. F., 1119 
McPherson, Logan G., 1541 
McVeigh, E. J., 5, 763 
Mahana, C. G., 498 
Moore, G. F., 469 
Morgan, J. J., 906, 1106 
Morse, C. A., 888 
Neill, Charles P., 759 
Oxley, A. C, 1158 

Palmer, A., 1103 
Patterson, Frank M., 1036 
Payne, J. L., 244 
Peter, S. B.. 1106 
Plant, L. G., 1186 
Potter, W. B., 151 
Potter, William J., 1574 
Prouty, Charles A., 803 

Rice, F. C, 417 

Ripley, William Z., 19, 48, 87 

Roberts, G. W., 1565 

Ross, Walter L., 333 

Rowell, B. C, 230 

Ryder, Gilbert E., 156 

Schenck, A. A., 1124 

Schmidt, Edward C, 44 

Seley, C. A., 90 

Shannahan, J. H. K., Jr., 1564 

Sterling, E. A., 231 

Stillman, Howard, 482 

Stuart, J. C, 947 

Sugrue, J. F., 270 

Summers, E. W., 329 

Swartz, A., 1105 

Sweeney, James, 906 

Taylor, J. L., 293, 1575 
Tierney, William J., 882 
Tobin, J. E., 907 
Turner, L. H., 947 

Uniacke, R. F., 1603 

Van Allen, Clifford, 141 
Van Auken, A. M., 427 
Van Langendonck, C, 235, 425 
Voorhees, Theodore, 788 

Walker, W. K., 1105 
Warner, Paul T., 755 
Waterman, J. H., 300 
Weiss, Howard F., 918 
Whinery, S., 1594 
White, R. C, 99 
Whiting, Frank V., 432 
Whitney, M. E., 140, 909 
Williamson, A. S., 685 
Wollner, Wm. S., 494 
Woslyng, P. J. M., 1564 

Yeomans, George G., 229, 1539 


[January 1— June 30, 1912. 


[Illustrated articles are indicated thus*; Editorials thiis't; Letters to the Editor thust-] 

Abutment (See Bridges and Buildings) 

Accidents in 1911 and 1912, 1144t 
Analysis of American Railway Accidents, 230 
Banner for Accident Record. C. & N. W., 923 
Boston & Maine in Hoosac Tunnel, 350, 395 

1223t, 1234, 1550 
British Railway Accidents, 1211 
Car Inspector's Important Duties, 743$ 
Cliicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul at Odessa, 
Minn.. 84*, 137t, 152, 190t, 269t, 923, 
9.S5t, 1010, 1616 
Cost of Workmen's Compensation, 897 
Conductor Convicted of Manslaughter in 

Accident, 349 
Cumberland Valley Accident Record, 1352 
Death Roll Decrease. 118 

Derailments Due to Defects in Roadway, 42t 
Donatto, Tony, 1249 
Excessive Speed and Railway Accidents, 

417$, 668t, 674$ 
False Statement of Conditions, 80t, 412t 
First Aid Boxes, 665t, 809 
Great Northern near Doyon, N. D., 311 
Illinois Central at Kinmundy, III., 135t, 

137t, 142*. 209, 809, 985t, 1010 
Illinois Central Reduction of Accidents, 

Industrial Accidents, Prevention of, 432* 
Injuries to Persons and Damage to Freight, 

I. C. C. Bulletin No. 41. 430; No. 42, 

1059, 1090 
I. C. C. Reports. 467$ 
Lehigh Valley. Broken Rail. 267$. 280* 
Long Island R. R. Accident Record, 1352 
Mail Car Accidents, 1126 
Malmslaett, Sweden, 1578 
Monthly Summaries: December, 1911, 154. 
351; January, 387, 694; Februarv 689; 
March. 962; April. 1192; May, 1546 
New Orleans & Northeastern, near Hatties- 

burg. Miss., 1061 
Newspaper Accounts, 1330$ 
New York Central, near Collinwood, Ohio. 

New York Central, near Hyde Park, N. Y., 

508, 692 
N. Y. N. H. & H., near Leefs Island, 

Conn., 1012* 
Northern of France, near Paris, 1210 
Pennsylvania at Crestline. Ohio. 438 
Pennsylvania, near Larwill. Ind.. 349 
Pennsylvania, at Warrior Ridge, Pa., 347* 
Publicity to Accidents on the Sou. Pac, 

Rail Breakage and Wheel Loads, 785$ 
Rail Failures Due to Eccentric Loading, 

8S8*, 901$ 
Railway Accident Situation. 12251. 1237 
Reward for Preventing Accident on the 

Temiskaming & Northern Ontario, 1247 
Reward for Saving Train, 248 
Reward Offered for Conviction of Wreck- 
ers. 26 
Safety Bureau on Chicago Great Western. 

26. 855 
Safety Campaign, A. T. & S. F., 311 
Safety Committees; Baltimore & Ohio, 827t, 

Safety Committee, C. & N. W., 925 
Safety Committees; Chicago & Western In- 
diana, 1618 
Safety Committee; C. E. & 0.- 64 
Safety Committee; D. L. & W., 1126 
Safety Committees; Elgin, Toliet & Eastern. 

Safety Committee; Jonesboro, Lake City & 

Eastern, 767 
Safety Committees; M. K. & T., 438 
Safety Committees; New York Central 

Lines, 1249 
Safety Committees; Pennsylvania, 768 
Safety Committees; Wheeling & Lake Erie, 

Safetv Committees Reducing Accidents, 

187$, 208 
Safety First on the Union Pacific, 1017 
Safetv Medal for the Pennsylvania, 119, 

Steel Passenger Cars in Collision, 269$, 

Steel Wheels, Low Cost of, 412$. 466$ 
Stopping Train from Car, 665$ 
Trespassers, 411$. 412$, 432. 440, 693, 968, 

1082$, 1455$ 
Wabash, near West Lebanon, Ind., 508 
Wheel Loads and Transverse Rail Fissures, 

Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc. Report on Records 

and Accounts, 635* 
Dailv Statement of Transportation Expenses. 

Form for Annual Reports Prescribed by Law 
in England, 783$, 801 

Accounting (Continued): 

Freight Car Repair Costs, Fallacies in, 141$ 
Full Cost of Freight Movement, 141$ 
Misleading Statistics, 186$ 
Supply Department Accounting, 1160 
Acetylene (See Lighting) 
Acme Supply Co. : 

Acme Sectional Diaphragm, 1425* 
Asco Weatherstrip, 1454" 
Ladder for Steel Box Cars, 1509* 
Advertising, 1614 

Flights, 118, 208 
London to Paris, 510 
Pau to Portiers, 510 

Baltimore & Ohio Bureau of Agriculture. 

Boll Weevil, Campaign Against, 28 
Canadian Colonization, 1251 
Canal Zone, 1214 
Dairy Train, 121 

Demonstration Trains, 29, 120, 166, 211, 250, 

313, 443, 512, 695. 696, 771, 772. 970, 1019 

Encouraging Settlement on Western Lands, 

Good Roads Useless without Grade Crossing 

Elimination, 81$ 
Good Roads, 509, 811 

Instruction of the Pennsylvania Railroad, 29 
Natural Resources Department on the Can. 

Pac, 311 
Pennsylvania Railroad's Trees, 1351 
Promotion, 1172 

Success of Southern Railway, 67 
Air Br.ike (See Brake) 

Air Brake Association: Annual Meeting, 1093* 
Ajax Forge Co.: Manganese Steel One-Piece 

Guard Rail, 496* 
Alaska: Proposal for a Government Railway in 

Alaska, 350 
.Mcohol Heating & Lighting Co.: Alcohol Heater 

Car, 1244* 
American Car & Foundry Co.: 

Steel Parlor Cars: Long Island, 471* 
Steel Underframe Tank Car, 1278* 
Well Car of 75 Tons Capacity; Erie, 1388* 
American Iron & Steel Mfg. Co.: Universal Com- 
bination Screw Spike, 922* 
American Locomotive Co. : 

Mallet; Ches. & Ohio, 797* 

Mallet; Pennsylvania R. R., 377* 

Mikado; Ches. & Ohio, 201* 

Mikado; Erie, 241* 

Mikado; Missouri Pacific, 55*. 248 

Most Powerful Locomotive in the World; 

Virginian, 1321* 
Pacific Type Locomotive Record on the Erie, 
American Railway Association : 

Charge for Interchanged Freight Cars, 1579 
Rail Conference in New York, 769 
Railway Accident Situation, 1225$, 1237 
Spring Meeting, 1098 

Transportation of Explosives, SOt, 121, 854 
.\merican Railway Bridge & Building Association: 
Committee Appointments, 100 
Damage to Yards by Mississippi Floods 922, 

Lime Wash for Fire Prevention, 1125 
.'\merican Railway Engineering & Maintenance 
of Way Association (See American Rail- 
way Engineering Association) 
.American Railway Engineering Association: 
Annual Dinner, 612$, 642* 
(Committee Assignments, 901$, 916 
Committee Reports, 711* 
Committee Work, 612$ 
Convention, 485$ 
Financial Difficulties, 566$ 
Founders, 552 
Gravel Washing Plant, 604* 
Locomotive Boiler Corrosion and Treated 

Water, 1114 
National Railway Appliances Association E.x- 

hibit, 39$. 65, 289$, 547. 553*. 550. 568 
Officers and Past Presidents, 552, 650* 
Preparation of Specifications, 565$ 
President's Address, 569 
Proceedings. 569*, 613*, 714* 
Report on Ballast, 584* 

Report on Wooden Bridges and Trestles, 583 
Report on Buildings. 711$, 718* 
Report on Conservation of Natural Re- 
sources. 712$. 714* 
Report on Grading of Lumber, 726* 
Report on Economics of Railway Location 

712$, 725* 
Report on Electricity. 611$, 636* 
Report on Iron and Steel Structures, 580* 
Report on Masonry, 628* 
Report on Rails, 611$, 616 
Report on Records and Accounts, 635* 
Report en Roadway, 621* 
Report on Rules and Organization, 575* 
Report on Signs. Fences and Crossings. 
711$, 716* 

.American Railway Engineering Association 
(Continued) : 
Report on Signals and Interlocking, 565$, 

Report on Track, 592, 613 
Report on Ties, 566$, 586* 
Report on Uniform (jeneral Contract Forms, 

Report on Water Service, 611$, 623* 
Report on Wood Preservation, 729* 
Report on Yards and Terminals, 614* 
Valuable Work, 1559$ 
American Railway Master Mechanics' Associa- 
tion : 
Baseball Game, 1419, 1435* 
Co-Operation with Other Mechanical Associa- 
tions, 1455$ 
Concluding Exercises, 1526 
Convention Twenty Years Ago, 1431$ 
Crawford, David Francis, 1526 
Entertainment at Convention, 877$, 927. 

Exhibit of the Railway Supply Manufactur- 
ers' .Association, 1283* 1324*, 1395* 
1423*, 1449*, 1481*, 1508*, 1529* 
Mallet Locomotive, Care of, 1431$ 
Past Presidents, 1529 

President Bentley's Address, 1456$, 1460* 
Proceedings, 1460*, 1487* 1513* 
Registration, 1444, 1474, 1484, 1504 
Report on Advisory, Technical, 1463 
Report on Consolid'ation, 1484$. 1487 
Report on Contour of Tides, 1483t, 1497* 
Report on Design. Construction and Inspec- 
tion of Locomotive Boilers, 1485$, 1487* 
Report on Engine Fender Wheels, 1526 
Report on Flange Lubrication. 1512$. 1513* 
Report on Increased Power Obtained with 

Superheat, 1483$, 1499 
Report on Main and Side Rods, 1457$, 

Report on Maintenance of Superheater Loco- 
motives, 1511$, 1518* 
Report on Mechanical Stokers, 1456$, 1463* 
Report on Minimum Requirements for Head- 
lights, 1518 
Report on Safety Valves, 1455$, 1468* 
Report on Standardization of Tinware, 1518 
Report on Steel Tires, 1483$, 1501* 
American Saw Mill Machinery Co.: Portable Saw 

Mill, 1125* 
.American Society for Testing Materials: 
Specifications for Steel, 796 
Steel Wheel Designs, 365$, 369$, 371* 
American Society of Engineering Contractors: 

Cement Gun. 489* 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers: Oil 

Burning Locomotives, 482* " 
American Steel Foundries: 
Sampson Bolster, 1449* 
Seventy-Ton Pedestal Jaw Truck, 1396" 
Vulcan Cast Steel Brake Beam, 1287* 
American Valve & Meter Co.: Switch Lock, 921* 
American Vanadium Co.: Vanadium Exhibit, 

.American Water Softener Co.: Purified Water 

Supply, 661 
.American Wood Preservers' Association: 
Annual Convention, 95$, 108 
Creosote and Creosoting Oils, 113 
Creosote Specifications and Analysis, 113, 
290$. 298 y . . 

Cutting and Seasoning Timber, 110 
Doubling Strength of Ties, 1574 
Efficiency in Plant Operation, 111 
Inspectors and Inspection at Commercial 

Plants, 115 
Manufacture of Cross-Ties for Preservative 

Treatment, 918* 
Proceedings, 904 

Production of the Wooden Cross Tie. 108 
Scientific Management of Timber Preserving 

Plants. 110 
Treating Seasoned vs. Unseasoned Ties, 115 
Annual Reports (See names of companies; also 

Apprentice (See Education) 
.Arbitration ^See Employee) 
Arch (See Bridges and Buildings) 
ArchbaM, Judge, Charges Against, 1063 1126 

1168, 1248, 1616 
Ash Pan (See Locomotive Firebox) 
Associations (See names) 
Association of Railway Electrical Engineers- 

Semi.Annual Meeting. 1417, 1432$ 
Association of Railway Telegraph Superintend- 
Convention, 1338 
Main Line Relays with Telephone Selectors, 

Maintenance of Telegraph Lines, 1340 
St. Louis Terminal Telegraphs and Tele- 
phones, 1340 
Telegraph Traffic, 1341 
Telephone on the Santa Fe 1339 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe: 
Bridge at Siblev, Mo., 334 
Dynamometer Car, 750* 

Januarj- 1 — June 30. 191J 


Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe {Continued) : 
Flags Abolished, 26 
Maintenance of Wav Department Rule Book, 

Safety Campaign Results, 3 1 1 
Smoke Abatement Tests on Switching Loco- 
motives. 343*. 419+ 
Train de Luxe, \'entilation, 23' 
Atlantic Coast Line: Tie-Treating Plant at 

Gainesville. 1555 
Atlantic Express Company, 28 
Atlas Preservative Co. of America: Chemical 
Weed Destroyer and Track Preservative, 
Auditing (See Accounting) 
Autogenous Welding < See Welding) 
Automatic Stops (See Safety Appliances) 
Axle (See Wheel) 


Baggage: Excess Baggage Rule Conferences, 211 
Baldwin Locomotive Works: 

B. L. W. Loyal Legion. 351* 
Direct-Current Freight Locomotive; Oakland, 

Antiooh & Eastern. 1528* 
Eight-Motor Articulated Electric Locomotive; 

N. V. N. H. & H.. 1608* 
Mikado; C. B. & Q.. 1006* 
Mikado: Erie, 241* 
Road Tests of Mallet and Consolidation 

Locomotives, 1476 
Triplex Compound Locomotive, Proposed, 

Gravel Washing Plant. 604* 
Handling Stone Ballast. 1107* 
Baltimore & Ohio: 

Bureau of Agriculture. 1352 

Chicago Organization, 925 

Fuel Economy, 151 It 

Safety Committees, S27t, 846 

Strauss Bascule Bridge Over the Calumet 

River at South Chicago. 662* 
Timber-Treating Plant. 1016 
Track Scale, 272* 
Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern : Manual Block 

System on Single Track. 890 
Barney & Smith Car Co.: History, 1471 
Bascule (See Bridges & Buildings) 
Battery: (Storage Battery, 733 

Insii. cling Side Bearing Motion. 1013* 
Machine for Testing Journal Friction. 1430* 
Pressure on Journal-Bearing Wedges, 1280t 
Belt Railway of (Thicago: Joint Ownership of the 

Belt Railway of Chicago. 548, 693 
Bessemer & Lake Erie: All-Steel Box Car, 677* 
Bills of Lading: Bureau in Baltimore, 397 
Bingham & Gar6eld. 744* 
Block Signal (See Signal, Block) 
Block Signal & Train Control Board: 
Inspection Reports, 885 

Manual Block Systems on Single Track. 890 
Boiler (See Locomotive Boiler) 
Bolster (See Truck) 
Boston Si Maine: 

Accident in Hoosac Tunnel. 350, 395, 1222-t, 

1234. 1550 
Electric Railway up Mount Washington, 1126 
Lease to N. Y." N. H. & H., 856, 929, 1061, 

1127, 1133, 1168 
Water Tower, 736* 
Boston Elevated: 

Jointed Coach. 1247 
Losses by Theft, 1579 
Brake (See also Safety Appliances; also Air 
Brake Association ; also Master Car 
Builders' Association) : 
Air Brake Inspection and Tests, 1093 
Brake Shoe Tests, 667t 
Buffalo Adjustable Brakehead. 1510* 
Creco Brake Beam Support, 1428* 
Duplex Brake Beam Strut, 1287* 
Friction and Wear of Brake Shoes as Af- 
fected by the Wheel Load, 1094 
Hose (See Hose) 
Improved Brake Methods. 1266t 
Increase Brake Power, 1265t 
Malleable Iron Hand Brake Fittings, 1426* 
Pipe and Pipe Fittings, 1095 
Oviick Action of Freight Triples. 1094 
Slack Adjusters for Freight Cars, 1143t 
\'ulcan Cast Steel Brake Beam, 1287* 
Westinghouse PC Equipment, 1 095 
Bridge and Buildings (See also Grade Separa- 
tion; also American Railway Engineering 
As=ociation) : 
AU-Steel Coaling Station. 564* 
Coaling Station, Automatic Balanced Bucket 

Type. 658* 
Coaling Station; L. S. & M. S.. 766* 
Coaling Station. Sauerman. 660* 
Bascule Bridge over Gatun River, Panama 

Railroad. 295* 
Bascule Bridge over Harbor Channel at 

Copenhagen, 425* 
Bascule Bridges. Buffalo Ship Canal. 1148* 
Bridge Floor; Waterproofing Design. 560 
Bridge Kink Competition (See Competition) 
Bridge Numbering, 1576 
Bridges on Copper River & Northwestern, 

Bridges on Milwaukee, Sparta & Xorthwest- 
ern, 365t. 382' 

Bridges and Buildings ( Coiitinucti) : 

Bridges on New York. Westchester & Bos- 
ton Bridges, 1225t, 1229' 
Bridges on the Orecon Trunk. 680*. 756* 
Bridges on Rock Island-Michigan Central 

Relocation. 789* 
Calculator, Novel, 607 
General Office Building. Omaha. Neb.; Cnion 

Pacific. IS* 
Grade Separation at Grand Crossing, 990* 
Iowa River Bridge; C. R. I & P.. 101* _ 
Iron Form for Concrete Arches and Pipe, 

Key West Extension Bridge, Florida East 

Coast, 1036* 
Little Salmon River Bridge; National 

Transcontinental. 1603* 
Mississippi River and Ohio River Bridges, 

Nemadji River Bridge. M. St. P. & S. S. 

M.. 842* 
Obstructions in Bridge Entrances, 1558t 
Pile Casing, Sectional Concrete, 558 
Piles. Concrete, 326* 
Portable Sfeel Buildings for Maintenance 

Forces, 494* 
RadclifFe Viaduct, Great Northern of Eng- 
land, 235* 
Renewing Pins in a Truss Bridge, 116* 
Replacing Steel Bridges on the Buffalo & 

Susquehanna, 920* 
Rolling Stock, Stations and Dwellings. 1615* 
Sawing Piling Lender Water, 117* 
Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridges. 559, 610*. 

Sibley. Mo., Bridge. A. T. & S. F., 334 
Snake River Bridge; Harriman Lines Cut- 

Off, 1187* 
Storage Houses. Sectional Steel, 657* 
Strauss Bascule Bridge of Baltimore & Ohio 

over Calumet River. 662* 
Strauss Bascule Bridge of Canadian Pacific 

at Sault Ste. Marie. 662* 
Trestles on the Bingham & Garfield. 744* 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.: Stepless Car, 1350 
Brotlierhood of Locomotive Engineers: 
Elections. 1210 

Movement for Standard Wages, 208 
Brovvnell Improvement Co.: Concrete Distributing 

Tower. 499* 
Browning Engineering Co. : Self -Propelling 

Wrecking Crane and Steam Shovel, 304* 
Buffalo & Susquehanna: Replacing Steel Bridges, 

Buffalo Brakebeam Co.: Buffalo Adjustable 

Brakehead, 1510* 
Buffalo Creek Railway: Bridge Over Buffalo 

Ship Canal. 1148* 
Buffalo Forge Co.: Spiro Turbine. 348* 
Building (See Bridges and Buildings) 
Bureau of Explosives (See American Railway 

Association ) 
Bureau of Labor: Workings of the Erdman Act, 

Bureau of Railway Economics; 
Bases of Taxation. lS6t 
Employees' Wage Increase. 510 
Revenues and Expenses in December, 515; 
January. 773; February. 1130; March, 1252 
Statistics for 1910. 886 
Burr Machine Co.: Dynamometer Car, A. T. 

& S. F.. 750* 
Business Situation (See Finance) 
Butte. Anaconda & Pacific: Electrification, 247, 

California Industrial Accident Board. 1059 
Cambria Steel Co.: Cambria Steel Axles. 1454* 

American Train Crews, 1210 

Canadian Railways in 1911, 244 

Canadian Railway Subsidies. 768 

Cars Retained in the United States, 769 

Colonization, 1251 

Joint Commission with United States, Idea 
Abandoned. 67 

Locomotive Inspectors, 934 

Railway Policy and Its Results, 1331t 

Railways Ordered to Furnish Etiuipment 
Figures. 1022 

Strikers Must be Reinstated Before New 
Bonds Mav Be Issued. 767 

White Pass & Yukon Rate Case, 771, 839 
Canadian Pacific: 

Department of Natural Resources. 311 

Embankments and Foun<lations. Toronto- 
Sudburv Branch, 1158' 

Facilities at St. John, X. B.. 813 

Colonization Plan, 973 

Headlight Numbers, 1241 * 

Oil Fuel for Locomotives, 208 

Strauss Bascule Bridge at Sault Ste. 
Marie. 662' .. . 

Yard Reconstruction at I'ort William, Ont., 
Canal (See Waterways) 
Canton Culvert Co.: Sheet Metal for Railway 

Purposes, 734 
Capitalization (See Finance) 

Alcohol Heater Car, 1244* 

Automobile Car. C. M. & St. P.. 474* 

Barber 50- Ton Steel Flat Car, 1326* 

Bolster (See Truck) 

Brake (See Brake) 

Capacity Marking of Cars. 1413 

Car (Continued) : 

Car Design in the Technical Schools, 841 

Cleaning (See Sanitation) 

Composite Gondola Car. New York Central 

Lines, 1286' 
Damage to Cars by Unloaders, 1367t. 1376* 
Defective Box Cars and Damaged Freight, 
827t, 829t, 835*, 87St. 892*, 944t, 947t, 
954*. 9871, 1002*, 1029t, 1035t. 1050*, 
Dining Car; Pennsylvania. 1616 
Door (See Door) 

Dynamometer Car, A. T. & S. F., 750* 
Electric Lighting Car, 805 
End Frames for Passenger Cars, 1 430* 
Gas-Electric Motor Car; St. L. & S. F., 

Gasolene (See Motor Car) 
Ice Car; Central of New Jersey, 1239* 
Inspection (See Motor Car) 
Interchange (See Car Service) 
Interior Finish, 1424 
Jointed Coach, Boston Elevated, 1247 
tournal (See Bearings) 
Ladder for Steel- Box Cars, 1509" 
Lighting (See Lighting) 
Motor (See Motor Car) 
Numbers, 1241* 
Overhead Inspection of Box Cars, ld68t> 

1369t, 1378* 
Painting (See Paint) 
Passenger Car; N. Y. W. & B.. 1334* 
Plush for Seats, 1395 
Pouch Rack Automatic, 1510* 
Private Car of B. F. Yoakum, 15' 
Rail Motor (See Motor Car) 
Repairs, 12981 

Safety Appliances (See Safety Appliances) 
Seats, 1327 

Seventy-Ton Ore Cars, 1398* 
Side Framing, 1427* 

Steel Box Car, Bessemer & Lake Erie, 677* 
Steel Mail Car Specifications, 394. 809 
Steel Observation Car, Illinois Central, 50* 
Steel Parlor Cars; Long Island. 471* 
Steel Underframe Tank Car. 1278* 
Stepless Car; Brooklyn Rapid Transit, 1350 
Tank Cars, 1407 

Track Inspection Car; Erie, 1561* 
Truck (See Truck) 
Underframe. Steel and Truck Bolster for 

Freight Car, 1328' 
\'alve ( See X'alve) 
Ventilation. (See Ventilation) 
Wheel (See Wheel) 
Car, Freight: 

Alcohol Heater Car, 1244* 
Barber 50-Ton Steel Flat Car. 1326* 
Bessemer & Lake Erie, Steel Box Car. 677* 
Central of New Jersey. Ice Car, 1239* 
C. M. & St. P.; Automobile Car, 474* 
Erie; Well Car. 1388* 

New York Central Lines Composite Gon- 
dola Car. 1286" 
Seventy-Ton Ore Cars, 1398* 
Tank Cars, 1278*. 1407 
Car, Passenger: 

Boston Elevated, Jointed Coach. 1247 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Stepless Car, 1 350 
Illinois Central; Steel Observation Car, 50* 
Lond Island; Steel Passenger Cars. 471* 
New York, Westchester & Boston Suburban 

Car, 1334' 
Pennsylvania; Dining Car. 1616 
St. L. & S. F. Gas-Electric Motor Car, 1324* 
Yoakum's, B. F., Private Car, IS* 
Carborundum Co.: Grinding Wheel Records, 1530 
Car Inspection and Interchange Bureau (See Car 

Car Records (See Yards and Terminals) 
Car Service (See also Interstate Commerce 
Commission Rulings) : 

Car Interchange Ethics, 186t 
Car Record for Shi 

ppers and Consignees, 

Car Shortage, Exceptional, 366t 

Car Shortage. Future Danger, 378 

Car Surpluses and Shortages Bi- Weekly, 

124*. etc. 
Charge for Interchanged Freight Cars. 1579 
Chicago Car Interchange Bureau. 119, 238* 
Defective Box Cars and Damaged Freight, 
827t. 8291, 835*. 878t. 892*, 944t. 947t, 
954*. 987t, 1002*, 1029t, 1035t, 1050* 
Demurrage Adjusters, 742t 
Demurrage Adjustment by I. C. C. Repre- 
sentatives, 459t 
Demurrage Charges, 1212 
Demurrage Difficulties, 988$ 
Demurrage Rates. 513. 860 
Demurrage Rules, 788t, 1085J. 1098 
Denver Joint Car Insftection and Inter- 
change llureau, 438 
Freight Car Balance and Performance 

Monthly 166*, etc. 
Interline 'Home Route Card. 787t, 989J 
M. C. B. Defect Cards, 393, 439 
•M. C. B. Rules, Enforcing. 470t 
Pooling Cars, 769, 833t, 1186t 
Rules for Marking. 1099 

Safety Appliance Act and Interchange, 12971 
Car Shortage (See Car Service) 
Carolina. Clinchfield & Ohio; Road Tests of 
Mallet and Consolidation Locomotives, 1476 
Catskill Traction Co.: Line Extended, 125 
Cement (See Concrete) 

Central of Georgia: Educational Bureau, 393, 
693, 1579 



[January 1— June 30, 1912. 


[Illustrated articles are indicated thus*; Editorials thusf; Letters to the Editor thust] 

Central of New Jersey: Ice Car, 1239* 
Chamber of Commerce of New York: Conserva- 
tism in Railway Regulation, 863 
Chamberlin, Edson J.. 1193* 
Chambersburg Engineering Co.: Steara-Hydrauhc 

Forging Presses. 1451* 
Chemist (See Paint; also Testing of Matenals) 
Chesapeake & Ohio: 

Mallet Results in Road Service, 797 
Manual Block System on Single Track, 1163 
Mikado Locomotives, 201" 
Motive Power, 352 
Chicago: . ..^ 

Baltimore & Ohio Strengthens Position, 925 
Board of South Park Commissioners* Agree- 
ment with 111. Cent.. 208, 246, 767, 967. 
City Club of Chicago Exhibitions, 1169 
Freight Handlers' Strike, 1060, 1128, 1169. 

1350, 1578. 1616 
Harbor Development, 440. 738* 
Joint Ownership of the Belt Railway of 

Chicago. 548, 692 . r ^ 

Railway Associations in Joint Headquar- 
ters, 813 
Smoke Abatement, 392, 1016^ 1347 
Terminal Investigation Committee, 392, 1061. 

Transportation Problem, 1248 
Chicago & Eastern Illinois: Coal Land Purchase. 

Chicago & North Western: 

Accident Record Banner, 923 
Chicago Passenger Terminal Statistics, 1350 
Efficiencv Committees, 287 
Lignite Fuel for Locomotives, 89* 
Milwaukee, Sparta & Northwestern Con- 
struction. 365t, 382* 
Passenger Rate Increases, 860 
Safety Committee Report. 925 
Smoke Department, 1617 
Trespassers m 1911, 1082t 
Chicago & Western Indiana: Safety Committees, 

Chicago Bridge & Iron Works: 
Self-Cleaning Tanks, 608* 
Two Tanks at One Location, 664* 
Water Tower. 736* 
Chicago. Burlington & Quincy: 
Mikado Locomotive, 1006* 
Relief Department Report, 967 
Safety Department. 64 
Tie Scarfing Machine, 1568* 
Waterproofing Concrete Structures, 307* 
Chicago Car Door, 1246* 
Chicago Car Interchange Bureau, 119, 238* 
Chicago Great Western: 

Circulars to Employees, 1127, 1351, 15311 
Economy Campaign, 164. 393 
Killing Animals, 1616 
Maize, 438 

Motor Cars. 485t, 503 
Safety Bureau, 26, 855 
Station Agents' Association, 64 
Chicago. Milwaukee & Puget Sound: Rumors of 

Graft. 312, 324t 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul: 

Accident at Odessa, Minn.. 84*, 137t, 152, 

1901. 269?. 923. 9S5t. 1010. 1616 
Automobile Car, 474* 

Daily Statement of Transportation Ex- 
penses, 93* 
Dividend Reduction, 18St 
Rail Mill. 1572* 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. : Rockf ord Motor 

Cars, 607* 
Chicago Railway Equipment Co.: 

Creco Brake Beam Support, 1428* 
Duplex Brake Beam Strut, 1287* 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific: 

Distribution and Renewal Records, 1559t, 

Employees and Loan Sharks, 859 
Iowa River Bridge, 101* 
Merit Marks for Employees. 1350 
Passes and Pullman Reservations, 855 
Pensions, 392 

Premiums for Employees, 247 
Prize Svstems in Track Work, 306 
Christy, H. A.: Steel Box Car Door, 1014* 
Claims (See also Freight Rate Reductions; also 
Freight Rate Increases; also Interstate 
Commerce Commission Rulings; also State 
Commission Rulings) : 
Fair Treatment of Consignees, 186t 
Rules for Claim Agents, 26 
Clapp Fire-Resisting Paint Co.: Fire-Resisting 

Paint. 734 
Cleaning (See Sanitation) 
Cleveland. Cincinnati. Chicago & St. Louis: 
Annual Report, 6711, 707 
Fined for Rebating, 1067 
Coal (See Fuel) 
Coal Car Distribution (See I. C. C. Rulings; also 

Car Service) 
Commerce Court (See also Interstate Commerce 
Commission : also Interstate Commerce 
Commission Rulmgs; also Legal De- 
cisions; also Legislation) : 
Attitude of Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion, 16, 4lt, 227t, 228t 
Cases. 1173 

Charges against Judge Archbald, 1063, 1126, 
1168, 1248, 1616 

Commerce Court (Continued) : 

Clommerce, the Commission and the Courts, 

February Docket, 215 
Coal Transportation Ordered, 697, 782 
I. C. C. Overruled in Nashville Case, 1360 
I. C. C. Upheld in Coke Case, 1359 
L C. C. Upheld in Coal Case, 1359 
I. C. C. Upheld in Crane Railroad Case, 1359 
L C. C. Upheld in Lumber Case, 1359 
Jurisdiction of I. C. C. Over Movement of 

Freight Within a State. 866 
Louisville & Nashville Case (See Freight 

Movement to Abolish, 26. 67, 1083t. U26, 

New Evidence, 1023 
Norfolk & Western Grain Case, 865 
Supreme Court Decisions in Commerce 

Court Cases, 13291, 1359. 1547 
Switch Connection Case, 865 
Water Lines Report Decision Overruled, 818 
Commercial Acetylene Co.: New Jersey Lighting 

Legislation, 326t, 692 
Committee on the Relations of Railway Opera- 
tion to Legislation: 
Passsenger Car Lighting, 436 
Report. 1170 

Steel Postal Car Specifications, 394, 809 
Commonwealth Steel Co.: 

Cast Steel Engine Truck Frames, 1450* 
End Frames for Passenger Cars, 1430* 

Bridge Kink, 901t, HOlt, 1558t 

Extra Ganc. 485t, 901t. UOlt. Il02t, 1103, 

1104. 1105, 1106, 1565, 1571 
Foremen Problem. 289t, 4851. 901t, 902t, 
905. 906. 907. 908, 909, 910, 1111. 1117, 
1119, 1121, 1564, 1565. 1567, 1571, 1574, 
How the Roadmaster Can Promote Ef- 
ficiency, 496, 502 
Maintenance Work Improvements, 95t, 97, 

98. 99 
Tool, 1558t 

Track Kink, 95t, 289t, 293*, 294 
Concrete (See also Bridges and Buildings): 

Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc. Report on Methods of 
Patching and Repairing Plain and Re- 
inforced Concrete, 631 
Cement Gun, 489* 
Cold Weather Concreting, 504 
Concrete Distributing Tower, 499* 
Deck Girders, Reinforced Concrete, on the 

Wabash, 506* 
Waterproofing Concrete Structures on C. 
B. & Q.. 307* 
Consolidation (See Finance) 
Construction, New : 

Am. Rv. Eng. Assoc. Report on Railway 

Location. 712t, 725* 
Bingham & Garfield, 744* 
Canadian Pacific, Toronto-Sudbury Branch. 

Canadian Railways in 1911, 244 
Construction Outlook, 830t 
Copper River & Northwestern, 191* 
Florida Elast Coast Extension. 1036* 
Grade Separation in Joliet, 111., 789* 
Grand Trunk Pacific, 353 
Harriman Lines; Spokane- Ayer Cut-Off. 

Milwaukee, Sparta & Northwestern, 365t, 

New Mileage and Low Rates. 10 
Oregon Trunk and the Des Chutes Rail- 
ways in Central Oregon, 680* 
Relocation of the Panama Railroad, 295* 
Special Design for Retaining Wall, 504* 
Twin City-Twin Ports Line of the M. St. 
P. & S. S. M.. 842* 
Contractor's Views on Railway Contracting, 

1329t, 1345 
Control (See Finance; also Government Regula- 
tion of Railways) 
Conventions (See also Names of Associations): 
Chicago (See American Railway Engineer- 
ing Association) 
Committee Reports, 71 It 
Committee Work, 612t 

Atlantic City Conventions (See American 
Railway Master Mechanics' Association; 
also Master Car Builders' Association) 
Conveying Machinery (See Hoisting and Con- 
Cooling (See Refrigeration) 
Copper River & Northwestern, 191* 
Correspondence (See Organization) 
Cost (See Finance; also Maintenance of Way) 
Coupler (See Draft Gear) 

Cowles-MacDowell Engineering Co.: Hot Water 
Boiler Washing and Filling System, 690* 
Crane (See Hoisting and Conveying) 
Credit (See Finance) 

Creosote (See Ties and Timber; also Ameri- 
can Wood Preservers' Association) 

Conditions, 514, 861, 1065, 1354 
Cotton Crop, 771, 1251 
Crossing (See Grade Crossing) 
Culvert (See Maintenance of Way; also Bridge 

and Buildings) 
Cumberland Valley: Accident Record, 1352 
C^urve (See Track) 

Damages (See ClaimsJ 

Defective Box Cars and Damaged Freight, 827ti 

829t, 835*. 878t, 892*. 944t, 947*, 954*. 
987t, 1002*, 10291, 1035t, 1050*. 10811 
Delaware & Hudson: 

Annual Report, 831*t. 874 
Locomotive Terminal at Carbondale, Pa., 
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western: 
Fined for Illegal Rebating, 697 
Prizes for Trackmen, 311 
Safety Committee, 1126 
Demurrage (See Car Service) 
Denver & Rio Grande : 

Coal Lands Deeded to Government, 967 
Improvements, 769 
Denver Joint Car Inspection and Interchange 

Bureau, 438 
Denver, Northwestern & Pacific, 10331 
Derrick (See Hoisting and Conveying) 
Des Chutes Ry. : Competitive Construction with 

Oregon Trunk, 680* 
Des Moines Bridge & Iron Co.: 
Novel Calculator. 607 
Steel Water Tanks. 735* 
Detroit Lubricator Co.: Detroit Eight-Feed Lu- 
bricator, 1452* 
Detroit Steel Products Co.: Detroit Fenestra 

Windows in Building Collapse, 559* 
Discipline (See Employee) 
Dock (See Yards and Terminals) 

Acme Sectional Diaphragm, 1425* 
Chicago Car Door, 1246* 
Christy Steel Box Car Door. 1014* 
Garland Refrigerator Door Fixture, 207* 
Utility Automatic Lock for Box Car Doors, 
Draft Gear: 

Anderson Friction Draft Gear, 1099* 
Automatic Couplers Twenty Years Ago, 

Coupler and Draft Equipment, 1383* 
Coupler Side Clearance, 1298 
Forsyth Radial Yoke Connection, 1287* 
Penn Freight Coupler, 1325* 

Cast-Iron Gutters, 558 

Dynamite in Track Drainage, 601 

Heavy Drainage Work on the Pennsylvania 

Railroad near Petersburg, Pa., 1118* 
Yard Drainage, 289t 
Drawbridge (See Bridges and Buildings) 
Drill (See Machine Tools) 
Drinking (See Sanitation) 

Duluth. Rainy Lake & Winnipeg: Scherzer Roll- 
ing Lift Bridge, 610* 
Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic: Snow Crab, 

Duluth & Iron Range: Ore Dock at Two Har- 
bors, Minn., 8* 
Duntley Manufacturing Co. : Air Washer and 

Cooler for Passenger Cars, 23* 
Durbar Traffic. 898* 

Earnings (See also names of companies): 
January Earnings, 696 
Living Rate for the Railways, 10 
Passenger Service and Earnings, I533t 
Revenue and Expenses in December, 515 ; 
January, 773 ; February. 1 130 ; March. 
Economic Practices (See Efficiency Methods) 
Edison Storage Battery Co.: 

Edison Storage Battery for Train Lighting, 

Tests for Storage Batteries. 1429* 
Education (See also Agriculture): 
Apprenticeship, 1155 
Apprentices. Car Shop, 463t, 675 1. 900, 

13991, 1400t. 1401* 
Apprentice's, Track, 1117 
Car Design in the Technical Schools, 841 
Central of Georgia Educational Department, 

393. 693. 1579 
Chicago Great Western Station Agents' As- 
sociation, 64 
Division Foreman to Train Section Fore- 
men, 906 
Firemen Taught by Moving Pictures, 1484t 
Foremen, Providing and Educating (See 

Illinois Central Educational Bureau Assist- 
ing Employees in Legal Matters, 511. 924 
Inter-Railway Institute of Technological In- 
vestigation, 1096 
Pennsylvaynia R. R. First Aid Lectures, 855 
Efficiency Methods (See also Maintenance of 
Way; also Fuel) : 
Chicago & North Western Efficiency Com- 
mittees, 287 
Chicago Great Western Economy Campaign. 

Difficulty of Practice, 1096 
Economy and Efficiency, 270t 
Economy. Opportunities for, 204. 229t, 848 
Economy. Side Lights on, 674 J 
Efficiency Engineers. Failure of, 41 It 

January l^June 30, 1912/ 


Efficiency Methods (Continued) : 

Employees' Interest in Efficiency Operation, 

How the Roadmaster Can Promote Effi- 
ciency, 496, 502 

Ideas Bought, Illinois Central, 924 

Ideas Bought, Pennsylvania, 163 

Illinois Central Efficiency Engineering Re- 
sults, 41 It. 420' 

Mimeograph for Railway Printing, 94, 163 

Ties, Economical Use of, 467$ 

Track Maintenance Efficiency, 1112* 

Yardmaster's Views on, 4% 
Electric Motor (See Locomotive, Electric) 
Electric Railways: 

Growth of 41t 

Mileage Built and Cars Ordered During 
1911. 63 

Rural Trolleys as Steam Railway Subsidi- 
aries, 668t 

Street Car Run from Boston to New York, 

Southern Pacific and the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford, 224t 
Electric Traction (See Locomotive, Electric) 

Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc. Report on Electricity, 
611t, 636* 

Butte, Anaconda & Pacific, 247, 1578 

Chicago Terminal Investigation, 63, 392, 
1016. 1061. 1347 

Grades, 460t 

Main Line Railways, 460t 

Stamford, Conn., to Cedar Hill : N. Y. 
N. H. & H., 63, 79t 

Steam Roads, 666t 
Elgin, Joliet & Eastern: Safety Committees, 

Embankment (See Maintenance of Way) 
Employee (See also Legislation; also Education; 
also Officers; also Kinks, Track; also In- 
terstate Commerce Commission Rulings; 
also Legal Decisions; also Accident): 

Arbitration, Compulsory, Urged, 1617 

Compensation and Wage Increases, 799 

Compensation Awarded, 1059 

Compensation Cost, 897 

C!o-operation Plan; Southern Pacific, 924 

Courtesy an Asset, 1127 

Economy Campaign on the Chicago Great 
Western, 164 

Efficiency of Operation, 1000 

Enginemen's Pay in England and America, 

Extra Gang Competition (See Competition) 

Federation of Federations, 967 

Firemen Taught by Moving Pictures, 1484t 

Full-Crew Bill, Report on, 265t, 275 

Hobo as a Track Laborer, 1558t, 1566 

Ideas Bought by the Illinois Central, 924 

Ideas Bought by the Pennsylvania, 163 

Identifying Applicants for Employment, 
834t 947i 

Justice to Shopmen, ISllf 

Labor Department Plan, 486t, 494 

Labor Prices, 1373* 

Labor LInionism. L. F. Loree on, 612t, 642 

Loan Sharks, 859 

Locomotive Development and the Engine- 
men, 944t 

Medals, 923 

Merit Marks on Rock Island Lines. 1350 

Movement for Standard Wages, 208 

Opportunity in the Railway Business, 951 


Abuse of, 39t. 44J 
Issuance of Passes, 813 
Liability for Damages, 163 
Nash's Duplex Pass Form, 150" 
Passes on Missouri Pacific-Iron Mountain 
System. 1127 


Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, 247 

Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, 392 

Illinois Central, 26 

Southern Pacific. 118, 1127 

Western Union Telegraph Company, 809 

Premiums on Rock Island, 247 

Relief Department: C. B. & Q., 967 

Stockholding Employees, 1032t, 1181t, 1186* 

Strike and Demands : 

American Locomotive Co., 118 

Boston Elevated, 1350, 1579 

Coal Miners, 439, 508, 692, 768, 809, 856, 

1126, 1168 
Eastern Enginemen, 323t. 352, 7401. 769, 
809, 955. 923, 968, 986t, 1017, 1059, 
1351, 1616 
Firemen, 1060, 1126 
Freight Handlers' Strike at Chicago, 1060, 

1128, 1169. 1350, 1578, 1616 
Harriman Lines, 311 
National Railways of Mexico, 923 
Pennsylvania Railroad, 1578, 1616 
Strike Sequel, 509 

Trainmen's Wants, 312 

Treatment of Passengers, 1351, lS31t 

Union Members Out of Work in New York, 

Unions, Resolve of, 692 

Wages and Earnings on the Pennsylvania, 

Wage: Railway Wages and Cost of Living, 

Wage Increase: 

Boston, Revere Beach & Lynn, 1350 
Chesapeake & Ohio, 118 

Employee (Continued) : 

Chicago & Eastern Illinois, 63 

Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville, 855 

Denver & Rio Grande, 923 

Grand Trunk, 692, 967, 1016, 1247 

In 1911, 510 

Interborough Rapid Transit Company, 

New Orleans Terminal Company, 508 
New York, New Haven & Hartford, 855 
Piecework Wages in Timber Treating 

Plant, 1577 
Rock Island Lines, 438 
Wages of British Railway Employees, 1246 
Engine (See Locomotive; also Locomotive, Elec- 
Engineering and Maintenance of Way Associa- 
tion (See American Railway Engineering 
England (See also subjects): 

British Railway Accidents, 1211 

Coal Miners* Strike, 440, 580, 768, 809 

Form for Annual Reports Prescribed by 

Law in England, 783t, 801 
Railway Nationalization, 1248 
Wages of British Railway Employees, 1246 
Equipment (See Car Service; also Locomotive 

Erdman Act, Workings of, 759 

Buffalo Union Station, 1059 
Mikado Locomotives, 241* 
Prizes for Track Work, 208, 305 
Profile of Cincinnati Division, 243* 
Record of Pacific Type Locomotive, 739t 
Standard Practice Cards, 1108* 
Subway Waiting Room, 437* 
Track Inspection Car, 1561* 
Two Whistles on Locomotives, 27 
Well Car of 75 Tons Capacity, 1388« 
Exhibits (See names and subjects) 

Dynamite in Track Drainage, 601 
Transportation of Explosives, 80t, 121, 809, 
Exposition (See names and subjects) 
Express (See also names of companies; also 
Earnings; also Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission Rulings) : 
Express Rate Bill Reported, 813 
Marking Express Shipments, 121 
Statistics of All Companies, 477 

Fairbanks, Morse & Co.: 

All-Steel Motor Car, 484* 

Electric Turntable Tractor, 735* 

Igniter for Motor Cars, 1325 

Oil Engines, 608* 

Oil Engines for Water Stations, 1424* 

Section Motor Cars. 101, 660* 

Telescopic Spout Standpipe, 560* 
Fare (See Passenger Rates) 
Farming (See Agriculture) 
Fast Trains and Runs: 

Cleveland, Ohio, to Toledo, 63 

Denver to Omaha, 1247 

Express Train Speeds in Germany, 1618 

Philadelphia to New York, 755* 
Files (See Organization) 
Finance (See also Accounting): 

Bank Dividends, If 

Bonded Indebtedness Increasing, 986t 

Bonds, Collateral Trust, It, 48 

Bonds, Convertible, If, 87 

Bonds, Notes and Stocks, If. 19 

Capitalization, Steam and Street Railway, 

Control of All Railways, 82t. 185t, 186t, 

Discounting Material Bills, 1147t 

Employees as Stockholders, 1032t, 118U, 

Dividend Reduction of C. M. & St. P., 185t 

Equities in Stock Purchases, 81t 

Graft Rumors on the C. M. & P. S., 312, 

Minority Stockholders, Protection of, 266t 

Operation Results, 1205 

Preliminary Investigation of New Railway 
Projects, 427 

Receiverships, Three Decades of, 945T 

Securities Held by Railways, 665t 

Securities of Steam and Street Railways, 

Strikers Must Be Reinstated Before New 
Bonds May Be Issued. 767 

Trolleys as Steam Railway Subsidiaries, 

Valuation of Carriers* Securities, 323t 

Women Stockholders, 323t 
Finley, President. Reviews the Situation in the 

South, 1172 

Forest Fire Prevention, 231* 

Lime Wash for Fire Prevention, 1125 

Protection on the Pennsylvania, 349 
Firebox (See Locomotive Firebox) 
Flag (See Signal) 
Flange (See Wheel) 
Flood (See Maintenance of Way; also Yards 

and Terminals) 
Floor (See Shops; also Waterproofing) 
Florida East Coast: 

Extension to Key West. 1036* 

Traffic to Key West, 163 

Forest Preservation (See Fire) 
Forestry (See Agriculture) 
Forsyth Bros. Co.: 

Forsyth Radial Yoke Connection, 1287* 
Side Framing, 1427* 
Foundation (See Bridges and Buildings) 
France: Government Railway Operation in 

France, 1047 
Freight (See also State Commission Rulings; 
also Car Service) : 
Coal Transportation, 64, 863 
Freight Claims (See Claims) 

Freight Rates (See also Interstate Commerce 
Commission Rulings; also State Commis- 
sion Rulings) : 
Chicago Switching Rules Committee, 121 
East St. Louis, Discrimination in Favor of, 

Low Rates. Effects of, 10 
Export and Import Rates Complaint, 211 
Industrial Railways and Unfair Discrimina- 
tion, 269t, 325t, 340 
Louisville & Nashville Case, 403, 412t, 434, 

Material for Repairs of Cars Damaged on 

Foreign Lines, 1169 
New York, Discrimination Against, 166 
Panama Canal Rates, 460t 
San Joaquin Valley Rate Case, 865 
Texas Rate Case, 741t, 747 
Uniform Classification and the Shippers, 

Western Freight Classification, No. 51, 29 
Western Classification Controversy, 211, 
252, 265t, 313. 397 
Freight Rate Increase (See also Interstate Com- 
merce Commission Rulings; also. State 
Commission Rulings) 
Ocean Freight Rate Increases, 28 
Panama Railroad, 1 66 
Freight Rate Reductions (See also Interstate 
Commerce Commission Rulings; also State 
Commission Rulings) : 
Chicago & North Western, 1582 
Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha. 

Great Northern, 1582 

Long and Short Haul Clause, 1062, 117S, 
1176, 1581. 1582, 1621 
Freight Traffic (See Traffic) 
Freight Yards (See Yards and Terminals) 
Frog (See Switch) 

Fuel (See also International Railway Fuel As- 
sociation) : 
Coal Transportation, 64, 863 
Coaling Station, AH-Steel, 564* 
Coaling Station, Sauerman, 660* 
Coaling Station on the Lake Shore & Michi* 

gan Southern, 766* 
Coaling Station, Steel Automatic Balance 

Bucket Type, 658* 
Fuel Economy, 15111 
Lignite, for Locomotives, 89* 
Oil Burning on Locomotives, 188t 
Smoke Abatement in Chicago, 63, 392. 1016, 

1061, 1347 
Smoke Abatement Tests on Santa Fe Switch- 
ing Locomotives, 343*, 419t 
Smoke Department, Chicago & North West- 
ern. 1617 
Smoke Problem at Pittsburgh, 438 
Furnace: Ferguson Superheater Flue Welding 
Furnace, 1451* 


Goodwin Duplex Water Glass, 348* 

Ironclad Water Glass Protector, 1209* 

Klinger. Richard, Reflex Water Gage, 1450* 
Galveston, Houston & Henderson: Revaluation 

Asked, 1067 
Gardening (See Station) 
General Electric Co.: 

Battery Truck Crane, 1530* 

Electric Towing Locomotive for the Panama 
Canal Locks, 159* 

Gas-Electric Cars, 1128 

(jas-Electric Motor Car; S. 

Signal Volt-Ammeter, 1450 
Georgia & Florida: 

Hine System, 118 
Goctz, Joseph, Manufacturing Co.: Flexible Con- 
nector for Steam Heat, 507* 
Gold Car Heating & Lighting Co.: 

Steam Pressure Regulator, 1209* 

Thermostat for Car Heating, 1423 
Goulds Centrifugal Pumps, 737 
Government Ownership: 

Acworth and Cook on a Government Hold- 
ing Company, 1534 

An Alternative, 1 1 69 

France, 1047 

Panama Railroad, 828t. 857 

Postal Service, An Example, 366t 

Probability of. 80t. 83t 

Railway Nationalization in England. 1248 

Single Control of All Railways, 82t, 185t. 
186t, 190t 
Government Regulation (See also Interstate 
Commerce Commission; also State Com- 
missions) : 

Conservatism, 863 

Future of Railway Regulation. 782t, 803 

Government Directors Proposed, 311 

L. & S. F., 


I January 1— June 30, 1912. 


[niustratcd articles arc indicated thus*; Editorials tints'^ ; Letters to the Editor thust.] 

Government Regulation (Continued) : 

Investigation of Governmental Regulation, 

Joint Commission with Canada, Idea Aban- 
doned. 67 
Living Kate for the Railways, 10 
Reasonable Regulation of Railway Rates, 

Republican Convention and Government 

Regulation, 1591t 
Street Railways, Future of, 41t 
Trend of, 40t. 333 

What Is the Matter with the Railways? 
8771. 883 

Effect of Grades on Tonnage Reduction, 44* 
Electrification on Grades, 460t 
Grade Crossings: 

Grand Crossing. III., 990* 
Intelligent Agitation Against, 81t 
New Jersey, 967 
New York. 967, 153It 

Special Design for Retaining Wall, 504* 
Wilkinsburg. 350 
Grade Revision (See Construction, New) 
Grain (See also Crop; also Interstate Commerce 
Commission Rulings) : 
Receipts at New York in 1911, 121. 
Grain Door Allowances Abolished, 1020 
Grand Trunk: 

Admittance to Immigrant Office, 67 
Invasion of New England. 393, 1184t 
New Steamships, 772. 923 
Strikers Must Be Reinstated Before New 
Bonds May Be Issued. 767 
Grand Trunk Pacific: 

Estimated Cost, 353 

Little Salmon River Bridge. 1603* 

Section from Prince Rupert to Skeena River 

Opened, 1578 
Train Agents. 349 

Strikers Must Be Reinstated Before New 
Bonds May Be Issued. 767 
Gravel (See BaHast) 

Great Britain (See England; also names of rail- 
ways) : 
Great Northern: 

Accident near Doyon, N. D., 311 

Ore Loading Docks at Allouea, Wis., 136T. 

Value of Ore Properties, 350 
Great Northern of England New Radcliffe Via- 
duct. 235* 
Grinding (See Machine Tools) 
Guard Rail (See Rail) 

Hale & Kilburn Steel Coach Interior Finish, 

Hall Style "K" Automatic Signal, 561* 
Han- Yang Iron and Steel Works, 509 
Harahan, J. T., 135t. 142* 
Harriman Estate: Value of, 693 
Harriman Lines (See also separate companies): 

Loss in Equitable Fire, 63 

Spokane-Aver Cut-Off. 1187* 
Haskell & Barker Tank Valve for Refrigerator 

Cars. 25* 
Hawlev, Edwin, 237* 
Hays, 'Charles M., 891* 
Headlight (See Lighting) 

Gold Thermostat for Car Heating, 1423 

Thermo Jet Car Heating System. 1426* . 

Train Pipe and Connections for Steam Heat, 
Highway Crossing (See Grade Crossings) 
Hill. James J.. 1342* 
Hitchings Cast-iron Gutters, 558 
Hoisting and Conveying: 

Batterv Truck Crane. 1530* 

Derrick Car for Handling Track Material, 

Dock Machinery and Power Equipment, 

Electric Wrecking Crane for Pennsylvania 
Tunnels. 603* 

Loading Rails with an American Ditcher, 

Rules for Loading Materials, 1374* 

Self-Propelling Wrecking Crane and Steam 
Shovel. 304* 

Steam Shovel to Spot Cars, 498 

Air Brake Hose, 878t 

Air Brake Hose Specifications, 12981 

Air Hose Failures, 1093 

Air Hose Protector. 1529* 

Armored Air Brake Hose, 1481 

Goetz Flexible Connector for Steam Heat. 

Hose Clamp. 1283 

Utilitv Steam Hose Coupler. 1483* 
Hostility (See Public. The Railways' Relations 

with) -■■-■'■.: 

Hours of Labor (See Employee.) ■■ - 
Houston & Texas Central, Strike Sequel, 509 
Hudson Bay Route. 943t, 960 



Prohibition on Trains, 438 

Illinois Central : 

Accident at Kinmundv. 111., 135t, 137t, 
142'. 209, 809. 985t.' 1010 

Accident Reduction. 1018 

Car Repair Graft Cases, 1350, 1616 

Central Fruit Despatch. 120 

Complaints of Coal Operators. 1256 

Educational Bureau to Assist Employees in 
Legal Matters. 511 

Electrification. 208, 247, 767, 967, 1168 

Grade Separation at Grand Crossing. 990* 

Ideas r.ought. 924 

New Chicago Terminals. 208, 247, 767. 967 

Office Cars. 1211 

Practical Efficiency Engineering, 441 1, 420* 

Reward Offered for Conviction of Wreck- 
ers, 26 

Steel Observation Car, 50* 

Stock Sold to Employees, 1081t 

Traffic Agreement with the Chicago, Lake 
Shore & South Bend. 1247 

Treatment of Immigrants. 1618 
Imperial Taiwan Railways. 94 
Independent Pneumatic Tool Co.: 

Electric Drill. 1509 

Roller Bearing Air Drill. 1449* 
Industrial Development by Railways (See Agri- 
Industrial Railw^ays. 169. 269t 325t. 340. 469t, 

985t. 998. 1060. 1342. 1330t 
Industrial Works: Electric Wrecking Crane for 

Pennsylvania Tunnels. 603* 
Injunction { See Legal Decisions) 
Inspection Car (See Motor Car) 
Insulation (See Refrigeration) 
In terbo rough Rapid Transit : Emergency Light- 
ing .\pparatus. 767 
Interchange (See Car Service) 
Interlocking ( See Signals. Interlocking) 
Intermountain Demurrage Bureau, 1212 
Intermountain Rate Case ( See Freight Rate 

International Navigation Congress, 1212 
International Oxygen Co. : .Xutogenous Welding 

and Cutting, 1510 
International Railway Fuel Association: 

Anthracite Coal for Locomotive Fuel, 1 198 

Convention, 1 194* 

Fuel as a Factor in Locomotive Capacity, 
l]85t. 1194 

Fuel Economy. 1 1 99 

Inspection of Fuel from Producer's Stand- 
point, 1204 

Locomotive Fuel Performance Sheet. 1195 

Standard Coal Analysis, 1205 
Interstate Commerce Commission (See also In- 
terstate Commerce Commission Rulings; 
also Accounting: also Freight Rate In- 
creases : also Commerce Court ; also Leg- 
islation; also Legal Decision) : 

Accident Bulletin No. 41. 430; No. 42, 
1059. 1090 

Accident Reports, 467t 

Annual Report, 2t, 16 

Annual Report of Block Signal and Train 
Control Board. 197. 223t 

Authority in Alaska. 1023 

Boiler Explosion on Southern Pacific. Re- 
port on. 1128 

Branch Offices Proposed, 459t 

Commerce Court. Petition for Abolition of, 
26. 67 

Commerce, the Commission and the Courts. 

Discriminations, L'nfair, Prevention of, 
41t, 2277. 228t 

Express Companies' Statistics. 477 

Express Company Overcharges. 252 

Jurisdiction of I. C. C. Over Movement of 
Freight Within a State, 866 

Manufacturers' Railway, Investigation of, 
169, 269t. 325t. 340 

Odessa Accident Report. 923 

Regulation of Operation. 674J 

Sixty Trip Tickets. 1066 

Stale Commission Interference, 741t, 747 

Telephones on .American Railways, 1043, 

Weighing Practices Hearing, 773. 784t. 816. 

Western Clissification Hearing. 1354 
Interstate Commerce Commission Rulings. (See 
also Commerce Court; also Lecal Deci- 
sions; also Legislation) : 

Apple Rates Increased. 1622 

Arizona Rate Readjustment, 169 

Ashburn Gj».. Discriminated Against. 975 

IJagKage Privileges on Trains Upheld, 775 

Ilaitmiore, No Discrimination Against. 816. 

Barrel Stave Rates Reduced. 1622 

Boat Line a Private Facility of Salt Com- 
pany. 1066 

Bon.l ' Required for Average Demurrage 
Privilege, 401 

Boston Denied DilTerential. 1582 

Boston. Ga., Discriminated Against, 1622 

Bulky Articles. Rates on. 1175 

Canned Goods. Rates Equalized, 168 

Capacity of Cars, Publication of. Ordered, 

Interstate Commerce Commission Rulings 
iContinucd) : 
Cement Rates. Discrimination, 402 
Cement Rales Reasonable, 1621 
Class. Certain, Rates Reduced, 1355 
Class Rates for Switching Service Upheld, 

Closing of One Route from Chicopee to New 

York Allowed, 1021 
Coal Car Distribution Plan Ordered. 1175 
C"oal Rate .\dvance Burden of Proof, 399 
Coal Rates from Pittsburgh to Lake Eric, 

Coal Rates Reduced, 1622 
Coal Rales to Nassau, 111., Reduced, 1621 
Coal Rates Unreasonable. 1623 
Colorado Coal Rates Adjustment, 864 
Columbia, S. C. Discrimination Against, 974 
Concentration Charges Found Unreason- 
able. 1175 
Conference Rulings. 517, 520, 864, 1021 
Contract not En forcible, 356 
Cotton Rates Raised. 1175 
Cotton Seed Rates Reduced. 517, 816 
Cotton Waste, Discrimination Against. 215 
Crude and Gas Oil Rates Equalized, 168 
Decatur, Discrimination Against, 70 
Delivering Goods Where Address Is Given, 

Demurrage on Embargoed Cars, 356 
Demurrage When Carload Shipment Is Split 

Up, 1132 
Differentials to Atlantic Seaboard Fixed, 

Dock Facilities Must Be Furnished to All 

on the Same Terms, 1175 
Drested Meat Rales to New Orleans and 

Lake Charles. 399 
Exception to the Fourth Section Permitted, 

Export Rates. Discrimination in. 1215 
Flaxseed Rate Increases Permitted, 1021 
Galveston Wharf Co. Losses. 1215 
Glazed Sash and Window Glass Rates Not 

Excessive, 934 
Glucose Rales Reduced, 1621 
Grain and Hay Rates Reduced, 399 
Grain Elevation at Chicago, 775 
Grain Elevation Charges, 401 
Grain Rates Equalized. 1622 
Grain Rates to Sioux City. 864 
(iranulated Cork, Definition of, 1215 
Grievances Adjusted Through Lease. 1215 
Hardwood Lumber Rale Reduced, 356, 401 
Import Rates from Philadelphia. 1215 
Incubators. K. D-, 1355 

Industrial Railways (See Industrial Rail- 
Interstate Service. Definition of, 124 
K. C. \'iaduct. Jurisdiction Over, 1355 
Lemon Rates Reduced. 3 1 
Light-End Distillate Rates Reduced, 1256 
Live Stock Rales Reduced, 30 
Long and Short Haul Clause. (See Freight 

Rate Reductions) 
Louisville. Discrimination Against, 169 
Lumber Rate from Kansas City to Dcs 

Moines Reduced, 1256 
Lumber Through Routes and Joint Rates Re- 
stored, 1621^ 
Malt Rate Reduced, 1066 
Material for Company Use Rale Division, 

Mileage Rales .Approved on Packing House 

Products. 1257 
Milk Rate Advances Approved. 1215 
Milk Rates in New England. 356 
Miniieaoolis-Denver Rate Reduced. 168 
Mixed Carload Shipments. 1256 
Mohair Rates Reduced. 930 
Newport News Discriminated Against, 1 132 
New Roads, La., Discriminated Against, 

Northern Pacific Allowed Preference on 

South Tacoma Traffic, 1021 
Oklahoma to Texas Rates Reduced, 1355 
Omaha. Neb.. Discriminated Against, 1622 
Paducah. Discrimination Against, 168 
Passes. Issuance of, 813 
Passes, 1175 

Pennsylvania Reparation for Coal Car Dis- 
crimination, 974. 1022 
Pipe Lines Held to be Common Carriers, 

Poles Given the Lumber Rate, 356 
Potatoes. Minimum Weight on. Unreason- 
able. 816 
Precooling Privilege Granted to Shippers, 

Private Cars Not Charged Demurrage, 1256 
Proctor & Gamble Case. 1215 
Proportional Rates, Withdrawal of. With- 
held. 1215 
Rate-i Reduced to Permit of Competition, 401 
Reduced Fare Tickets and Through Trans- 
portation. 930 
Reparation to L'n injured Complainant. 401 
Rice Rates Reduced. 974 
Sacramento Gateway Remains Closed, 356 
Salt Lake Case (See Long and Short Haul 

January 1— Tune 30, 1912.] 


Interstate Commerce Commission Rulings 
{Continued) : 
Santa Rosa, Cal., Discriminated Against, 

Second Hand Article Special Rates Re- 
fused. 1215 
Sheep Rates Where Double-Deck Cars Can- 
not Be Furnished, 1021 
Sioux City, Discrimination Against, 30 
Special Equipment. Time for Turnishing, 401 
Spur Track Operation, 775 
Steel Rates from Mississippi River to Den- 
ver Reduced. 399 
Sugar Rates, No Discrimination in, 816 
Switching Charge Found Reasonable, 1066 
Switching Charges of Industrial Railways, 

Tap Line Cases (See Industrial Railways) 
Telegrapli and Cable Messages to be Kept 

One Year, 1356 
Through Rate Division not Criterion of 

Local Rate, 169 
Through Rates. Pending Decision, 773 
Througii Route Ordered, 775 
Transit Privileges, Retroactive, 399 
Trimming Coal a Part of Rail Transporta- 
tion, 401 
Walsenburg Coal Rate Order Amended, 168 
Water Competition Controls, 1066 
Water Lines Must Report on Intrastate 

Traffic. 818 
Western Live Stock Rates Reduced, 1257 
Whiteland. Ind.. Rate Reduced. 168 
Wichita, Discrimination Against, 1583 
Wire Rate Reduced. 448 
Wood Pulp Rates Reduced, 816 
Wool Rates Reduced. 933. 1256 
Iron and Steel (See also Rail; also Wheel; also 
Weldnig) ; 
Exports. 119 

Specifications for Steel. 796 
Use of Sheet Metal for Railway Purposes, 

Vanadium Steel Locomotive Frame, 1482* 

Jacobs-Shupert U. S. Firebox Co.: Firebox Tests, 

Jerome jretallic Packing Co. : Stickley Track 
Sander, 1 61* 

Jonesboro. Lake City & Eastern Safety Com- 
mittee, 767 

Journal (See Bearings) 

Kansas City, Mexico & Orient: 

Bondholders' Committee and Future Possi- 
bilities, 740t 

Comparison with the Denver, Northwestern 
& Pacific. 1033t 

Prospects. 461 1 
Kent OscillatinR Cattle Guard. 921* 
Kinks, Track (See also Maintenance of Way): 

Anti-Rail Creeper. 484* 

Guard Rail Clamps. 609* 

Hand Car Broom Holders, 310* 

Handling Snow and Ice with a Spreader. 

Motor Car Kinks, 294 

Socket on Hand Car for Flags. 293 

Squaring L^p the Head of a Spike Maul, 293 

Universal Combination Screw Spike, 922* 

Labor CSee Employee") 

Labor Situation on the Railways, 189t, 268t, 
367t. 370t 464t, 743t 785t. 882^:, 1032t, 
lOSIt. 1186$. 1332$ 
Lake .Shore & Michigan Southern: 

Annual Report, 669t*, 705 

Coaling Station, 766* 

Fined for Rebating, 1067 

Grade Separation at Grand Crossing, 990* 

Special DesigTi for Retaining Wall, 504* 
Lamp ( See Lighting) 

Legal Decisions (See also Interstate Commerce 
Commission Rulings; also Interstate Com- 
merce Commission ; also State Commis- 
sion Rulings: also Legislation ; also Pas- 
senger Rates; also Freight Rates; also 
subjects ; also Commerce Court) : 

Arkansas Live Stock Damage Law Unconsti- 
tutional. 934, 975 

Baltimore & f^hio Southwestern Liable for 
Damage to Street Car. 1023 

Central of Georgia and Western of Ala- 
bama Free to Raise Rates in Alabama, 

Central of Georgia Passenger Rate Case, 215 

Circuit Court has Jurisdiction over Foreign 
Corporations. 314 

Commerce Court May Recieve New Evi- 
dence, 1023 

Commerce Court Overruled in Three Cases, 

Commerce, the Commission and the Courts, 

Crossing Tracks at Grade, 520 

Electric Railway's Current Interferes with 
Telegraph Messages. 125 

Express Company Taxes. 357 

Federal Employers' Liability Law, 1133 

Fellow Servants. 775 

Fine for Falsely Describing Freight, 403 

Headlight Order in Indiana Annulled, 1023 

Legal Decisions (Continued) : 

Headlights Can Be Regulated by State Com- 
missions. 448 

Holding Freight. No Fines for, 70 

Indiana: Twenty-four Foot Caboose Car Law 
Sustained, 1583 

I. C. C. Has Authority in Alaska. 1023 

I, C. C. May Require Water Lines to Re- 
port on Intrastate Traffic, 818 

Judgment Against C. & O. for Abrogation 
of Contract. 818 

Letter of Service, Fine for Refusal to 
Issue, 31 

Liabilitv for Damage of Through Shipments, 
357 ' 

Liquor Transportation to Temperance Dis- 
tricts, 170 

Live Stock Detention Law, Fine for Viola- 
tion of. 26 

Los Angeles-San Pedro Rates Reduced. 357 

Lumber Rates, Pacific Coast to St. Paul, 

Lumber Rates Reduced, 120 

Lynching. Railway an Accomplice, 520 

Muckraker, the Railways and the Courts, 

Negro's Rights in Louisiana Street Cars, 125 

Postal Telegraph Company Pays Damages 
for Error, 170 

Posting a Tariff is not Part of Publishing, 

Rebates, Standard Oil Comjiany Fined for 
Accepting, 170 

Rebating. D. L. & W. Fined, 697 

Rebating. Fines. 1067, 1359 

Rebating. Railways and Dock Companies 
Fined. 775 

St. Louis Terminal nn Unlawful Monopoly, 
975, 10821, 1360 

Southern Pacific's Land Claims Sustained, 

Stock of Oiher Companies Owned by Rail- 
ways, 448 

Supreme Court Decisions in Commerce Court 
Cases. 1329t. 1547 

Untransferrable Tickets Lawful, 166 

Wages Twice a Month, 1176 
Legislation (See also Government Regulation; 
also Passenger Rate Reduction; also 
Freight Rate Increases; also Freight Rate 
Reduction; also Employee; also Car Serv- 
ice ; also Commerce Court ; also Inter- 
state Commerce Commission; also Inter- 
state Commerce Commission RuHnes; also 
State Commissions; also State Cornmis- 
sion Rulings) : 

Full Crew Legislation, 943t, 968, 1029t 

Reforestation Encouraged, 967 

Results in Massachusetts, 1579 

Superfluous Legislation. 943] 

Commodities Clause, Failure of. 1371 

Conflicting .Authority of Federal and State 
Laws, 810 

Employers' Liability Law, 63. 125. 472, 809, 

Grafting Bills. 326t. 692 

Indiana Headlight Law. 169 

Mechanical Matters Legislation and Confer- 
ence Committee. 90 

Sherman Anti-Trust Law. and the Rail- 
ways, 2t 

What is the Matter with the Railways? 
877t. 883 
Lehigh Valley: 

Broken Lehigh \'alley Rail. 2671, 280* 

Buflfalo Union Station. 1059 

Coal Company and the Commodities Clause, 
Letters from an Old Railway Official to His Son, 

St. 22, 140t. 1903: 
Anti-Gas Legislation, New Jersey. 326t, 692 

Dynamo Regulator, 1327* 

Edison Storage Battery for Train Lighting, 

Electric Fixture Combining Indirect Light- 
ing and Paddle Fans, 1288* 

Emergencv Lighting Apparatus on Int. 
Rapid transit. 767 

Head End Electric Train Lighting, 149 

Headlight Numbers. 1241' 

lleadlights. Minimum Requirements for, 1518 

Indirect, for Passenger Cars, !5*. 1529 

Intermittent Acetylene Lights on Signals, 

Lighting Fixtures. 1396* 

Passenger ( nr Lighting, 436 

Pintsch Mantle Lamps with Electric Igni- 
tion, 1481 

PortabU- Ek-ctric Power Plant for Railway 
Work. 805 

Pyle-Nalianal Locomotive Headlight, 1452* 

Safety of Modern Methods. 190t 

Tests for Storage Batteries, 1429* 

Train Lighting. 1386 

Intoxicating Liquor Transportation to Tem- 
perance Districts. 170 

Sale on Trains. 438 

Ash Pan (See Locomotive Firebox) 

Bearings fSee Bearings) 

Enginemen and Locomotive Development. 

Firing (See Fuel) 

Locomotive (Continued) ; 

Flue Gas Analyses in Locomotive Testing, 

Frames. Cast Steel, 14571 

Frame, \*anadium Steel, 1482* 

Headlights (See Lighting ) 

Maintenance of Superheater Locomotives, 
ISllt. 1518* 

Mallet, Chesapeake & Ohio, 797* 

Mallet. Pennsylvania R. R., 377" 

Mikado. Chesapeake & Ohio, 201* 

Mikado. C. B. & Q., 1006' 

Mikado. Erie, 241* 

Mikado. Missouri Pacific, 55*. 248 

Most Powerful Locomotive in the World, 
\'irginian. 1321" 

Oil Burning Locomotives, 482* 

Pacific Ivpe Locomotive, Louisville & Nash- 
ville. 1446* 

Painting (See Paint), 

Power Lost in Locomotive Exhaust, 15121 

Rods. Main and Side. 1457t, 1467* 

Sanding (See Sanding) 

Smoke (See Fuel) 

Superheater ( See Superheater) 

Triplex Compound Locomotive, Proposed, 

Trucks (See Trucks) 

Valve (See Valve) 

Whistles, Two, on Erie Locomotives, 27 
Locomotive Boiler (See also Master Boiler Mak- 
ers' Association) : 

Corrosion and Treated Water, 1114 

Design, Construction and Inspection, 1485t, 

Explosion on Southern Pacific, 692, 806*, 
1128, 1146t, 1544 

Gyrus Spark Arrester, 89* 

Hot Water Boiler Washing and Filling Sys- 
tem. 690* , ■. . 

Injector with -Automatic Overflow Valve, 

Lord Water Softener. 1556* 

Loss of Steam from Safety \'alves, 79t 

Low Water Alarm, 206* 

Low Water Boiler Tests, 1502*, 1591t, 1595* 

Modern Locomotive Boilers. 1224t 

Power Lost in Locomotive Exhaust, 1 5 1 2t 

Purified Water Supply. 661 

Tube Cleaner, 1453* 
Locomotive, Electric: 

Towing Locomotive for the Panama Canal 
Locks. 159* 

Direct Current Freight Locomotive; Oak- 
land. Antioch & Eastern. 1528* 

Eight-Motpr Articulated Electric Locomo- 
tive; N. Y. N. H. & H.. 1608* 
Locomotive Finished Material Co. : Dynamome- 
ter Car. A. T. & S. F., 750* 
Locomotive Firebox ; 

Fire Control Apparatus, 206* 

Firebox Tests. 208, 1159 

Mechanical Stokers, 2t, 24*, 1456t, 1463* 
Locomotive Freight : 

Chesapeake & Ohio; Mallet. 797* 

Chesapeake & Ohio ; Mikado. 20 1 * 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincv; Mikado, 

Erie; Mikado. 241* 

Missouri Pacific; Mikado, 55*, 248 

Pennsylvania R. R.; Mallet, 377* 

\'irginian; Most Powerful Locomotive in 
the World. 1321* 
Locomotive. Passenger: Louisville & Nashville 

Pacific Type Locomotive, 1446* 
Locomotive Performance (See also Fast Trains 
and Runs) : 

Mallet Results in Road Service, 797* 

Record of an Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 
Locomotive, 692 

Record of a Mikado Locomotive, 1472* 

Record of Pacific Type Locomotive on the 
Erie. 739t 

Road Tests of Mallet and Consolidation Lo- 
comotives, 1476 

Upkeep of Locomotives, 14S5f 

Variations in Ixicomotive Tractive Effort 
with Speed. 685* 

Locomotive .Superheater Progress, 1283 
Long and Short Haul Clause (See Freight Rate 

Long Island R. R^: 

Accident Record, 1352 

Informing Passengers. 365^, 395. 

New ^'ork Traffic, jS7 

Prompt Train Service, 767 

Steel Passenger Cars. 471* 


Lord, George VV., Co.: Lord Water Softener, 

Louisville & Nashville: 

Coal Transportation Ordered, 697, 776 
Freight Rate Case. 403. 4121. 434, 520 
^Memphis Union Station, 852* 
Pacific Type Locomotive, 1446* 

Lubrication I .See Oil): 

Cutting Compound, 1508 
Detroit Eight-I'eed Lubricator, 1452* 
Flange Lubrication, 1512t, 1513*^ , 
Locomotive Cylinder and \'alvc Lubrication, 

Lumber (See Ties and Timber) 


McConway & Torlev Co.: Penn Freight Coupler, 


[January 1— June 30, 1912. 

GENERAL INDEX— Continued. 

[Illustrated articles 

McCord Manufacturing Co.; 
Air Hose Protector, 1529* 
Deck Sash Ratchet, 1509* 
McCord Weatherstrip, 1453* 
McCord & Co.: 

Machine for Testing Journal Friction, 1430* 

Pressure on Journal-Bearing Wedges, 1280t 

Machine Tools (See also Maintenance of Way): 

Boring Machine for Reboring Pin Holes, 

Capacity and Efficiency, 151 It 
Drill, Electric, 1509 
Drill, Roller Bearing Air, 1449* 
Drill, Forced High Speed Twist, 765* 
Grinding Wheel Records, 1530 
Journal Turning Lathe, 1557* 
Steam-Hydraulic Forging Presses, 1451* 

Committee on Railway Mail Pay, 249 
Cost of Carrying Second-Class Mail, 394 
Postal Car Specifications, 394, 809 
Postal Service Delays, 366t 
Maintenance of Way Association (See American 

Railway Engineering Association) 
Maintenance of Way (See also Rail; also Ties 
and Timber; also Accounting; also Drain- 
age; also Switch; also Hoisting and Con- 
veying) : 
Approaches to Highway Crossings, 485t 
Ballast (See Ballast) 
Bank Widening, 289t 
Benefits from Study of Cost of Work, 99 
Berme Levee or Dike, 1124* 
Cattle Guard, 921* 

Chemical Weed Destroyer and Track Pre- 
servative, 737 
Cold Weather Difficulties, 95t, 302 
Dumping Scale Boxes, 310 
Economy in Material, 97 
Efficiency in Track Maintenance, 1112* 
Extra Gangs, 1105 
Extra Gangs, Caring For, 1565 
Extra Gang Competition (See Competition) 
Extra Gang, Economical Handling, 1106 
Extra Gangs, Economical Size, 11()6 
Extra Gang, Efficient Operation of, 1571 
Extra Gang, Large, Organizing, 1104 
Extra Gang, Negro Labor, 1104 
Extra Gang Organization, 11021 
Extra Gang, Organizing and Handling, 

1103, 1571 
Extra Gang Problems, 1106 
Extra Maintenance Work, 1105 
Flood EiTects, 1558t 

Foreman Problem Competition (See Compe- 
Handling Heavy Material, 1124 
Iron Form for Concrete Arches and Pipe, 

Loading Rails with an American Ditcher, 

Maintenance Organization, 290t, 492 
Maintenance Work in 1911, 96t 
Obstructions in Bridge Entrances, 1558t 
Personal Contact with the Foreman, 1111 
Portable Steel Buildings for Maintenance 

Forces, 494* 
Prize Systems in Track Work, 208, 305, 

311, 1568 
Rail Relaying Gang, Organization of, 99 
Reinforced Concrete Deck Girders on the 

Wabash. 506^ 
Relative Costs of Maintaining Anchored 

and Unanchored Track, 602* 
Santa Fe Rule Book. 912 
Saw Mill, Portable, 1125* 
Section Car (See Motor Car) 
Seller's Tie Plate, 661* 
Shims, 500* 
Snow Crab. 497* 
Snow, Fighting in Kansas, 910* 
Snow, Removing from Switches, 920 
Standard Practice Cards on the Erie, 1108* 
Track and Signal Maintenance; Union Pa- 
cific, 485t, 487 
Track Apprentices, 1117 
Track Kinks (See Kinks, Track) 
Track Device Experiments, UOlf 
Unloading Track Material, UOlt 
Washout Repairing, 1124 
Work Train, Cost of, 95t 
Manufacturers' Railway Case, 169, 269t, 325t, 

340, 469t • 

Maryland Steel Co.: Rail Tracing Machine, 
Railway Operations, 39t 
Massachusetts Mohair Plush Co.: Plush for Car 

Scats, 1395 
Masonry (See Bridges and Buildings; also Con- 
Master Boiler Makers' Association: 
Annual Meeting. 1143t, 1155 
Brick Arch, 1155 

location of Feed Water Admission, 1155 
Spark Arresters, 1155 
Superheated Steam and Boiler Maintenance, 

Weakest Condition of Boiler, 1155 
Master Car Builders' Association: 

Automatic Couplers Twenty Years Ago, 

Ballot for Officers, 12971 

are indicated thus*, 
Master Car Builders' 

Editorials tlms't; Letters to Editor thusi.] 

Association (Continued) 

463t, 67SJ, 1399, 

Car Shop .Apprentices, 

1400t, 140r 
Concluding Exercises, 1414 
Entertainments at Convention, 877t. 927, 

Exhibit of the Railway Supply Manufactur- 
ers' Association, 1283*, 1324*. 1395*, 
1423*. 1449*, 1481*, 1508*, 1529* 
Forty-Sixth Convention, 1400t 
Freight Rate on Material for Repairs of 

C^ars Damaged on Foreign Lines, 1169 
Government Regulation of Safety Appli- 
ances, 13691 
Helping the Committees, 1367t 
M. C. B. Defect Cards, 393, 439 
Mechanical Inspectors, 470t 
Past Presidents, 1529 
President Stewart's Address, 1300* 
Proceedings, 1300*, 1371*, 1401* 
Registration 1276, 1319, 1389, 1415, 1484t 
Report on (Capacity Marking of Cars, 1413* 
Report on Car Wheels, 1298t, 1312*, 1388 
Report on Coupler and Draft Equipment, 

Report on Damage to Cars by Unloaders, 

1367t, 1376* 
Report on Overhead Inspection of Box Cars, 

1368t, 13691, 1378* 
Report on Prices for Labor and Material, 

Report on Revision of Constitution, 1302 
Report on Revision of Rules of Interchange, 

Report on Revision of Standard and Recom- 
mended Practice, 1304* 
Report on Rules for Loading Materials, 

Report on Specifications for Freight Car 

Truck Sides and Bolsters, 1399t, 1412 
Report on Tank Cars, 1407 
Report on Tests of Brake Shoes, 1297t, 

Report on Train Brake and Signal Equip- 
ment, 1308* 
Report on Train Lighting. 1386 
Report on Train Pipe and Connections for 

Steam Heat, 1404* 
Special Train from Chicago, 1277 
Special Train from New York, 1280 
Springs for Freight Car Trucks, 1368t, 

1385*, 1399t 
Steel Passenger Cars, Lack of Interest in, 

Steel Wheel Designs, 365t. 369t, 371 
Waste of Power in "Trains, 1368t 
Mediation (See Employee) 
Melcher, F. O., 135t, 142* 
Michigan Central: 

Annual Report, 672t, 709 

Fined for Rebating, 1067 

Mid-Western Car Supply Co.: 

Anderson Friction Draft Gear, 1099* 
Steel Underfvame and Truck Bolster 
Freight Car, 1328* 
Mileage: Railways of the World, 1532t 
Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie: 
tension from Frederick, Wis., to 
ston, 842* 
Missouri Pacific; 

Mikado Superheater -Locomotives, 55*, 
Passes for Employees, 1127 
Signal Lamp with Fresnel Lens, 162* 
Missouri. Kansas & Texas: Safety Committees, 

MoRtauk Harbor Improvement Company, 311 
Morden Frog & Crossing Works; 
Adjustable Switch Stand, 736* 
Guard Rail, 664* 
Guard Rail Clamps, 609* 
Protection of Facing Point Switches, 563* 
Morris, Ray, on Railway Development from a 

Banker's Standpoint, 648, 71 It 
Motor (Tar: 

Automobile Car for the Chicago, Milwaukee 

& St. Paul, 474* 
Electric Cars for Terminals, 63 
Fairbanks-Morse All-Steel Motor Car, 484* 
Gas- Electric Cars, 1128 
Gasolene Electric Tool Car, 658* 
Igniter for Motor Cars, 1325 
Motor Car Kinks, 294 
Operation in Cold Weather, 498 
Rockford Motor Cars, 607* 
Rockford Spike Driving Car, 657* 
Section Motor Car, 660* 
Section Motor Cars on the Chicago Great 

Western, 485 1, 503 
Section Motor Cars; San Pedro, Los An- 
geles & Salt Lake, 101 
Self-Propelled Cars, 151 

Steel Brush Protection for a Motor Car, 
Muckraker, the Railways and the Courts, 879t 
Mudge, Burton W., & Co.: 

Garland Refrigerator Door Fixture. 207* 
Garland Ventilator for Buildings, 507* 





Nashville, Chattanooga & St. 
Union Station, 852* 

Louis: Memphis 

Nathan Manufacturing Co.; 

Injector with Automatic Overflow Valve, 

Klinger, Richard, Reflex Water Gage, 1450* 
National Association of Manufacturers: Attitude 

Toward Unionism, 370t 
National Baggage Committee, 1019 
National Chamber of Commerce, 973 
National Association of Railway Commissioners: 
Committee to Investigate Rails and Equip- 
ment, 349 
National Association of Scale Experts; Semi- 

Annual Meeting, 163 
National Board of Trade, Proposed, 439 
National Civic Federation: Investigation of 

Governmental Regulation, 926 
National Industrial Traffic League: Classifica- 
tion Committee Proposals, 771 
National Malleable Castings Co.: Malleable Iron 

Hand Brake Fittings, 1426* 
National Railway Appliances Association (See 
American Railway Engineering Associa- 
National Trans-Continental Railway (See Grand 

Trunk Pacific) 
National Waterways Commission; Report, 861 
New England Railroad Club; Unit System, 480 
New Orleans & Northeastern: 

Accident near Hattiesburg, Miss., 1061 
Contract with St. L. & S. F., 311 
New Orleans Great Northern; Roadbed Repara- 
tion (Ordered, 31 
New York Subway (See Subway; also Inter- 
borough Rapid Transit) 
New York Central & Hudson River; 
Accident near Collinwood, 508 
Accident near Hyde Park, N. Y., 508, 692 
Acquiring Lake Shore & Michigan Southern 

Stock, 81t 
Annual Report, 669t*, 703 
Buffalo Union Station, 1059 
Grand Central Terminal, New York, 395, 

New York, Ontario & Western Deal, 257, 

818 828t 
Rutland Deal. 257, 986t, 1067, 1133 
New York Central Lines; 

Composite Gondola Car, 1286* 
Improved Operation, 828t 
Safety Committees, 1249 
New York, Chicago & St. Louis; Grade Separa- 
tion at Grand Crossing, 990* 
New York, New Haven & Hartford: 

Accident near Leet's Island, Conn., 1012* 

Broken Rail Study, 1012* 

Eight-Motor Articulated Electric Locomotive, 

Electric Subsidiaries, 224 i 
Electrification from Stamford to Cedar HiU, 

63, 79t 
Lease of Boston & Maine, 856, 929, 1061, 

1127, 1133, 1168 
New York, Ontario & Western Deal, 257, 

818, 828t 
Rural Trolley Subsidiaries, 668t 
Rutland Deal, 257, 986t, 1067, 1133 
New York, Ontario & Western: Sale Held Up, 

257, 818, 82St 
New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk: Stock Divi- 
dend Forbidden, 1355 
New York Railroad Club: 

Brake Slack Adjusters for Freight Cars, 

Electric Welding, 330* 
Electrification of Steam Roads, 666t 
New York, Susquehanna & Western; Jersey 
City Station of Pennsylvania Abandoned, 
New York, Westchester & Boston: 
Property, 1170, 1225t, 1229* 
Suburban Car, 1334* 
Niles-Bement-Pond Co.; Journal Turning Lathe, 

Norfolk & Western: Union Station at Norfolk, 

Norfolk Southern: 

Three New Lines. 3t* 
Union Station at Norfolk, 1247 
Northern Central: Station at Baltimore, Md., 

Northern Pacific: 

Preference on South Tacoma Traffic, 1021 
Train Rules, 390 

Oakland, Antioch & Eastern: Direct-Current 

Freight Locomotive, 1528* 
Ocala Northern, 211 

(Officer (See also Education; also Organization; 
also Public, the Railways' Relations with; 
also Employee) : 
Car Inspector's Important Duties, 743t 
Car Shop Apprentices, 463t, 675t, 900 
Co-operation Between Employees and Offi- 
cers. 1891. 268t. 367t, 370t, 464t. 743t, 
785t. 882t, 1032t, lOSlt, 1186t, 1332t 
Despatchers' Office, 83t 

Foreman, Division, to Train Section Fore- 
men, 906 
Foreman, Foreign. 1117 
Foreman, Personal Contact with, 1111 

January 1— June 30, 1912.] 


Officer (Continued) : 

Foreman Problem, 1121, 1564, 157S 

Foreman Problem Competition (See Compe- 

Foreman Problem, Solving, by Attracting 
American Boys, 907 

Foreman Problem and Reorganization, 908 

Foremen, Developing, 909 

Foremen, Future Supply of, 90S, 1571, 1574 

Foremen and Roadmasters Trained on 
Roadmaster's Division, 909 

Foremen and tlie Shopmen, ISllt 

Foremen from Waterboys, 1567 

Foremen, Student, 9051 

Foremen, Training, 1565 

Foremen, Training Emergency, 908 

Foremen, Training the Future, 1119 

Foremen's Wages, Necessity for Increases, 
906, 907. 910 

Frisco Station Agents' Plan Extended, 1351 

Graduated Wage Scale for Sectionmen, 908 

Handling a Station, 1164 

Handling Industrial Matters on the St. L. 
& S. F.. 970 

Railway Oilicers and Supply Companies, 

Roadniaster, How He Can Promote Effici- 
ency, 496, 502 

Station Agent on the St. L. & S. F., 266t, 
Ogle Construction Co.: Steel Automatic Bal- 
ance Bucket Type Coaling Station, 658* 
Oil (See Fuel; also Lubrication) 

Station Building, 440 
Opportunity in the Railway Business, 951 
Oregon Trunk Ry. : 

Bridge Construction, 756* 

Competitive Construction with Des Chutes 
Railway, 680* 
Oregon-Washington Railroad & Navigation Co.: 

Seattle Terminals, 103* 
Organization (See also Officers; also Mainte- 
nance of Way) : 

.■\m. Ry. Eng. Assoc. Report on Rules and 
Organization, 575* 

Hine System on Georgia & Florida, 118 

Scientific Management (See Efficiency 

Unit System, 480 

Yardmaster's Views on Efficiency, 4t 
Otto Gas Engine Works: Gasolene Electric Tool 

Car, 658* 
Ownership (See Finance; also Government 

P. & M. Co.: 

Bond Wire Protector, 564* 
Crane Guard Rail Retainer, 609* 
Pacific Coast Case (See Freight Rate Reduction) 
Pacific Car Demurrage Bureau: Demurrage 

Rates. 860 
Pacific Railway of Nicaragua, 1578 

Fire-Resisting Paint, 734 
Panama Railroad: 

Gold Hill Relocation, 295* 
Operation, 828t, 857 
Pass (See Employee) 

Passenger Rates (See also Interstate Com- 
merce Commission Rulings; also State 
Commission Rulings; also Passenger Rate 
Increases; also Passenger Rate Reduc- 
tion) : 
Colonist Fares, 250 
Effect of Two-Cent Fares, 413t 
Minimum E.xcursion Rates, 67 
Passes and Pullman Reservations on the 

C. R. I. & P., 855 
Sixty Trip Tickets, 1066 

Tourist Fares from CThicago to New York, 
Passenger Rate Increase (See also Interstate 
Commerce Commission Rulings; also State 
Commission Rulings): 
Chicago & North Western, 860, 929 
Louisville & Nashville, 929 
Minnesota. 1064 
Pennsylvania Railroad, 1251 
Passenger Rate Reduction (See also Interstate 
Commerce Commission Rulings; also State 
Commission Rulings) : 
Great Northern. 929 
Denver & Rio Grande, 1019 
Grand Trunk, 1212 
Missouri Pacific, 1019 
New York to Coney Island, 250 
Pere Marquette, 1212 
Two-Cent I'"ares. 413t 
Western Pacific, 1019 
Passenger .Service: 

Extra Fare Trains. lS33t 
Effect of Automobiles, 648, 71 It 
Pavements. 1144t. 1594t 
Pay (See Employee) 
Pease. C. F.. Co.: 

Direct Printing Process, 563 
Machine for Sensitizing Blue Print Paper, 
Peirce, E. B., 135t, 142* 
Pennsylvania Railroad: 

Accident at Crestline, Ohio, 438 
Accident at Warrior Ridge, Pa., 347* 
Accident near Larwill, Ind., 349 
Annual Report, 414t*, 456 

Pennsylvania Railroad iContinueJ) : 

Damages for Unjust Distribution of Coal 

Cars, 974, 1022 
Decreasing the Death Roll, 118 
Dining Car, 1616 
Dining Car Service, 1214 
Drainage Work near Petersburg. Pa., 1118* 
Electric Wrecking Crane for Pennsylvania 

Tunnels, 603* 
Fires in 1911, 349 

First Aid to the Injured Lectures, 855 
Freight Yard Capacity, 63 
Grade Separation at Grand Crossing, 990* 
Ideas Paid for, 163 

Improvements at North Philadelphia, 1617 
Length of Service of Employees, 1210 
Mallet Locomotive, 377* 
Medal for Safety, 119, 164 
New Signals on the Pennsylvania. 423 
Ore Unloading Dock at Qeveland, Ohio, 

324t, 335* 
Police Officer Convicted of Murder, 1616 
Prevention of Industrial Accidents, 432* 
Prize Systems in Track Work, 305 
Reparation for Coal Car Discrimination, 974 
Safety Committees, 768 
School of Telegraphy, 855 
Steel Passenger Equipment, 311 
Trees. 1351 
Wage Earnings, 1016 
Pennsylvania Steel Co.: 
Frogs and Joints. 661 
Switch Stands, 558 
Pension (See Employee) 
Peoria Transportation Club: Joint Ownership of 

City Terminals, 925 
Pere Marquette: Annual Report, 327t*, 362 
Permanent Way (See Maintenance of Way) 
Philadelphia & Reading: Fast Schedule Between 

Philadelphia and New York, 755* 
Piece Work (See Employee; also Ties and 

Pile (See Bridges and Buildings) 
Pilliod Co.: Baker Valve (^ar on Old Power. 

Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago: Grade Sep- 
aration at Grand Crossing, 990* 
Pneumatic Tools (See Machine Tools) 
Pxesent Giving, 44t, 228t 
Pressed Steel Car Co.: 

Composite Gondola Car, New York Central 

Lines. 1286* 
Seventy-Ton Ore Cars, 1398* 
Price (See Finance) 

Machine for Sensitizing Blue Print Paper, 

Mimeograph for Railway Printing, 94, 163 
Pease Direct Printing Process, 563 
Stationery and Printing, 204 
Prosperity (See Finance) 

Public, The Railways Relations with (See also 
Finance) : 
Illinois Commission on, 810 
Informing Passengers on the Long Island 

R. R., 365t. 395 
Joint Committee of Shippers and Railway 

Men in Chicago. 121 
Muckraker, The Railways and the Courts, 

Newspapers and the Railways, 830t, 114St, 
1147t, I223t, 1227t, 1228J, 1330t, 1432t, 
Payment for Superfluous Haul, 159It 
Spokane Agreement. 813 
Train Agents on the Grand Trunk Pacific, 

When the Railways Reform Themselves, 

Whistles, Two, on Erie Locomotives, 27 
Pullman Co. : 

First .\id Packets for Pullman Cars, 809 
Pullman Sleepers in Collision, 84* 
Steel Observation Car for Illinois Central, 
Pump (See Water Service) 

Pyle-National Electric Headlight Co.: I.x>como- 
motive Headlight, 1452 

& C. Co.: 

Anti-Rail Creeper. 484* 

Tension Guard Rail Clamp, 922* 

Rail (See also Maintenance of Way) 

Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc. Report on Rail, 61 It, 

Broken Lehigh Valley Rail, 267t, 280* 
Broken Rail Study on the New Haven, 1012* 
Broken Rails — A Retrospect, 654 
Crane Guard Rail Retainer, 609* 
Development and Use of Rails, 948 
Flat Wheels and Broken Rails, 1031t, 1613* 
Guard Rail, 664* 
Hard and Soft Rails, 209, 226t 
Influence of Rolling Temperature on the 

Properties of Bessemer Rails, 655 
Inspection at Rail Mills, I030t, 1057, 1126, 

1227*, 1247 
Insulated Rail Joint, 116* 
Manganese Steel One-Piece Guard Rail, 

Mr. Isaacs on Rail Failures and Eccentric 

Loading, 1086* 

Rail (Continued) : 

Rail Breakage and Wheel Loads, 785t 

Rail Conference in New York, 769 

Rail Failures Due to Eccentric Loading. 

888*, 901t 
Rail Failures and Car Truck Designs, 329J 
Rail Hearing at Indianapolis, 70, 351. 368t. 

374, 567t, 924, 948 
Rail Mill. C. M. & S. P., 1572* 
Rails and Accidents. 42t 
Rail Tracing Machine, 1564* 
Tension Guard Rail Clamp, 922* 
Wheel Loads and Transverse Rail Fissures, 

Railway Business Association: 

Danger of Shortage of Railway Facilities, 

Duty of the Political Parties to the Ship. 

pers. 1270 ^ 

Railway Commissions (See State Commissions) 

Railway Materials Co.: Ferguson Superheater 

Flue Welding Furnace, 1481* 
Railway Signal Association: 

Chicago Meeting. 529t, 530t 
Comprehensive Scheme of Signaling, 441, 

June Meeting, 1349, 1552 

Manual of Recommended Practice, 529t 

Proceedings, 532* 

Report on Automatic Block, 538* 

Report on Contracts, 532* 

Report on Electric Railway and Alternating 

Current Signaling, 542* 
Report on Power Interlocking, 537 
Report on Progress of Work on the Man- 
ual, 536 
Report on Standard Designs, 545* 
Report on Storage Battery, 546 
Report on Wires and Cables, 543* 
Railway Storekeepers' Association: 
Accounting, 1160 
Annual Convention, 1160 
Handling and Accounting for Material at 

Contract Shops, 1162 
Line Inspection, 1161 
Oil and Waste, 1162 
Railway Salvage, 1160 
Standardization of Grain Doors, 1160 
Stationery, 1160 

Store Department Efficiency, 1161 
Railway Supply Manufacturers' Association 
(See also Master Car Builders' Associa- 
tion; also American Railway Master 
Mechanics' Association): 
Annual Meeting, 1447 
List of Exhibitors, 1289 
Officers and Committees, 1272* 
Entertainment Committee, 1503* 
Executive Committee, 1473* 
Railway Tax Men's Association, 858, 878t 
Railway Utility Co.: 

Exhaust Ventilator, 1429* 

Utility Automatic Lock for Box Car Doors. 

Utility Steam Hose Coiipler, 1482* 
Rate Law (See Interstate (Joramerce Commis- 
Rebates (See Legal Decisions) 

Garland Refrigerator Door Fixture, 207* 
Tank Valve for Refrigerator Cars, 25* 
Reinforced Concrete (See Concrete) 
Reports, Annual (See names of companies) 
Richelieu & Ontario Navigation Company, 1620 
Richmond. Fredericksburg & Potomac: Gravel 

Washing Plant, 604* 
River (See Waterways) 
Roadbed (See Maintenance of Way) 
Road and Track Supply Association (See Rail- 
way Appliances Association) 
Road Building (See Agriculture) 
Roadmaster (See Officer) 
Robbers (Sec Train Robberies): 
Roberts & Schaefer Co.: Sauerman Coaling Sta- 
tion, 660* 
Rules (See Employee) 
Rule of Reason and the Railways, 2t 
Rust (Sec Paint) 
Rutland R. R.: Sale to N. Y., N. H. & H.. 257. 

986t. 1067, 1133 
Ryerson, Joseph T., & Son: 

Forged High Speed Twist Drill, 765* 
Tube Qeaner, 1453* 


St. John's Orphanage, 923 
St. Louis & San Francisco: 

Budget for Improvements, 1126 

Contract with the New Orleans & North 

Eastern, 311 
Economical Water Supply, 503" 
Extending the Authority of the Station 

Agent, 266t, 278 
G.-is-Electric Cars, 1128. 1324" 
Handling Industrial Matters. 970 
Safety Committee Results, 208 
Station Agents' Plan Extended, 1351 
St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern: Memphis 

Union Station, 852* 
St. Louis Railway (;lub: Contractor's Views on 

Railway Contracting, 13291, 1345 
St. Louis Southwestern: Memphis Union Sta- 
tion, 852* 
Safeguards (See Safety Appliances) 
SafeW Appliances: 

Government Regulation, 1369t 


IJanuary 1— Juin; 30. 1912. 


\Ulustraled articles are indicated thus*: Editorials tlnisf; Letters to the F.ditor Ihiist.] 

Safety .Vppliancts tConlinuid) : 

Interchange and tire Safety Appliance Act, 

Old Kquipmcnt and Safety Appliances, 1594t 
Safety Car Iliatinn & LiRlitin); Co.: 

Electric Fixture Combining Indirect Light- 
ing and I'addle Fans, 1288" 
Indirect Lighting with the Pintsch Mantle, 

Lighting Fixtures, 1396* 

Pintsch Mantle Lamps with Electric Igni- 
tion. 1481 
Type 1" Dynamo Regulator. 1327' 
Thermo Jet Car Heating System. 1426* 
Safety Committees (See Accident) 
Salary (See Employee) 
Sanding: Stickley Track Sander, 161' 
Sanitation : 

Drinking Cn]/s, 6i 

Drinking Cups. Towels and Combs in Mis- 
souri. 163 
Hot \Vater Boiler Washing and Filling 

System, 690* 
Self-Cleaning Tanks, 608* 
Tube Cleaner, 1453* 
San Pedro. Los Angeles & Salt Lake: Section 

Motor Cars, 101 
Sargent Co.: Ironclad Water Glass Protector, 

. 1209* 
Scale: Track Scale, B. & O., 272* 
Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridges Co.: Rolling Lift 

Bridges, 559. 610* 
School (See Education) 

Scientific Management (See Efficiency Methods) 
Screw Spikes (See Maintenance of \Vay) 
Scully Steel & Iron Co.: Everlasting Blow-Off 

Valve, 691* 
Section Car (See Motor Car) 
Section House (See Bridges and Buildings) 
Sellers Manufacturing Co.: Tie Plate, 661* 
Semaphore (See Signal) 
Shed (See Station) 

Shippers (See Car Service; also Public, Rail- 
ways, Relations with) 
Shops (See also Efficiency Methods) : 

Floors for Shops and Freight Houses, 662* 
Oil Engines, 608* 
Short Line Buying: Norfolk Southern, 3t' 
Signal, Block (See also Railway Signal As- 
sociation) : 
Annual Report of Block Signal and Train 

Control Board, 197, 223t 
Automatic Signals on the Toronto, Hamil- 
ton & Buffalo. 1005* 
Block Signal Mileage. January 1, 1043 
Block Signaling Ordered in Indiana, 
False Statement of Conditions, 80t 
Manual Block, 530t 
Manual Block System on Single Track, 
Rules on Northern Pacific, 390 
Southern Pacific, 855 
Signal, Interlocking (See also Railway Signal 
.Association) : 
Rules on Northern Pacific. 390 
Signaling (See also Railway Signal Association; 
also Master Car Builders' Association) : 
Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc, on Signals and Inter- 
locking, S65t, 577* 
Bond Wire Protector, 564* 
Hall Style "K" Signal, 561* 
Classification Signals on Trains, 140t, 674t 
Disk Signals, 350 
Flags .Abolished, 26 
Frost on Signal .Apparatus, 351 
Grand Central Terminal, 351 
Intermittent .-\cetylene Lights on Signals, 

New Signals on the Pennsylvania, 423 
Signal Lamp with Fresnel Lens; Missouri 

Pacific. 162* 
Signal Maintenance: Union Pacific, 485t, 

Signal Volt-.'\mmeter, 1450 
Simmons, John, Co.: Sectional Concrete Pile 

Casing, 558 
Slide (See Drainage) 
Smoke Prevention (See Fuel) 
Snow, T. W., Construction Co.: All-Steel Coal- 
ing Station, 564* 
Southern Pacific (See also Harriman Lines): 
Annual Report, 138t*, 179 
Block Signal Mileage, 855 
Boiler Explosion at San .\ntonio, 692, 806*, 

1128, 11461. 1544 
Co-operation Campaign, 924 
Electric Ventures, 224t 
Frog and Switch Repair Outfit, 1123 
Land Claims Sustained, 402 
Medals for Employees, 925, 1568 
Oil Burning Locomotives, 482* 
Oil Lands Suit, 1210 
Pensions, 118, 1127 
Publicity to .Accidents. 1168 
Reward Given for Saving Train, 248 
Southern Pacific Land Company, 247 
Southern Railway: 

Coal Transportation Ordered, 697, 776 
Memphis Union Station, 852* 
Speed (See Fast Trains and Runs) 
Spike (See Maintenance of Way) 
Spokane Case (See Freight Rate Reductions) 
Sprague Electric Works: Armored Air Brake 
Hose, 1481 



Standard Car Truck Co.: Barber 50-Ton Steel 

Flat Car, 1326* 
Standard Code (See Train Rules) 
Standard Steel Car Co.: Ice Car; Central of 

New Jersey, 1239* 
State Commsfi ns (Sec also State Commission 
Kulincs* : 
Indiana: Block Signaling Ordered, 1076 
Maryland: New York, Philadelphia & Nor- 
folk Forbidden to Issue Stock Dividend, 
.•\nswering Tracers, 1532t 
Illinois: Relations Between Carriers and 

Public, 810 
Indiana: .\nnual Report. 355 
Indiana: Headlight Law, 169 
Indiana: Rail Hearing. 70, 351, 368t, 374, 

567t, 948 
Interference with I. C. C, 741t, 747 
Kentucky: .Annual Report, 153 
Massachusetts: .Annual Report, 39t, 86 
Massachusetts: Report on .Accident in 

Hoosac Tunnel, 1223t, 1234 
Minnesota: Report on Odessa Collision: 

C. M. & St. P., 137t, 152 
Nevada, Petition for Abolition of Com- 
merce Court, 26 
New Jersey: .Annual Report, 57 
New Jersey: Report on Full-Crew Bill, 

265t, 275 
New York: .Annual Report, 70, 92 
New York: Division of Transportation, 

1355. 1623 
New York: Insignificant Cases, 1183t 
New \'ork : I..ack of Funds for Grade 

Crossing Elimination. 967 
New York: Scope of Activities. 135t 
Oklahoma: .Annual Report, 520 
Oregon: .Annual Report, 118 
South Carolina: Standard Freight Tariff, 

Texas: Conference with Railway Officers. 247 
Texas: Misleading Statistics, I86t 
Texas: Rates Overruled by Justices of the 

Peace, 29 
Texas: Revaluation of Galveston, Houston 

& Henderson .Asked, 1067 
Washington: Rates on Small Shipments 
of Lumber Reduced, 1067 
State Commission Rulings: 

Arkansas: Drinking Cups Ordered, 520 
Connecticut: Street Railway Fares, 7391 
Illinois: Car Rental and Switching (Tharges, 

Illinois: Coal Car Distribution, 402 
Indiana: Block Signal Mileage Cost, 1133 
Indiana: Bridge Warnings, 1176 
Louisiana: Discontinuing Passenger Trains, 

Louisiana: Express Rates Reduced, 70 
Louisiana: Railway Fined for not Operating 

Trains on Schedule Time, 125 
Louisiana: Reparation of Road Ordered, 31 
Maine: Bridge Plans, 402 
Maryland: Flat Switching Charge at Balti- 
more, 1257 
Massachusetts: Season Ticket Rates, 402 
Michigan: Speed Limits, 356 
Mississippi: .Adoption of Southern Oassifi- 

cation No. 38 Ordered 70 
Mississippi: Floods and Improvements, 1168 
Mississippi: Mississippi State Classification 

Reinstated, 357 
Mississippi: Valuation of Railways, 1216 
New Jersey: Delaware & Raritan Canal 

Company Tolls. 1022 
New Jersey: Drinking Facilities Ordered, 70 
New York: Emergency Lighting .Apparatus 

(Ordered, 767 
New York: Exemptions from Long and 

Short Haul Clause, 357 
New York: Ice Rates Reduced, 1216 
New York, Ontario & Western Deal For- 
bidden, 257, 818, 828t 
New York: Refund on Commutation Tickets, 

New York: Restoration of Train Ordered, 

New York: Rutland Sale Held Up. 257 

Oregon: Freight and Passenger Rate Re- 
ductions, 215 

Pennsylvania: Notifying Arrival of Pack- 
ages, 775 

San Joaquin \'alley Rate Case, 865 

Texas: C^ost of Heavier Rails and .Account- 
ing, 208 

Wasbington Freight Rate Reductions, 70 
State Ownership (See Government Ownership). 
Station (See also Yards and Terminals): 

Architectural Beauty Required, 223t 

Buffalo Union Station, 1059 

Handling a Station. 1164 

Memphis Union Station, 852* 

Norfolk & Western, Norfolk Southern and 
the Virginian Union Station at Norfolk, 
Va., 1247 

Northern Central Station at Baltimore, Md., 

Oregon Trunk Small Stations. 680* 

Oregon-Washington Railroad & Navigation 
Co. Station at Seattle. 103* 

Pennsylvania Railroad Improvements at 
North Philadelphia, 1617 

Station (Contitttfcd) : 

Rolling Stock, Stations and Dwellings, 

Station Building in Oklahoma, 440 
Toledo. Peoria & Western, Small Station, 

Union Station at Joliet, 111., 789' 
Statistics (See .Accounting) 
Steel Concrete (See Concrete) 
Stillwell, L. B.: Passenger Car; N. Y. W. & B., 

Stock (See Finance) 
Stoker (See Locomotive I'irebox> 
Stokers, Mechanical (See Locomotive Firebox) 
Storrs Mica Co.: Hose Clamp, 1283 
Street, Clement F. : Mechanical Stoker Improve- 
ments, 2t, 24* 
Street Railways (See Electric Railways) 
Strike (See Employee) 
Subway : 

Accident in Berlin Subway, 768 
Boston to Cambridge, 769 
Chicago, 392 

New York, 394, 970, 1017, 1127, 1168, 
1225, t 1229*, 1253 
Summers Steel Car Co.: Steel Box Car, Bes- 
semer & Lake Erie, 677* 

Highly Superheated Steam for Locomotives, 

Increased Power Obtained with Superheat, 

l483t, 1499 
Maintenance, of Suoerheater Locomotives, 
■ 1511-f, 1518* 
Progress, 1283 

Superheated Steam and the Large Locomo- 
tive, 1447 
Superbeated Steam on Mallet Locomotives, 

Superheaters and Low Operating Cost. 1417 
Superheaters and Switch Engines, 1471 
Superheaters Applied, to Old Engines, 1387 
Supply Companies and Railway Oflicers, 10301 
Supply Department (See also Railway Store- 
keepers' .Association): 
Agents' Requisitions for Stationery, 286, 833 
Conception of Wrong, 22, 190t 
Control of Supplies, 763 
Importance of, 5$ 
Means of Economy, 229J 
Prices of Materials, 1373* 
Sectional Steel Storage Houses, 657* 
Storekeeping, 1539 

.Anderson Safety Switch Lock, 921* 
Frog and Switch Repair Outfit, 1123 
Frogs and Joints, 661 

Protection of Facing Point Switches, 563* 
Switch Stands, 558. 736' 


Colonist Tariff, 250 

Controversy Over Revised Western Classi- 
fication, 211, 252, 265t, 313, 397, 1256. 
National Industrial Traffic League's Classi- 
fication Proposals, 771 
Uniform Classification, 224T, 366t, 370t 
Taxation (See also Legal Decisions): 
Bases of, 1867 
Station Taxes, 223t 
Tehuantepec National Ry. : Freight Statistics, 859 
Telegraph (See also .-Vssociation of Railway 
Telegraph Superintendents; also Educa- 
tion) : 
Duplex and Quadruplex Telegraphy, 1018 
Government Ownership, 79t. 136t 
Monument to Charles Miiiot. 1060 
Record Communications, 1350 
School on Pennsylvania, 855 
Wireless, .Around the World, 767 
Wireless to .\eroplane, 923 
Telegraph Superintendents (See Association of 

Railway Telegraph Superintendents) 
Telephone (See also Association of Railway 
Telegraph Superintendents) : 
Operators' Operations, 208 
Rules on Northern Pacific, 390 
Telephones on American Railways, 1043, 

Wireless from Monte Marie to Magdalena, 
Terminal (See Yards and Terminals) 
Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis: De- 
clared an Unlawful Monopoly, 975, 1082t, 
Texas : 

Justices of the Peace May Regulate Freight 

Trains, 29 
Statistics of Texas Roads, 855 
Texas Welfare Commission Hears from 
Railways, 1062, 1151 
Theft (See Train Robberies) 
Ticket (See also Passenger Rates) : 

.Anti-Scalping Campaign at Kansas City, 

Interchangeable Mileage Books, 1581 
Ticket Scalping, 166 
Tie Fastener (See Maintenance of Way) 
Tie Plate (See Maintenance of Way) 

January 1 — June 30. 1912. 


Ties and Timber (See also American Wood Pre- 
servers' Association) 
Am. Ry. Eng. Report on Conservation of 

Natural Resources, 712t, 714* 
Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc. Report on Grading of 

Lumber, lid* 
Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc. Report on Ties, 566t, 

Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc. Report on Wood Pres- 
ervation, 729* 
Creosote Specifications, 904$* 
Penetration of Inorganic Salts in Treated 

Wood, 505 
Pennsylvania Railroad's Trees, 1351 
Piecework Wages in a Timber Treating 

Plant. 1577 
Preservation of Car Lumber, 413t 
Ties nought in 1910, 651 
Tie Distribution and Renewal Records; 

C. R. L & P., 15591, 1569' 
Ties, Economical Use of, 467^ 
Ties, Piling, 300* 
Tie Production, UnifoTm Specifications for, 

Tie Scarfing Machine, 1568* 
Tie Steaming, Preliminary. 292$ 
Tie Treating Plant, Atlantic Coast Line, 

Tie Treatment, Improved Methods of, 59* 
Timber Preservation tSee Ties and Timber) 
Tire (.See Wheel) 
Titanic Disaster, 891* 

Toledo & Ohio Central (See Hocking Valley) 
Toledo, Peoria & Western: Small Station at 

Secor. 111.. 1121* 
Tool Competition (See Competition) 
Tool (See Machine Tools) 
Toronto. HamiltOLn & Buffalo: Automatic Block 

Signals, 1005* 
Track (See also Maintenance of Way; also Con- 
struction, New) : 
Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc. Report on Track, 592, 

Malleable Iron Track Fastenings, 306 
Track Kink Competition (See Competition) 
Track Kinks (See Kinks, Track) 
Turnouts, 291$ 
Track Elevation (See Grade Separation) 
Tractive Power {See Locomotive Performance) 
Trade L^nions (See Employee) 
Traffic : 

Cold Weather Difficulties, 118 
Durbar Traffic, 898* 

Future Growth and Accompanying Prob- 
lems, 378 
Immigration Committee, 121 
Increases, If 

Movements of Live Stock in February, 813 
Railways and the Panama Canal, 696 
Statistics for 1910, 886 

Steamboat Traffic Declined Before the Rail- 
way, Why, 51. 470$ 
Trans-Atlantic Traffic. 513 
Traffic Club of Philadelphia: Railway Regula- 
tion, ZZZ 
Train (See also Fast Trains and Runs) : 

Train Resistance and Cold Weather, 44* 
Train Despatchers' Association : Convention, 

1592t, 1606 
Train Despatching: 

Good Service in Despatchers' Office, 83$ 
Suggested Modification of Rule No. 210, 

Telephone: Chicago Great Western, 26 
Train Lighting (See Lighting) 
Train Load: Tonnage Rating and Cold Weather, 

Trainmen (See Employee) 
Train Resistance (See Train) 
Train Robberies, 63, 248, 349, 438, 692, 967, 

Train Rules: 

Form 19 for Train Orders, 418t, 675$, 788$, 

Northern Pacific, 390 
Trans- African Railways, 160 
Train Shed ( See Station) 
Travel Show, 1248 
Trestle (See Bridge) 
Truck : 

Car Truck Design and Rail Failures, 329$ 
Commonwealth Cast Steel Engine Truck 

Frames, 1450" 
Sampson Bolster, 1449* 
Seventy-Ton Pedestal Jaw Truck, 1396* 
Specifications for Freight Car Truck Sides 

and Bolsters. 13991, 1412 
Springs for Freight Car Trucks, 1368t. 
1385*, 1399t 
Trust (.See also Finance; also Public, the Rail- 
ways, Relations with): 
Price Agreements, 784t 

Proposed Governmental Supervision of Cor- 
porations, 927 
Railways and the Sherman Anti-Trust Law, 

Truth About Railway Accidents, 230 

Tube (See Locomotive Boiler; also Tunnel) 

Tunnel ( See also Subway) : 

Bingham & Garfield Tunnels, 744* 
Milwaukee, Sparta & Northwestern Tunnel 

at Tunnel City, Wis.. 365t. 382* 
Otira Tunnel in New Zealand, 144 

Turbine: Spiro Turbine. 348* 

Turnout (See Track) 

Turntable: Fairbanks-Morse Electric Turntable 
Tractor, 735* 


Underfraine (.See Car) 
Union (See Emploj'ee) 
Union Pacific (bee also Harriman Lines): 

Educational Bureau, 1350 

General Office Building at Omaha, Neb., 18* 

Safety First, 1017 

Superfluous Right of Way, 1059 

Track and Signal Maintenance, 485t, 487 
United States Metal Products Co.; Walker & 

Dennett Simplified Car Seats, 13J7 
United States Steel Corporation: 

Bond Sale, 769 

Directors' Interests, 968 

Earnings, 209, 1016 

Ore Rates, 209, 508 

Report of Committee on Labor Conditions, 

Safety Campaign, 1210 

Stock Offer to Employees, 63 

Unfilled Tonnage Report, 63, 350, 510, 925, 
Universal Portland Cement Co.: Concreting in 
Cold Weather, 504 

Valuation of Railways: Bill for Physical Valua- 
tion of Railways, 811 

Baker Valve Gear on Old Power, 1481 
Everlasting Blow-Off Valve, 691* 
Injector with Automatic Overflow Valve, 

Loss of Steam from Safety \^alves, 79t 
Safety Valves, 1455t, 1468* 
Steam Pressure Regulator, 1209* 
Tank Valve for Refrigerator Cars, 25* 
Vanadium (See Iron and Steel) 
Varnish (See Paint) 

Ventilation; Air Washer and Cooler for Pas- 
senger Cars, 23* 
Electric Fixture Combining Indirect Light- 
ing and Paddle Fans, 1288* 
Garland \'entilator for Buildings, 507* 
L'tility Exhaust Ventilator, 1429 "■ 
Viaduct (.See Bridges and Buildings) 
Virginian Ry.; 

Most Powerful Locomotive in the World, 

Union Station at Norfolk, 1247 


Wabash R. R.: 

.Accident near West Lebanon, Ind., 508 
Buffalo LInion Station, 1059 
Concrete Deck (girder, 506* 
Improvement Program, 248 
Two Reports on Possibilities, 1169 

Wages (See Employee) 

Wall. Retaining, 504* 


Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc. Report on Masonry, 

Waterproofing Design for Bridge Floors, 560 
Waterproofing Concrete Structures, 307* 
Waterproofing Engineering Structures, 902ti 

Waterproofing Subway Waiting Room, 437* 

Water Service: 

Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc. Report on Water 

Service, 61 It, 623* 
Boston & Maine, 736* 
Centrifugal Pumps, 737* 
Economical Water Supply; St. L. & S. P., 

Oil Engines for Water Stations, 1424* 
Self-Cleaning Tanks, 608* 
Steel Water Tanks, 735* 
Telescopic Spout Standpipe, 560* 
Two Tanks at One Location, 664* 
Water Tower, 736* 


Harbor Development in Chicago, 738* 
Ocean Freight Rate Increases, 28 
Operation Cost of Panama Canal, 855 
Panama (-anal Problems, 250 
Panama Canal Rates, 460t. 1185t 
Panama Canal, William McNab on, 547, 

Railways and the Panama Canal, 696 

Waterways (Continued) : 

Relations Between Railways and Water- 
ways, 1212 
Report of Waterways Commission, 861 
Steamboat Traffic Declined Before Railway 

Why, 51, 4701; 
Suez Canal Receipts in 1911, 166 
Traffic on New York State Canals, 120 
Weighing Association (See Western Railway 
W eighing Association and Inspection Bu- 

.•\utogenous Welding and Cutting, 1510 
Electric Welding, 330* 

Ferguson Superheater Flue Welding Fur- 
nace, 1451* 
Western Passenger Association; Minimum Ex- 
cursion Rates, 67 
Western Railway Club: Steel Wheel Designs. 

365t, 369t. 371* * 

Western Railway Weighing Association & In- 
spection Bureau: Weighing Practices, 770, 
784t, 816. 1064, 1214 
Western Society of Engineers; Waterproofing 

Engineering Structures, 902t, 913* 
Western Union Telegraph Co.; 

Contract with the Marconi Wireless Tele- 
graph Company, 967 
Pension System, 809 
Record Communications, 1350 
Westinghouse Air Brake Co.: P C Equipment, 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co.: 
Direct-Current Freight Locomotive; Oak- 
land, .\ntioch & Eastern, 1528* 
Eight-Motor .-\rticulated Electric Locomo- 
tive; N. Y. N. H. & H.. 1608* 
West Jersey & Seashore: Consignees Sued, 2SCi 
What Is the Matter witih the Railways? 877t. 

Wheel : 

Cambria Steel Axles, 1454* 

Car Wheels, 1298t, 1312", 1388 

Chilled Iron Car Wheel, 12651, 1275t, 1416, 

Contour of Tires, 1483t, 1497* 
Impact of Flat Wheels Upon Rails, 1613* 
Low Cost of Steel WheeLs, 412t, 466t 
Steel Tires, 1483t, 1501* 
Steel Wheel Designs, 365t, 369t, 371* 
Wheeling & Lake Erie: Safety Committees, 856 
White Pass & Yukon Route: Rate Case, 771, 

White Star Line: Titanic Disaster, 891* 

Asco Weatherstrip, 1454* 
Deck Sash Ratchet, 1509* 
Detroit Fenestra Windows in Building Col- 
lapse, 559* 
McCord Weatherstrip, 1453* 
Wood (See Ties and Timber) 
Wood, Edwin S., & Co. ; Mirror for Inspect- 
ing Bearings, 1013* 
Wood Preservation (See Ties and Timber) 
Wood Preservers' Association (See American 

Wood Preservers' Association) 
Worthington, B. A., 1607* 

Yards and Terminals (See also Signaling) : 

Canadian Pacific Yard at Fort William, 

Ont., Reconstruction of, 153* 
Capacity of Pennsylvania Freight Yards, 63 
Chicago Switching Rules Committee, 121 
Damage to Yards by Mississippi Floods. 922, 


Delaware & Hudson's Locomotive Terminal 
at Carbondale, Pa., 1087* 

Drainage, 289t 

Duluth & Iron Range Ore Dock, Two Har- 
bors, Minn., 8* 

Electrification, 63, 1061, 1347 

Great Northern Ore Loading Dock at Al- 
louez. Wis., 136t, 145* 

Illinois Central at Chicago, 208, 247, 767, 

Joint Ownership of City Terminals, 925, 

Interior Harbors as Economical Terminals, 

New York Central at New York, 395, 462t 

Norfolk & Western, Norfolk Southern and 
the Virginian Union Station at Norfolk, 
Va., 1247 

Oregon-Washington R. R. & Nav. Co., Se- 
attle Terminals, 103* 

Pennsylvania Ore Unloading Dock at Cleve- 
land, Ohio, 324t, 335* 

Statistics of Chicago Passenger Terminal of 
the Chicago & North Western. 1350 

Winter Work on Terminals, 309 
Y. M. C. A. Railroad Branch, 1248 


Accident Prevention and Relief, 988 
American Transportation Question, 465 
American Year Book, The, 832 

■Catalogue of Books on Railway Economics, 1593 
Coal Trade. The, 1226 

^Comparative Analysis of Railroad Reports, 881 
^Concrete Costs, 1560 

Deflections and Statistically Indeterminate 

Stresses, 369 
Dredges and Dredging, 291 

Early Motive Power of the Baltimore & Ohio, 

Earning Power of Railroads, 1912, The, 1146 
Economics of Contracting, 1226 

Kfticiency as a Basis for Operation and Wages, 

Electric Traction and Transmission Engineer- 
ing, 328 

Electric 'fraction for Railway Trains, 1226 

Engineering as a Vocation, 787 

Forney's Catechism of the Locomotive, 673 


[January 1— June 30, 1912. 

Full Recognition of Japan, The, 1034 
Industrial Democracy or Monopoly, 988 
Judson on Interstate Commerce, 946 

Laboratory Manual for Testing Materials of 

Construction. 1185 
Letters from an Old Railway Official, Series II: 

'To His Son, a General Manager," 1593 

Ma.ximum Production in Machine Shop and 

Foundry, 466 
Mechanical World Pocket Diary and Year Book 

for 1912, The. 4 
Modern Locomotive, The, 1332 
Moody's Analysis of Railroad Investments, 881 

Pennsylvania Railroad Company*s New York 
Terminal; History of Engineering, Con- 
struction and Equipment, 1533 

NEW BOOKS- Continued 

Prevention of Railroad Accidents, 189 

Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Annual Conven- 
tion of the Master Car Builders* Asso- 
ciation, 1%1 

Proceedings of the Forty-fourth Annual Conven- 
tion of the American Railway Master 
Mechanics' Association, 1034 

Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Meet- 
ing of the American Society for Testing 
Materials, 832 

Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conven- 
tion of the International Blacksmiths* As- 
sociation, 466 

Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conven- 
tion of the Traveling Engineers' Associa- 
tion, 946 

Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Conven- 
tion American Railway Engineering Asso- 
ciation, 1034 

Railroad Operating Costs, 742 

Railway Statistics of the United States for the 

Year Ending June 30, 1911. 1034 
Railway Transportation, 881 
Roofs & Bridges, 269 

Signal Dictionary, The, 416 

Standard Forms of Field Notes for Civil Engi- 
neers, 1085 

Structural Design : Vol. 1 : Elements of Struc- 
tural Design, 1332 

Subways and Tunnels of New York, 1560 

Suspension Bridges and Cantilevers, 228 

Technology and Industrial Efficiency, 4 
Valuation of Public Utility Properties, 1332 
Walschacrt Locomotive Valve Gear, 988 


\See also General Index, under subjects and names.] 

Africa, 35, 130, 159, 160, 320, 546, 691, 697, 732, 
781, 782, 826, 950, 1026, 1077, 1086, 1092, 
1138, 1141, 1142, 1333, 1538, 1543, 1598, 

Arabia, 1363 

Argentina, 318, 320, 361, 410, 451, 506, 528, 796, 
823, 983, 1179, 1218, 1546, 1552, 1625 

Asia Minor, 1246, 1337, 1349 

Australia, 207, 220, 320, 410, 953, 983, 984, 1077, 
1138, 1589 

Austria, 389, 823, 984, 1557 

Belgium, 237 

Bolivia, 25, 44, 144, 166, 178, 332, 451, 470, 

528, 866, 953, 1193, 1587 
Brazil, 410, 690. 700, 750, 802, 882, 1100, 1112, 

1124. 1138, 1152, 1167 
Bulgaria, 847 
Burma. 1100 

Chile, 318, 342, 451, 527, 834, 866, 881, 882, 
891. 937, 1179, 1220, 1552, 1587, 1598, 

China, 14, 92, 131, 246, 276, 433, 847, 1025, 
1028. 1147. 1167, 1602, 1612, 1628 

Colombia, 854, 871 

Congo, 437, 1047 

Cuba, 178, 353. 871, 983 

Dominican Republic, 437 

Ecuador, 77 
Egypt, 1159 
England. 1049, 1360, 1555 

Formosa, 1163, 1192 
France, 279, 396 

Germany, 200, 231, 288, 360, 389, 424, 431, 770, 

802, 823, 826, 872, 1023, 1095 
Gautemala. 848, 1349, 1615 

Honduras, 155 

Hungary, 174, 279, 802, 1222, 1577 

India, 1363 

Italy, 218, 222, 318, 1026 

Japan, 1333, 1349 

Malay States, 966, 1587 
Manchuria, 134 
Morocco, 1049 

New South Wales, 190, 205, 210, 220, 246, 262, 
306, 360, 493, 498, 521, 528, 922, 941, 
947, 953 

New Zealand, 19, 37, 62, 74 

Nigeria, 1057, 1122 

Paraguay, 77 

Persia, 1233 

Peru, 62, 847, 1047, 1100, 1602 

Philippine Islands, 1058, M)95 

Prussia, 759, 1245 

Roumania, 1363 

Russia, 38, 131, 174, 178, 205, 277, 405, 410, 
452, 484, 494, 523, 702, 766, 854, 1015, 
1028, 1086, 1222, 1333, 1337, 1540 

Salvador, 49, 329, 1606 

Scandinavia, 1186, 1216 

Scotland, 979, 1035, 1552 

Siam, 966 

Siberia, 1228 

Sweden, 1025, 1097 

Switzerland, 141, 370, 405, 825, 959, 1092 

Tasmania, 419, 995, 1015 

Tripoli, 292 

Turkey, 426, 429, 744, 1360, 1363, 1555 

Uruguay, 26, 35, 131, 207, 347, 882, 1026, 1028, 

Venezuela, 62, 477, 847 
Victoria, 222, 360, 506 


Amory, W. A., 1363 

Andrews, James Stewart, 1219* 

Bail, Bernard H., 868 
Barnes, Joshua B., 450 
Beyreiss, William F., 73 
Bishop, William D., Jr., 173 
Blodgett, George W., 130 
Bond, Frank Stuart, 405 
Boswell, R. £., 1136 
Brown, Horace, 1136 
Brown, Joseph A., 173 
Brownlee, James. 450 
Buck, W. F., 217* 
Burke, Thomas C, 1363 
Burns, John J., 778 
Byer, H. O., 1024 

Cage, H. H., 822 
aark, S. C, 822 
Clements, W. M., 822 
Coleman, J. P., 937 
Cooke, William Jay, 779 
Cox, Charles F., 173 
Crane. Richard T., 75 
Crawford, A. S., 405 
Culbertson, John Dickey, 699 

Doul, E.. 1136 
Dunbar, James R., 318 
Duncan, T. A., 130 
Duncan, W. 

Butler, 1625 

Farren, Bernard N., 173 

Adams, Herbert H., 976* 
Averill, W. H., 349 
Allen, Charles A., 1361* 
Ayers, A. R., 698* 

Baker, E. H., 219* 
Ballantine, N. D., 1258* 
Barr, Frank. 1258* 
Batchelder, Frank C, 935* 
Bather, C. S., 1130 
Bates, Edwin P., 1074* 
Baxter, Robert W., 1134* 

Fields, J. E. W., 868 
Firth, Franklin J., 698 
Ford, Elias A., 173 

Gallagher, Thomas M., 261 
Geagan, George Fail, 778 
Geddes, James K., 1363 
Gilmore, Charles N., 937 
Goodrich, Alonzo C, 35 
Green, Thomas, 778 
Greene, Thomas Whyler, 937 
Guggenheim, Benjamin, 981 

Harahan, J. T., 142* 
Hawkins, E. C, 868 
Hawley, Edwin, 217, 237* 
Hays, Charles M., 891* 
Healy, W. J., 522 
Reward, A. R. G.. 1178 
Hicks, E. N., 173 
Higgins, Edward P., 937 
High, W. K., 1625 
Hinchey, Franklin, 1178 
HolU, David, 1260 
Hooser, E. B., 173 
Hopkins, Amos Lawrence, 868 
Howard, James E., 1625 
Hunt, David B., 1587 
Hunter, B. F., 1136 

Janney, Major E. H., 1504, 1087 
Jones, Francis S., 73 

Kelby, W. B., 822 
Kingman, Lewis, 260 
Korn, L. L., 35 

Lander, Albert H., 318 
Lantz, Jesse, 779 
Lee, J. M., 1218 
Lofland, Henry F., 132 
Lowell, W. W., 130 

McAdoo, John H., 979 
McCoy, D. B., 173 
McKenna, R. F., 778* 
Mabee, James P., Hon., 1075 
Mack, J. W., 938 
Maine, N. M., 1136 
Melcher, F. O., 142* 
Merchant. Amos H., 1260 
Mesick, Frank Bradley, 698 
Miller, W. R., 405 
Mitchell, Barrett B., 1136* 
Mitchell, J. Howard, 261 
Morris, C. D., 863 
Morrison, Philip, 1260 

Osborne, James, 1024 

Parker, Thomas W., 1024 
Parsons, Hinsdill, 1026* 
Patterson, Robert, 698 
Peirce, E. B., 142* 

Rawle, James, 1076 
Richards, Edward J., 937 


[Portraits are indicated thus.*] 

Beaghen, Thomas, Jr., 821 
Becker, W. S., 1361 
Begien, R. N., 1072* 
Blair, William L., 1624 
Blanchard, E. C, 1073* 
Borland, W. P., 355 
Bowen, Edmund I., 1216 
Boyden, Joseph A., 172* 
Britton, Frank H., 976 
Brown, Edward L., 316 
Buckelew, James, 127 
Burns, T. J., 1586* 

Busteed, F. F., 1075 
Butler, S. S., 71 
Butze, Adolph, 73 

Carroll, J. T., 358* 
Chamberlin, Edson J., 1193* 
Charlton, George J., 211 
Christie, Cornelius, 1135* 
Clark, Harry G., 1360 
Clift, Albert Earl, 1259 
Cochran, C. W., 937 
Collins, Thomas, 1624 

Ritchie, James A., 1136 
Roquette, C. M., 822 

Satterlee, Charles E., 1587 
Serpen, Goldsborough M., 130 
Shea, Dan, 1218 
Snyder, Webster, 822 
Stanyan, Fred \Villis, 1260 
Stephenson, James, 1363 
Sternberger, Morris L., 1260 
Stewart. Guy L., 130 
Stillman, Francis H., 359* 
Stohr, Peter Charles, 979* 
Sweet. Charles Singleton, 1364 
Sweigard, Isaac A.. 219 

Thayer, John Borland, 979* 
Topping, Frederick, 1180 
Trout, John F., 1218 

Valentine, Henry C, 132 

Waggener, T. L., 698 
Wallis, John Mather, 870 
Ward, Morris E., 75 
Warren, Chas. F., 1260 
Ways, Robert B., 318 
Welch, F. M., 868 
Wells. Clarence, 358 
Wicks, John H., 1587 
Wrenn, Beverly Welford, 260 

Young, Charles I., 75 
Young, William Wilkes, 175 

Conn, George Chester, 776* 
Cooper, W. E., 250 
Cooper, Winfield S., 316* 
Cornell, Xerxes H., 819* 
Corse, G. H.. Jr.. 172 
Cromar, P. G., 977 
Crowley, P. E., 867* 

Dambach, Charles Otto, 128 
Dean, John W., 1217* 
Decker, H. H., 868* 
Derr, W. L., 1257 

January 1— June 30, 1912.] 


Dillard, Frank Clifford, 976* 
Dixon, George Dallas, 1072* 
DriscoU, H. D., 1130 
Drury, M. J., 1217' 
Dynes, O. W., 171* 

Earling' Herman B., 317* 
Eddy, W. J., 698 
English, William J., 1361 
Erskine, Walter Hunter, 450 
EstabrooTi, H. M., 1588* 
Eysmans, Julian L., 1217 

FitzSimmons, Edward S., 358* 
Flynn, Walter H., 1625 
Frame, Robert E., 938 
Fripp, W. J., 977 
Fulton, Samuel T., 406* 

Galloway. C. W., 977* 
Gest, Alexander Purves, 127 
Goodeve, A. S., 1067 
Gray, Carl R., 1058* 
Gossett, Charles E., 405 
Greiner, J. E., 129 
Grout, Horace C, 777 
Guess, John H., 130* 

Hackstaff, A. G., 349 
Hamilton, Thomas B., 33* 
Hammill, John B., 1361* 
Hardin, Abraham Tracy, 866 
Harriman, J. W., 349 
Hawley, Fred M., 1624 
Hayward, Henry S., 130* 
Heaman, J. A., 1259 
Henry, J. M., 129 
Higgins, J. W., 128* 

Hill, James J., 1342* 
Hine, Major Charles, 127* 
Hodge, George, 448 
Hogueland, E. H., 1257 
Holden, John C. 1075 
Hudgins, Colonel Henry C, 216* 

James, John Moore, 71* 
Jenks, Charles B., 261* 
Jones, Charles W., 258* 

Katzenbach, L. Emery, 33 
Kelley, William V., 319* 
Kelly, J. W., Jr., 1134 
Kingston, Charles E., 1178 
Kinnear, W. S., 531 
Kittredge, Arthur M., 981 
Kramer, LeRoy, 1261* 
Krick, Charles S., 71* 
Kuhns, John C, 173* 

Lamont, Robert P., 319* 
Lanigan, J. D., 250 
Leach, N. M., 258* 
Lee, Frank, 1178 
Lincoln, J. C, 929 
Luscombe, John T., 449* 

McDonald, Donald, 777* 
McGinty, G. B., 443 
Mcintosh, Stuart H., 357 
MacEnulty, J. F., 1219* 
Marshall, Thomas, 1620 
Martin, Aileen, 248 
Melcher, F. O., 967 
Minot, Charles, 1060 
Mitchell, F. B., 1024 
Mirlz, Phillip P., 778 

Nokely, John W., 1360 
Nutt, Henry C, 936* 

Osgard, Nels, 937 
Ogden, G. D., 1074* 
Owen, William Frazer, 257 

Parker, Alexander MacDonald, 71* 
Parker, Clarence F., 171* 
Pendell, F. D., 935* 
Pennypacker, Samuel W., 1132 
Ferine, David Maulden, 260* 
Phelps, Merritt L., 977 
Plaisted, Frank H., 129 
Porterfield, John F., 1135* 
Post, George A., Jr., 359 
Prouty, Charles A., 86 
Purcell, John, 1135* 
Putnam, Louis J., 978* 

Ramsey, C. W. P., 821 
Randolph, V. C, 978' 
Rettinghouse, H., 936 
Ridgway, Amos Caryl, 316* 
Riley, C. C, 1073" 
Rinc, E. M„ 128 
Robinson, F. L., 859 
Ross, Andrew, 317 

Scandrett, Henry Alexander, 1177* 

Schaff, Charles E., 819 

Schlafge, William, 172* 

Sheahan, J. F., 216* 

Shelby, C. K., 172 

Sheng, 394 

Shonts, Theodore Perry, 1623 

Slattery, James T., 978* 

Smith, Abram E., 821 

Smith, A. H., 866* 

St. John, Richard C, 1024* 

Stephens, J. R., 1362 

Stevens, A. J., 1588* 

Stevens, John F., 451* 

Stewart, George K., 698* 

Stewart, J. B., 404 

Strickland, Samuel George, 819 

Stubbs, John C, 14* 

Symington, Major W. Stuart, 1318 

Tansley, William, 1135 
Tegethoff, C. C, 349 
Thayer, Walter, 1075* 
Thompson, A. W., 935* 
Thomson, S. G., 1586* 
Tinsman, W. S., 257* 
Towne, Walter J., 820* 

Vanneman, Charles R., 1355 
Vaughn, C. L., 820 
Vilas, G. B., 867 
Voorhees, H. B., 1073* 

Wallis, T. T., 129 
Walsh, J. F., 1446, 1587* 
Wierman Victor, 128* 
Wilcox, Joseph Taney, 126 
Williams, Arthur, 1016 
Williams, Charles Haines, 319* 
Williams, George V. S., 817 
Wiseman, C. H., 859 
Wolfenden, William E., 937 
Worthington, B. A,, 1607* 
Worthington, W. A., 126 
Wright, R. C, 1074' 
Wyles, T. R., 451* 

Young, Joseph H., 1177* 


Abbett, E. L., 405 
Abram, N. J., 1258 
Abrams. C. W., 698 
Acker, Alexander H., 449 
Adams, Herbert H., 976, 1177 
Adams, J., 937 
Adamson, LeRoy, 1362 
Ahem, J. D., 1134 
Alfred, F. H., 522, 698 
Allen, A. A., 776 
Allen, Charles A., 1177, 1361 
Allen, C. S., 1586 
Allen, F. E., 35 
Allen. J. M.. 34 
Allen, N. C, 33 
Allen, P. C, 522 
Alley, George L., 34 
Altenderfer, M. L., 259 
Amback, E. T., 1259 
Amos, J. L., 405 
Anderson, H. J., 868 
Anderson, J. E., 1362 
Anderson, J. J., 820 
Anderson, R. E., 1360 
Anderson, T. J., 129 
Andreas, Reuben M., 128 
Andrews, C. E., 820 
Angell, G. R., 522 
Antony, Mark, 522 
Apperson, A. B., 1361 
Applegate, O. P., 820 
Archer, F. G., 33 
Arens, W. D., 34 
Arney, C. E., 522 
Arundel, J. T., 258 
Atterbury, W. W.. 1072 
Averitt, J. T., 259 
Aycock, W. J., 1585, 1586 

Backus, C. C, 259 
Backus, E. E., 1625 
Bacon, W. M., 697 
Baer, T. H., 1072 
Baer, P. A., 778, 1624 
Baker, H. H., 1585 
Baker, H. M., 1178 
Baldwin, Henry, 259 
Baldwin, Tames E., 33 
Baldwin, William A., 1177 
Ballantine, N. D., 1258 
Banks, Isaac, 820 
Banta, L. E.. 72 
Bantly, A. G., 522 
Barger, Milton S., 403 
Barkley, J. O., 405 
Barnes, B. S., 72 
Barnes, E. H., 1259 
Barnes, Osgood F., 1585 
Barnes, T. S., 217 
Barnes, William C, 522 
Barnett, N. C, 522 
Barr, Frank, 1258 
Barres, O. M.. 73 


Barrett, J. H., 316 
Barrett, J. M., 216 
Barrett, R. L., 171, 
Barrie, J. W.. 317 
Bartlett, W., 867 
Batchelder, Frank C, 935 
Bates, E. P., 1075 
Bates, W. W^ 127 
Bauman, E. G., 73 
Baumgardner, F. M.. 259 

Baumgardner, R. M., 34 

Baxter, Robert W., 1072. 1073, 

Baylor, Robert L., 449 
Beacom, T. H,, 1134 
Beaghen, Thomas, Jr., 821 
Beard. T. G., 129 
Beck, W. D., 258 
Becker, W. S., 1216, 1361 
Begien, R. N., 1023, 1072 
Behenna, S. N.. 217 
Behring, Fred H., 1586 
Beland, B. A., 1024 
Bell, Frank, 217 
Bell, John, 1360 
Bell, J. A., 937 
Bell, R. H., 1362 
Bell, W. I., 73 
Bement, F. G.. 72 
Bender, F. O., 522 
Bennett, F. W.. 777 
Bennett, W. H., 358 
Bent, Charles L., 1216 
Bentley, F. H., 821 
Berend, H., 35 
Berg, H. L., 976, 1023 
Bergen, J. J., 34, 72 
Bergman, F. W., 778 
Bernet, J. J., 819 
Berroth, O. D., 403 
Berry, D. T., 522 
Beyreiss, W. F., 128 
Bickel, John, 777 
Bienemann, W. J., 357 
Biggerstaff, W. M., 358 
Bingham, T. L., 72 
Birchett, A. S., 217, 259 
Bird, W. L., 316 
Birdsall, F. L., 977 
Bishop, R. A., 72 
Bissell, H. E.. 71 
Blackburn, T. V., 1217 
Blackman, C. S., 778, 820 
Blackmore, H. F., 978 
Blair, Elbert, 171 
Blair, E. H., 1624 
Blair, E. S., 405 
Blair, Frank W.. 866 
Blair, W. L., 1361, 1624 
Blake, W. C, 35 
Blanchard, E. C, 977, 1073 
Blanton, James B., 1362 
Blitchington, W. E., 1135 
Bloxham, Charles M., 821 
Blunt, F. R., 1259 
Boatner, V. V., 1073 
Boatwright, Raymond, 1362 
Bockstahler, Walter, 936 
Boles, R. C, 776 
Bolger, J. A., 259 
Bolster, Leo, 1362 
Bond, W. M., 449 
Bone, Matthew H., 449 
Boomer, G. C, 820 
Borden, H. L., 126 
Borgwald, Fred, 404 
Boss, C. E., 129, 172 ■ 
Boss, L. F., 1073 
Bostwick, Charles P., 449 
Bostwick, H. F., 404 
Bostwick, L. C, 936 
Boswell, R. E., 1258 
Bottorff, W. M.. 1362 

Bourque, C. S., 1074 

Bowc, John T., 171, 820 

Bowen, Edmund I., 1177, 1216 

Bowman, M. S., 978, 1074 

Bowman, M. V., 358 

Box, M. A., 1586 

Boyd, H. T., 34 

Boyd, Oliver T., 72 

Boyden, C. A., 777 

Boyden, J. A., 73, 172 

Boyle, J. H., 867 

Boylston, J. D., 1362 

Bracken, E. T., 35 

Bradlev, Charles R., 978 

Bradley, John, 777 

Bradshaw, George, 1178 

Brady, H. K., 33 

Branch, J. E.. 72 

Brasted, A. R., 404 

Bray, H. V., 216 

Bray, J. W., 358 

Breckheimer, H. N.. 936 

Breen, James M., 1024 

Brevoort, C. L., 1072 

Bridge, C. M., 1259 

Bridge, F. A., 403 

Bridgman, W. A.. 936 

Bridwell, J. T., 1362 

Britton, Frank IL, 976 

Broadbent, J. H., 73 

Brodie, C. G., 449 

Brogan, F. A.. 522 

Bronner, E. D., 1134, 1135, 1217 

Brooke, G. D., 258 

Brooke, T. D., 1073 

Brooks, 1='. T., 1024 

Brown, A. R., 1135 

Brown, A. V., 1361 

Brown, C. B., 698, 821 

Brown, C. H., 867 

Brown. Edward L., 216, 316 

Brown. F. A., 34 

Brown, F. B., 1258 

Brown, H. C, 1023 

Brown, H. G., 259 

Brown, J. A., 259, 404, 820 

Brown, J. H., 868 

Brown, L. S., 1259 

Brown, O. A., 867, 1074 

Brown, T. H., 34 

Brown, T. J., 1259 

Brown, W. A., 217 

Brown, W. C, 1360 

Brownell, J. B., 1258 

Brownlce, J., 522 

Bruce, George S., 449 

Bruffey, H. E., 127 

Brunner, F. J., 1258 

Bryant, C. M., 127 

Bryant, E. H., 34 

Bryant, W. H.. 1623 

Bryson, Joseph M., 1258, 158S 

Buchanan, E. W., 819 

Bucher, D. F.. 819, 1361 

Buckelew, James, 127 

Buckingham, J. E., 1136 

Bugg. B. L,, 317 

Bunch, S. R., 1624 

Burch, H. F., 1361 

Burch, H. L., 449 

Burgis, E. W., 258 

Burke, Tames H., 1023, 1134 

Burke, Tere T., 71 
Burkhead, S. E., 1258 
Burnet, A. L.. 1362 
Burns, T. J., 1217, 1586 
Burr, A. V., 404 
Burr, R. M.. 821 
Burroughs, F. D., 34 
Burrows, O. G.. 217 
Burt, A. M.. 977 
Busby, C. O.. 259 
Busch, A. G., 1586 
Bush, Benjamin, F., 71 
Busteed, F. F., 819, 821, 1075 
Butler, S. S., 71 
Butncr, C. B., 821 
Butze, A., 35. 73 
Bywater, E. C, 1362 

Cage, H. H.. 1024 

Cahoon^ J. L., 449 

Cain, E. E., 1361 

Calkins, R. M., 34 

Callaghan, J., 978 

Callahan, J. W., 1072, 1134 

Calloway, Willis, 1074, 1135 

Camera, N. A., 450 

Cameron, Allan, 404 

Cameron, W. W., 1258 

Campbell, A. C. 819 

Canatsy, J. W., 1624 

Cannon, T. E., 522 

Gardner, George V., 1259 

Carey, J. J., 1259 

Carlton, C. R., 72 

Carmichael, R. H., 1259 

Carothers, J. B,, 1073 

Carpenter, L. E,, 73 

Carr, R. F., 171 

Carrick, W. D., 34 

Carroll, J. J., 217 

Carroll, J. T., 259, 358 

Carroll, W. J., 449 

Carson, S. R., 72 

Carstcns, C. W., 867 

Carswell W., 1177, 1258 

Carter, Dorset, 776 

Carter, G. W., 821 

Casey, B., 357, 403 

Cassil, H. A.. 698 

Caviezel, J. A., 316 

Chadbourne & Shores, 316 

Chadwick, W. S., 978 

Chalenor, L. E., 72 

Chamberlain, G. C, 1362 

Chamberlin, E. J., 976, 1216, 1193 

Chamberlin, F. D., 404 

Chandler, O. H., 821 

Chapman, George B., 259 

Chapman, J. F., 448 

Charles, S. H., 171 

Chase, E. S., 1585 

Chase, W. F., 34 

Cheatham, R. I., 72 

Chesbrough, George R., 34 

Cheslav, A. E. h!, 257 

Chesnev, C. R., 449 

Chisholm. E. D. C, 778 

Chittenden, W. A., 33 

Choate, W. G., 867 

Christian, F. H., 776, 819 

Christian, J. R., 129 

Christie, C, 1073, 1135 


fjanuary 1— June 30. 1912. 


Clark, II. 

Clark. II. 

Clark. M., 







1073, 1259 
8J!, 937 



Chubb, James A., 821 
Church, A. F.-, 107 J 
Church, J. E., 1361 
Church, I. v., 1134 
Claggett, F. 1)„ 1624 
Clar, !.. H.. 1177 
Claridge, R. R., 449 
Clark, A. W. G.. 1259 
Clark. Hyron, 33 
Clark. C. C, 172 
Clark. G. \V., 33 
G.. 217, 
S. C, 936 

O. A., 449 

T. E., 33 

W.. 522, 697 
A. li., S67 

T. J.. 449 
Clement, J. F.. 697 
Clifford. I. \., 357 
Clift, .Mbert E. 
Cochran, C W 
Cochran, J. H., 
Coddinglon, H. W 
Coffey, E. C, 34 
Coke. A. O., 867, 978 
Colclough. R., 1259 
Cole, Harold R.. 1023 
Cole, J. H.. 936 
Coleman. I). C, 258. 
Coleman, L. G., 1624 
Collins, Joseph, 1178 
Collins. T., 1586, 1624 
Collyer. R. N., 34 
Coin. \V. R.. 405. 1625 
Comins. Herbert, 34 
Cone, F., 33 
Conlan, J. II., 405 
Conn, George C, 522, 776 
Connelly, N. D., H34> 
Connelly, P. C, 405 
Connolly, J. J., 1624 
Connor, J. T., 357, 697 
Connor, T. A., 697 
Cook, A. R., 449 
Cook, F. E., 404 
Cook, J. F.. 1023 
Cook, J. \V.. 821 
Cooke, Ralph W., 978. 
Cool, C. W.. 1624 _ 
Cooper. E. A., 777 
Cooper, \V. S., 258. 316 
Copeland, G. V., 1023 
Copeland, Peter, 777 
Coppage, \V. H.. 819 
Corbett, John, 404 
Corbctt, W., 820 
Corbett. W. H., 1217 
Corfield, William D.. 34, 72 
Cornell, Xerxes H., 819 
Corse, G. H.. Tr., 172 
Costello, E. P., 34 
Costigan. William C. 1073 
Cotter. William, 866 
Course. Frederic J.. 449 
Cowan, J. G., 977 
Cowden, David Z., 71 
Cowgill, Erie C. 1623 
Cowhig. W. M.. 71 
Cowie, H. J., 1259 
Cox, C. F.. 403 
Cox, R. M.. 1134 
Coyle. H. F., 1624 
Craig. J. J.. 450 
Cramer, J. L., 866 
Crandall. W. J.. 449 
Crary, George W., 126 
Crawford, F. P.. 1362 
Crawford. Norman F., 317 
Creagh. Robert B.. 449 
Cridcr. J. L.. 1625 
Crofton, R. A., 357, 697 
Cromar, P. G.. 867, 977 
Cronin, Robert T.. 216 
Cronk, E. S., 71 
Crooks. C. II., 126 
Crosland, J. E.. 259 
Cross, C. W., 73 
Crowley, Clement E 
Crowley, T. P., 776 
Crowley, P. E.. 819, 867 
Croxton, W. W., 317 
Crozier. Wallace M.. 34 
Cullom. D. L.. 129 
Cummiskey, James A., 128 
Cunningham. E. J.. 867 
Cunningham. W. J., 1072 
Curran. D. D.. 357 
Curren. W. G.. 777 
Curry. F. M.. 819 
Cutis. A. B., 34 

Dabney, W. H., 127 
Daesclmer, William J., 216 
Dafoe, C. E., 935 
Dahlin. A. T.. 1024 
Dailey, M.. 937 
Dalrymple. T. E.. 1623 
Dalton, E. L., 34 
Pambach, C. O., 33, 128 
Daniels. H. S., 1362 
Daniels. \V. R., 317 


1258, 1360, 1361 

357, 819 


Danlcy. W. D., 522 

Darlow, A. M., 822 

David, J. Q.. 129, 1074 

Davies, H. W., 318 

Davis, C. M., 449 

Davis, E. C, 34 

Davis, E. M., 1074 

Davis, Frank H., 257 

Davis, R. E.. 1135. 1178 

Davison, E. I... 128 

Dean, John William, 1217 

DeButts, Richard U., 449 

Decker, Henry II.. 822, 868 

Dedman, E. J., 697 

De Grief, F. J., 1259 

Delaney, S. J., 449 

Delano, L., 71 

Dempsey, C. E., 217 

Dempscy, T. A., 776, 819 

Dengler, H. E.. 73 

Denham, W. B., 522 

Dennedy, E. O., 217 

Denney, C. E., 1178 

Dennis. J. S., 257 

Dent, S. M., 821 

Dcrr, William L., 1259 

Derrv, Ernest J., 697 

DeSaussure, F. G., 821 

Desjardins, E. L., 1259 

Devereaux. T. M., 317 

DeVictor, William K., 1585 

Dewberry, J. M.. 257 

Dewberrv. W. B., 1178 

Dewey, 'W. L., 172, 317 

Dick, H. B., 1362 

Dickinson, B. F., 73 

Dickinson, H. E., 820 

Dickinson. J. A., 1259 

Dickson, G. F., 171 

Dillard, F. C. 976. 1134 

Dillon. J. R., 1216 

Dirr, D. W., 777 

Ditto, E. B., 317 

Dixon. F. P.. 404, 1135 

Dixon, George D., 1072 

Dobbie, T. C, 935 

Dodd. A". F., 1623 

Dodge. G. M.. 129 

Dodge, T. W., 1073 

Doherty. William. 127, 129 

Dolan. W. H.. 820 

Dolard. H. P., 404 

Donaldson. M.. 1585. 1623, 1624 

Donley. W. H., 1024 

Dorsett, M. H., 936 

Doughertv. T. C, 33 

Doughty,!. H., 357. 358 

Douglas, Charles G.. 129 

Doul. E.. 1362 

Dowdell, B. S.. 449 ■ 

Dowie, E. J., 1135 

Doyle. J. W.. 820 

Dozier, E. J.. 317 

Dozier, R. H., 72 

Drake, \V. B.. 126 

Drane, H. T.. 72 

Dressel, \V. H.. 778 

Drury, M. T.. 1136. 1217 

Dudley, S. S., 1217 

Dugan. C. P., 316 

Duguid, J.. 978 

Duke. H. G.. 522 

Dulaney, E. H., 257, 259 

Dumbeck, F. C, 1178 

Dunbar, A. S., 936 

Dunbar, J. R., 358 

Duncan, E. C. 316 

Duncan, W. M., 1623 

Dunlap. J. B.. 1135, 1217 

Dunnavant, W. W.. 821 

Duperow, W. E.. 978 

Durrett. W. B., 404 

Dutlon, Alfred S., 216 

Duval, H. S., 72 

Dye. B. F., 172 

Dynes, O. W., 171 

Earling. II. B., 258. 317 
Easlev, F. J.. 216, 777, 1134 
F.asley, R. A., 1216 
Eaton, O. L., 935 
Eher. J. W., 1134, 1177 
Eblan, Tames, 1024 
Eck, G." H., 449 
Ecker, L. P., 1258 
Eddy. W. J.. 698 
Eden, Edward, 72 
Edgar, Thomas P.. 776 
Edgecomb, E. F., 1178 
Edmonds, A. S., 405 
Edwards, J. A., 449 
Edwards, J. L., 405 
Edwards, R. W., 33 
Eedson, Thomas, 216 
Eggleston, W. \V.. 819 
Eicholtz, H. M., 977 
Eidemiller, A. L.. 1586 
Eldredge. A. B., 33 
Eldredge, P. C. 258 
Ellerbe, C, 1072 
Elliott, E. M.. 34 
Elliott. J. H.. 1385 
Ellis, E. E., 1624 
Ellis, T. I.. 1075 

Empie, II. A., 127 
England. Norton, 405, 449 
English, W. J.. 1177, 1361 
Ensign^ Ely, 129 
Erb, Newman, 866 
Ernest, H.. 1072. 1360 
Erskine, W. H.. 405. 450 
Eshleman, R. E., 1024 
Estep, H. C, 1024 
Evans, E. G., 171 
Evans, Louis II., 1136 
Everman, T. W., 171 
Eysmans, J. I,., 1075, 1217 

Fahey, Edward H.. 403 
Fairbairn, R. L., 1362 
Fairmon, H., 217 
Farnsworth, Ellis, 778 
Earrell, H. E., 976 
Farrell, J. W., 1624 
Faulconer, T. J.. 1073, 1217 
Faus, F. H., 404 
Fenchurch, E. J., 358 
Ferguson, J. A., 1362 
Fero. S. J.. 522 
Field, H. H., 126 
Fields, J. E. W., 72 
Finnegan, J. D., 127 
Fisher, E. P., 217 
Fisher. George A.. 449 
Fisher, \'. W., 936 
Fitch, W. A., 1259 
Fitzgerald, D. W., 34 
Fitzgerald, Horace. 1023 
Fitzgerald, J. C, 936 
Fitzgerald, Richard, 776 
Fitzgerald. T. J..^ 172 
Fitzsimmons, E. S., 73, 358 
Fitzsimmons, J. E., 821 
Flandro, C. E., 259 
Flanigan, M. D., 1074 
Flanigan, M. S., 1362 
Flannelly, William, 449 
Fleming. E. M.. 129 
Fletcher, John, 73 
Florence, C. A., 404 
Flynn, Walter H.. 1217. 1625 
Fogg. W. H., 867 
Folev. M. J., 1134 
Fonda, Arthur. 1259 
Fontaine. A. E., 1361 
Ford, J. B., 1624 
Ford. R. L., 259 
Forster, J. J.. 936 
Foss, L. M.. 449 
Foster, C. S.. 450 
Foster, H. O.. 937 
Foster, J. H., 258 
Foster, R. W.. 34 
Foster, W. H., 216 
Fowler. R. B., 127, 171 
Fox, C. H.. 868 
Fox. G. G., 317 
Frank, Harry L., 1023 
Franklin, C. S., 217 
Eraser, J. H.. 1134 
Eraser, William, 258 
Frauenthal, B. W.. 936 
Fravel. G. B., 35 
Freeman, James, 449 
Freeman, J. P., 1585 
French. G. M., 403 
Fresenius, J. P.. 317, 404 
Frieser, F. G.. 404 
Fripp. W. J.. 935, 977, 1073 
Fry, E. B.. 357 
Fugate, T. E.. 821 
Fuhrman, W. S., 34 
Fulkerson, A. H., 72 
Fullen, Charles A., 820 
Fulmore, J. C, 1075 

Gaffin, W. W., 822 
Gaines. R. H.. 1586 
Gaither. C. P.. 171 
Galbreath, W. O., 868 
Gallagher, C. V., 404 
Galloway, C. W., 977 
Gamble, G. A.. 820 
Garber, A. O.. 1024 
Garrison. E. K., 259, 522 
Garvey, H. S.. 1074 
Garwood, S. S., 1585 
Garwood, W. W.. 1623 
Gasner. B. Q., 72 
Cass, H. A., 821 
Gates, A. C, 450 
Gaty, L. C. 316. 317 
Gauld. R. F.. 976 
Gauvin, W. E.. 317 
Gaven, John T.. 1073 
Gavin. F. J.. 697 
Geissler, Fred, 259 
Gemlo, William, 173 
George, Z. T.. 777 
Geyelin, II. Laussat, 1585 
Gibson, H. R..- 34 
Gibson, J. A.. 35, 937 
Gibson. J. B.. 72 
Gilbert, D. E.. 73 
Gilbert. E. A.. 1075 
Gilbert, T. H.. 777 
Giles, A. P.. 1075 
Gilgas, W. W.. 820 

Gill, Charles A., 1259 
Gill, William, 173 
Gillespie, W.. 978 
(jiiroy, Charles, 317 
Ciladden, L. R., 1177 
Glascock, T. II., 317 
Glasford. J. A.. 1258 
Godwin. H. E.. 217 
Gohring, K. A., 522 
Goings, C. E., 73 
Golden, R. N., 1362 
Gollehon, R. I., 1625 
Good, G. W., 73 
(loodnow. T. H., 129 
Goodrich, J. F., 1585 
Goodwin, E. W., 317 
Gossett. C. E., 129. 405 
Gould, Edwin, 976 
Gould, George J., 71 
Gould, J. E., 318 
Gould, J. L.. 316 
Gould, J. R., 1625 
Govan, T. F., 1135 
Grace, F. P.. 936 
Graham. A. H.. 172 
Graham, Fred M., 317 
Graham, H. D.. 1362 
Graham, H. L., 819 
Graham, I. W., 34 
Graham, R. H., 821 
Granger, J. W., 697 
Grant, A. J., 404 
Grant, F. T.. 1624 
Grant. H. G., 448 
Gratton, Patrick, 1586 
Graves, Dr. A., Jr.. 1178 
Gray, Charles N., 129 
Gray, C. R., 1058, 1072 
Gray, D. R.. 217 
Gray, E. E., 1361 
Gray, H. H., 34 
Gray, H. J.. 777 
Gray, James, 317 
Green, C. H., 259 
Greenly, A. Harry, 129 
Greer, B. B.. 33 
Greiner. J. E., 129 
Gresham, W. B., 259 
Gribling, H. J.. 317 
Grier, W. T., 73 
Griffin, E. C, 1024 
Griffin, J. M., 778 
Griffin, M. J., 867 
Griner, W. L, 1362 
Grooch. R. W.. 978 
Gross, John M.. 1075 
Grout, Horace C, 777 
Gruber. L. D.. 936 
Grundy, F. S. L.. 1360 
Grutchfield, W. G., 129 
Grymes, Arthur J., 1023 
Gucker, Robert C, 72 
Guernsev, N. T., 403 
Guess. John H.. 35. 130 
Guilfoil, T. J.. 1585 
Gulick, C. H.. 1362 
Gunzleman. W. H., 867 
Gutelius. F. P.. 258. 357 

Hackley. G. R., 936 
Hagerman, James, 1177, 1258 
Hagerty, M. A., 1362 
Haile, B. M., 867 
Hair. John, 1075 
Hait, F. N., 448 
Hale, H. C, 126 
Hale, H. H., 1075 
Halev, J. A.. 937 
Halev, William F.. 1134 
Hall.' W. S.. 1259 
Hallmark, H. C, 358 
Hallock. H. M.. 217 
Hamilton, Charles, 1217 
Hamilton, Paul, 821 
Hamilton, T. B., 33 
Hammill, John B., 1259, 1361 
Hammond, G. H., 72 
Hancock, F. W., 867 
Handy. A. K.. 34 
Hanger, K. H., 217, 449 
Hanlev, W. S., 129 
Hanna. C. L., 404 
Hansen, J. E., 128 
Hansen, William, 449 
Hanson, A. N., 217 
Hanson, E. T.. 217. 259 
Hanson, F. H., 217 
Hanson, J. E., 217 
Harbaugh. C. L., 34 
Harden, H. F., 72 
Hardin, J. D., Jr., 1074 
Hardin, A. T., 819, 866 
Hardin, W. M.. 34 
Harding, N. D., 34 
Hardisty, G. W., 522 
Harland, W. H., Jr.. 129 
Harleman, G. M.. 258 
Harlow, ^ohn A., 1135 
Harner, G. S., 317 
Harold. L. H., 867, 1024 
Harper, J. H., 867 
Harrington, E. L., 217, 259 
Harris, G. B., 1624 
Harris. G. H., 1625 

January I— June 30, 1912.] 


Harris, G. W.. 821 

Harris, J. M., J4. 72 

Harris, Page, 171 

Hart. W. F.. 73. 821 

Harter, E. M„ 1023 

Hartigan, C, 1586 

Hartley, B. H., 1586 

Hartley, M. L.. 1024 

Hartman, G. T., 35 

Harty, Edward, 1259 

Harvey, C. C. 171 

Hassman, L. E., 172, 259 

Hastings. E. C, 129 

Hatch, M. C. M., 1259 

Hatton, A., 357 

Hatton, E. M., 73 

Haupt, S. K., 71 

Hawkins, Morris S., 316 

Hawley, Edwin, 257 

Hawlev, Fred M., 1177, 1624 

Hawley, H. W., 867 

Hayden, E. G., 1362 

Hayes, D. W., 1024 

Hayes, E. F., 403 

Hayes, J. L., 449 

Hayncs, H. L.. Jr., 72 

Hays, Charles M., 976, 1193, 1216 

Hayward, Henry S., 130 

Hayward, H. M., 449 

Healev. I. L., 259 

Healy! J. D.. 317 

Healy, W. J.. 866 

Heatnan, J. A., 978, 1259 

Heathorn, -Arthur, 937 

Heckcndorf, A. H., 1178 

Heed, T. D., 126 

Heleniak, Henry, 1024 

Hellen, Joseph, 129 

Helm, iL li.. 1072 

Helwig, T. B.. 34 

Helwig. P. W., 129 

Hemingway, W. E., 819 

Henderson, A. K., 318 

Henderson, G. C, 820 

Henderson, H. W., 867 

Henderson, Col. W. A., 126 

Henry, J. M., 129 

Henslcy, L. J., 357 

Henson, C. L., 522 

Hermany, A., 1360 

Herr, F. C, 317 

Herr, G. F., 1074 

Hevron, D. B., 1075 

Hewitt, John A., 777 

Hewson, E. G., 405 

Heyman. C. R., 259 

Hibbard, G. W., 34 

Higgins, E. P., 976 

Higgins, 1. W.. 33, 128 

Higginsoii. O. F., 1177, 1362 

Hilberry, H. H., 35 

Hilbourne, Harrv C, 72 

Hill, C. R., 777' 

Hill, Tames J., 1058, 1072, 1342, 

Hill, Louis W., 1058, 1072. 1342, 

Hill, Oscar L., 936 
Hillis, J. A., 819 
Hillman, A. J., 34 
Hills. J. E., 1177 
Himes, C. R., 1624 
Hine, Maj. Charles, 127 
Hine, W. C, 449 
Hinkle, C. L., 697 
Hitch, C. M., 172 
Hobbs, O. H., 1073 
Hodge, George, 357, 448 
Hodgins, A. E., 1362 
Hodgson, F. D., 1258 
Hoff, Frederick, 316 
Hoffman, J. M., 1023 
Hogan, M. M.. 72 
Holbert, H. B., 448, 449 
Holbrook, E. F., 1023 
Holden, T. C, 868, 1075 
Holder, R. V,, 1024 
Hole, C. W., 1177, 1585 
Holmes, Charles H., 1072 
Holt, VV. S., 976 
Holtz, P. L., 936 
Holzapfel, F. S., 937 
Homan, W. H.. 127 
Honaker, H., 1024 
Honn, E. E., 357, 403 
Hook, E. E„ 1074, 1217 
HoDser, E. B., 404 
Hoover, H. H., 71, 72 
Hopkins, J. W., 35 
Hopkins, W. A., 777 
Horn, H. J., 1258 
Hoskin. W. J., 1024 
Hotchkiss, C. W., 866, 936 
Houk, G. C, 34 
Houlihan, W. J., 33 
Houston, C, 937 
Houston, W. O., 1625 
Hoving, Henry, 821, 936 
Howard, C. K., 449 
Howard, Frank .\., 34 
Howard, J. E., 866 
Howard R. H.. 316 
Howard, Tracey, 522, 978 
Howard, W. G.. 1178 
Howe, H. F.. 868 
Howell. H. W., 1024 
Howren, A., 1362 

Hoy, C. P., 1259 

Huber, Otto. 403 

Hudgins, Col. Henry C, 216 

Hudson, \V. R., 316 

Huertas, J. C, 404 

Huff, Volney E., 72 

Hugel, George B., 259 

Hughes, H. D., 1362 

Hughe.s 1. H.. 1586 

H umber, C. C. 317 ■ 

Hunt, Frank, 1023 

Hunter, B. F,, 1585 

Hurley, R. P., 1362, 1624 

Hurley, W. E., 72 

Hurst, W. C, 1259 

Hutchins, J. M., 820 

Hutchinson, A. E.. 819 

Hutchinson, G. W., 698. 820 

Hyams, 1. W., 1074 

Hynes, M. V., 698, 1361, 1362 

Ingersoll, H. L., 935 
Irving, T. T., 697, 698 
Irwin, J. C, 698 
Isaacs, John D., 172 

Jacobs, Henry W., 1624 

Jacobs, J. W., 404 

James, F. S., 127, 403. 1624 

Tames, John Moore, 73 

James, J. W., 977 

Jamison, T. E., 935 

Tarrott, Bowman, 1177 

Teffers, W. B., 258 

jeffery, E. T., 71 

Teffries, A. L., 936 

'Jeffries. L, E., 126 

Jenkins, A. C, 937 

"Tenkins, Frank L., 449 

'Tenks, C. C, 522 

"lenks, W. T.. 1216 

jenney, H. T., 404 

Todon, Loyd, 449 

"Johnson, A. N., 449 

'Johnson, B. 0., 1361 

Johnson, C. C. 1258 

Johnson, George P., 1177, 1216 

Johnson, O. F., 73 

Johnson, R., 35 

'Johnson, S. H.. 821 

Johnston, C. C, 129 

Johnston, C. O., 819 

Johnston, H. B., 358 

'Jones, C. W., 216, 258 

Tones, E. M., 1074 

Uncs, F. E., 1216 

Tones, Fred M.. 1258 

'Tones, G. C, 1072 

Jones, L. B.. 866 

Tones, Leslie M., 1586 

Tones, M. K., 867 

■[ones, M. W., 935, 1361 

"Tones, S. J.. 697, 867 

"Tones, W. A., 1023 

"Tones, W. D., 259 

tordan, E. M., 522 

"Tordan, J. W., 1074 

"Jordan, P. A., 1073 

joslyn, H. W., 33 

Judge, P. J., 819 

June, Jesse G., 216 

Jung, Arthur, 937 

Kahl, F. H., 448 

Karcher, J., Jr., 1024 

Katzenbach. L. E., 33, 216 

Kavanagh, J. P., 1072 

Keaveny, T., 217 

Keefer, J. R., 1586 

Keehan, M. E., 1072 

Kegler, W. C, 821 

Kelbv, James E., 33 

KelbV, W. B., 936 

Kelley, E. A., 171 

Kelliher, E. B., 405 

Kellogg, J. L.. 405 

Kelly, Albert M., 1023 

Kelly, T. G., 129 

Kelly, T. W., Jr., 258, 1073, 1134 

Kemp. 'P. E.. 171 

Kempf, J. C, 1178 

Kendig, R. B., 778 

Kennedy, T.. 978 

Kennedy. Thomas W., 777 

Kennellv. M. J., 216 

Kenzel.'C. H.. 35 

Keppler, W. J., 936 

Kilpatrick, J. B.. 778, 821 

Kilway. C. C, 127 

Kimball, C. P., 1624 

Kimbrough, R. P., 1177 

King. Edward S., 936 

King. H. F., 317 

King, Robert. 448 

Kingston, Charles E., 1075, 1178 

Kinnear, W. S.. 697, 976 

Kinsman, G. C, 1134 

Kirbv. W. S.. 33 

Kitchen, B. F.. 778 

Klenke, T. T., 259 

Knapp, H. S.. 317 

Knickerbocker. C. E., 35 

Knight. N. F., 404 

Knowles, C. I.^ 868 

Knowles. \V. C 358 

Knox. Walter E.. 258 

Kobzina, J. O., 936 

Koch, W. G.. 127 
Koeneman, Erwin G., 317 
Koepsell, Charles J., 129 
Korn, I.. L., 217 
Kramer, LeRov, 1258 
Krausch, Walter T., 522 
Krick, C. S.. 71 
Kruger, C. J.. 1624 
Kuhns. John C, 173 
Kummer, George H., 358 
Kurtz, Ira F., 777 
Kyes, L. J., 217 
Kyle, E. D.. 72 

Labhart, W. T.. 259 

La Comb, A. N., 820 

Ladd, W. R.. 778 

Laden, Patrick, 1073 

Laing, O. M.. 33 

Laizure, L. K., 73 

Lally, W. A., 522 

L.amb, E. T., 316 

Lambert, R. N., 937 

Lamport, W. I., 403 

Landers, C. C, 777 

Landis, J. S., 217 

Landry, T. S., 258 

Langford, E. J., 1625 

Langston, R. M., 259 

Langton, George, 449, 698 

Lankey, V. W.. 777 

Lantz, F. G., 1024 

Large, J. B., 1075 

Lazier, F. P., 72 

Lathrop, W. A., 1072 

Laudie, Lucius, 71 

Lauer. E. R., 259, 357 

Law, F, H.. 259 

Lawler, F. M., 35 

Lawler, Lawrence L., 978 

Lawrence, R. E., 73 

Lay, R. E., 1217, 1362 

Leach, N. M., 71, 72, 258 

Leavette, Frank, 778 

Lee, F., 821, 868, 1178 

Lee, P. O., 72 

Leech, Charles C, 217 

Leis, E. R,. 1586 

Lennox, R, A., 259 

Lettice, J. C. 1178 

Leverich, C. E., 217 

Lewis, C. C, 404 

Lewis, E. R., 1623 

Lewis, H. R., 936 

Lewis, W. C. 1362 

Leyden, W. T., 173 

L'llommedieu. R. H., 1134 

Lifsey. W. \"., 171 

IJghtner, A. D., 316, 357 

Lilley, E. C, 357, 403 

Lincoln, C, 404 

Lincoln, J. C, 936 

Lind, Earle. 777, 936 

Lindman, S., 217 

Linsley, W. B., 820 

Linton, J. V., 1361 

Little, G. G., 778 

Lloyd, Stacy B., 1072 

Logan, R., 259 

Logan, W. S.. 72 

Long, P. E., 71 

Long. S. S., 822 

Longbotham, C. J., 72 

Loree, W. C, 977 

Lorraine, H. K., 259 

Lorton, J. G.. 127 

Lovett. W. R., 404 

Low, C. M., 867 

Lowe. J. G., 820 _ 

Lowell, George K.. 1177 

Low-master, A. T., 522 

Lucas, M. E.. 1361 

Lucas, R. G., 819 

Lucey, J. A., 34 

Lucia, L. G., 358 

Luff, L. K., 1258, 1360 

Lum, D. W., 217, 318 

Lund, T. D.. 1217 

Luscombe. T. T.. 405, 449, 450 

Lutz, S. G., 34 

Luvstcr. II. v., 820 

Lynch, M. J., 522 

Lynch, W. R., 217 

McAdoo. John H., 1178 
MacBride, F. A., 1178 
McBride, J. P., 1362 
McBrien. J. H., 1024 
McCahan, T. C, 1023 
McCandless, R. A., 217 
McCann, T. W., 404, 522 
McCarthy," W. A., 405 
McCarty, E. E., 1177 
McCarty, O. H.. 127 
McCaskey, George W., 317 
McCauIl, W. S., 33, 126 
McClellan, G. B., 127 
McClellan, H. B.. 936 
McClure, L. E., 216 
McCombs, O. A., 358 
McCormick, F. A.. 1624 
McCormick, George 34 
McCoy, Daniel P., 1624 
McCrea, E. F., 358 
McCullough, T. C, 33 
McCurdy. R. H., 778 
McDonald. Donald, 448, 777 

McDonald, J. A., 358 
McDonald. Jesse, 976 
McDoncugh, Joseph, 171 
McEwen, Horace, 1072 
McFadden, P. H.. 358 
Mcl'adzen, W. W., 697, 1177 
McFatridge, A., 1363 
McCaughey, Samuel, 821 
McGee, L. P., 1259 
McGie, J., 216, 217 
McGraw. John, 1074 
McHattie, T., 821, 978 
McHugh, C. T., 819, 867 
Mcllhon, C. W.. 1023 
Mclntire, L. H., 1178 
Mcintosh, Stuart IL, 316, 357 
Mclntyre, Philip E., 404 
McKav, R. H.. 129 
McKay, R. J., 34 
Mackenzie, A. C, 522 
McKeown, W. C, 258 
MacKie. J. S., 316 
McKinnon, J. H.. 1362 
Mackrell, Theodore, 1177 
McLaughlin. C. E., 522 
McLaughlin, H. L., 522 
McLean, T. E., 448 
McLeod, Sanford F., 318 
McMahon, J. F., 1586 
McManus, C. B., Jr., 358 
McManus, P. L., 819, 867 
McMillan, R. J., 129 
McPherson, Thomas, 1075 
McQuaid, Peter, 1362 
Macrae, J. M., 777 
McWilliams, J. A., 1178, 1586 
Magan, F. T., 777, 978 
Magard, II. C. 171 
Maher, Edward .*\., 126 
Mahoney, Frank P., 317 
Maine. N, M., 1586 
Malcolmson, H. T., 819 
Malone, C. I., 72, 171 
Maney, James, 72 
Manley, Mathias, 316 
Mann, A. C, 173 
Mann, E. C. 357 
Mann, L. H., 317 
Mann, N. E., 1217 
Manthe, C. A., 697 
Marble, F. B., 1625 
Marlow, W, T., 404 
Mars, Addison H., 403 
Marsales, B. R., 522 
Marsh, Henry, 405 
Martin, F. M., 404 
Martin, J. M., 1624 
Martin, James R., 449 
Martin, S. K., 1624 
Martin, T. B., 821 
Martyn, D. H., 404 
Mason, C. T., 317 
Mason, W. G., 316 
Masteller, M. L., 1361 
Mather, W. A., 522, 778 
Matters, R., 258 
Maver, J. M., 978 
Maxwell, G. C, 936 
Meehan, J. W., 1073 
Meeks, M. S., 777 
Meglemry. J. H., 172 
Meinhardt, F., 522 
Melcher, F. C, 216, 257 
Mell, C. G., 820 
Mellen, Tohn, 1024 
Merchant, W. S., 1135 
Merrick, .X. R., 1361 
Merrilies, C. W.. 449 
Merritt, F. L., 449 
Merriwether, H. R., 217 
Meyer, F. W., 357 
Michaelson, T. A., 404 
Miles, Lovick P., 1134, 1258 
Miller, A. E., 33 
Miller, F. A., 867 
Miller, Fred A., 1585 
Miller, F. B., 935 
Miller, G. P., 217 
Miller, Lloyd C, 1178. 1211 
Miller, R. D.. 1024 
Miller, W. M., 1177 
Miller, W. R., 217, 867 
Mills, Tohn A., 404 
Mills, kobert E., 522, 1216 
Minnick, F. G., 1134 
Minor, C. K., 34 
Miranda. A., 867, 936 
Mirtz, Phillip P., 778 
Mitchell, E. F., 1259 
Mitchell, F. B., 448, 819, 1024 
Mitchell, T. IL. 821 
Mitchener, R. W.. 1361 
Moeller, II. F., 697, 777 
Monroe, W. 0., 358 
Montgomery, T. B.. 404 
Mooney, T. H., 448 
Mooney, W. D., 217 
Moore, Edward S., 976 
Moore, G. B., 1585 
Moore, J. L., 1073 
Moore, L. P., 936 
Moore, Ralph P., 318 
Moore, W. H., 976 
More, A. S., 821 
Morgan, C. H., 778 
Morgan, E. C, 358. •^OS 
Morgan, F. A., 125S 



[January 1— June 30, 1912. 


Morgan, J. L^ 777 
Morgan, W. D., 171 
Moritz, A., 357 
Morley, W. D., 1362 
Morrill, A. S., 1178 
Morris, A. R., 867 
Morris, C. I)., 1586 
Morris, D. R., 1625 
Morris, E., 1361 
Morrison, James, 1362 
Morrison, J. C, 1259 
Morrison, J. I., 357 
Morrison, Philip, 1259 
Morrison, \V. W., 316 
Morriss, A. T., 1362 
Morrow, S. W., 820 
Morse, C. P., 1024 
Morse, William E., 820 
Morsman, Edgar M., Jr., 522 
Morton, B. R.. 172 
Morton, Howard M., 171 
Morton, W. H., 1362 
Motley, Hubert C, 449 
Mowat, G. T., 935 
Mozier, W. R., 819, 866 
Mudd, J. T., 317 
Mudge, H. U., 976 
Muff, W. F., 937 
Mulhern, J. W., 1361 
Mullinix, S. W., 821 
Mundee, W. F., 72 
Munyan, C. B., 217 
Murphy, A. H., 1074 
Murphy, D. E., 867 
Murphy, D. T., Jr., 258 
Murphy, F. K., 35 
Murphy, G. W., 258 
Murphy, M. J., 1258 
Murphy, W. J. (D. E.), 819 
Murray, Michael, 977 
Murray, T. S., 1362 
Muse, W. A.. 259 
Myers, W. Heyward, 1072 

Nash, E. E., 820 

Nash, W. A., 71 

Neafus, J. M., 34 

Neff, H. J., 404, 1135 

Neff, T. R., 522 

Neff, Nettleton, 33 

Neil, E. A., 259 

Nelms, W. H. L., 1586 

Nelson, F. A., 217 

Nelson, W. D., 936 

Nessle, J. B., 1074 

Nethercot, S. G., 72 

Nettleton, \V. A., 73 

New, Harry J., 449 

Newlean, J. W., 357, 403, 448 

Newlin, L. K., 777 

Newton, L. F., 1023 

Newton, O. L., 1074 

Nichols, C. L., 977 

Nicholson, F. L., 318 

Nicoles. K. M., 1361 

Niles, E. O., 778 

Nokely, John W., 1258, 1360 

Nolan, Michael, 1023 

Norton, J. M., 405 

Nuelle, J. H., 35 

Nugent, Francis, 450 

Nutt, Henry C, 936, 977 

Oakley, C. B., 317 
Oborne, James, 216, 1134 
O'Brien, E. J., 867 
O'Brien, Franklin A., 1259 
O'Brien, P. J., 977 
O'Brien, W. J., 776 
O'Connell, D., 821 
O'Connor, W. G., 259 
O'Donnell, Thomas, 1023 
Ogden, George D., 1075 
O'Hayer, E. J., 171 
Oler, B. F., 73 
Olhausen, J. T.. 1073 
Oliver, E. R., 1586 
O'Neill, J. J., 777 
Orr, J. \V., 217 
Orrock. J. W.. 698 
Osborne, N. C, 1624 
Osborne, William, 71 
Osgard, B, E. (Nels), 522 
Osgard, Nels. 937 
Otis, R. R., 404 
O'Toole, D., 217 
Overbay. W. P., 172, 358 
Owen, C. M., 1024 
Owen, Harry C., 1134 
Owen, W. F., 126, 257 
Owens, R. W., 1217 

Paetzold, F. L., 216 

Page, Henry A., 404 

Palmer, T. A., 259, 1625 

Parker, A. M., 71 

Parker, Clarence F., 171, 173, 866 

Parker, F. A., 1216 

Parker, G. H., 776 

Parker, W. C, 448 

Parrish, E. J., 1585 

Parsley, O. G., 1623 

Parsons, J. G., 1178 

Partridge, E. E., 259 

Passmore, H. E., 405 

Paterson, R. P., 129 

Patriarche, A,, 522 

Patterson, J. C., 404 

Patterson, James S., 34 

Patterson, S. M., 449 

Patton, Charles, 404 

Paul, John, 259 

Payne, I. O., 777 

Pearce, R. A., 820 

Pearman, J. H., 821 

Peck, W. L,, 777 

Pedrick, William, Jr., 171 

Pelley, John J., 1073 

Pendell, F. D., 820. 935 

Pendleton, Charles M., 820 

Penick, W. M.. 217. 2iJ 

Penn, P. O., 776, 867 

Pepper, J. H., 317 

Ferine, D. M., 217, 260 

Perkins, E. D., 697 

Perkins, H. J., 1178 

Ferris, F. T., 1178 

Perry, G. A., 405 

Perry, G. R., 867 

Peters, F. W., 1134 

Peters, Paul, 1360 

Petersen, W. H., 778 

Petterson, T. J., 522 

Pettibone, C. A., 73 

Pettus, Fuller & Lapsley, 126 

Peyton, J. H., 778 

Phelps, M. L., 935, 977 

Philbin, D. M., 522 

Phillips, H. C, 821 

Phillips, W., 1259 

Phillips, W. F., 777 

Phoenix, C. R., 259 

Piatt, J. W., 72 

Pickering, J. R., 1258 

Pierson, J. H., 1074 

Pinaire, K. M., 405 

Pinson, F. B., 821 

Plaisted. F. H., 129, 217 

Plant, W. C, 72 

Plotnick, Mark, 1259 

Plumly, C. A., 448 

Plumly, G. W., 522 

Plunkett, Oscar, 1624 

Pollock, A. B., 450 

Pontius, John, 449 

Poole, G. C, 1586 

Pope, George H.. 71 

Pope, O. C, 821 

Poronto, H. F., 776 

Porter, E. L., 317 

Porter, George \\'., 403 

Porter, R. L., 1258 

Porterfield, John F., 1073, 1135 

Post, E. K., 73, 450 

Potton, J., 129 

Power, C. W., 405 

Powers, C. S., 1177 

Prat, H. A., 257 

Pratt, C. B., 216 

Prendergast, A. P., 1075 

Price, W. N., 777. 936 

Prichett. Edward, 1177 

Prince, C. R., 936, 978 

Probst, E. A., 1075 

Proctor, A. E., 259 

Pruitt, C. P., 936, 1024 

Pryor, Thomas B., 1258 

Pullinger, J. G., 72 

Purcell, John, 1072, 1135, 1136 

Purtell, John D., 1624 

Putnam, L. J., 822, 978 

Pyeatt, J. S., 126, 127, 1585 

QuiUian, W. C, 1586 

euinlan, J. J.. 976 
uinn, D., 978 
Quinn, T. B., 1023 

Racey, S. L., 71 
Radley, H. P., 259 
Rainey, P. A., 73 
Rains, G. S., 72 
Rains, L. C, 34 
Ramsdell, A. B., 216 
Ramsey, C. W. P., 698, 821 
Ramsev, Jjaseph, 1360 
Randall, P. L., 404 
Randolph, V. C, 821, 978 
Ransom, T. T., 404 
Rapelj'e, J. M., 977 
Raquet, E. H., 1259 
Ratcliff, T, G., 72 
Rawlins, R. B.. 72 
Ray, D. L., 317 
Rav, Hal S., 1586 
Raymond, L. H., 1178 
Rea, Samuel, 1072 
Reddig, H. F., 1361 
Redfield, J. A. S., 822 
Redmond, J. T.. 34 
Reed, C. F., 449 
Reed, H. L.. 216 
Reed, N. H., 522 
Reed, S. G., 129 
Reed, W. S., 1258 
Reese, A. W.. 936 
Reeves, C. M., 1362 

Reeves, R. D., 259 

Regan, E. E., 171 

Reid, D. G., 976 

Reid, George T., 1216 

Reiner, A. F,, 820 

Rennie, F. T., 217 

Rettinghouse, H., 820, 822, 936 

Reuss, Dr. J. H., 1178 

Reynolds, C. C, 33 

Reynolds, E. B., 72 

Reynolds, H. J., 171 

Reynolds, M. M., 1193, 1216, 1623 

Reynolds, R. F., 259 

Rhett, W. M., 404 

Rhodes, Thomas D., 1177 

Ribe, A. J., 1217 

Rice, M. D., 71 

Rice, Robert. 33 

Richardson, R. W., 822 

Richardson, S., 259 

Ricker, F. H., 126 

Ricks, F. T., 403 

Riddle, E. C, 697 

Ridgway, A. C., 216, 257, 316 

Rightmeyer, John H., 977 

Riley, C. C, 1023, 1073 

Riley, Lewis A., 1072 

Rine, E. M., 33, 128 

Ripley, C. C, 216 

Ripley, F. C, 1178 

Rippin, Charles, 405 

Rison, Jr., J. R., 1073 

Ritchie, J. A., 1362 

Ritchie, Robert R., 1024 

Robb, F. M., 450 

Roberts, F. G., 72 

Robertson, E., 450 

Robertson, J., 1259 

Robertson, James, 72 

Robinson, F. W., 1135 

Robinson, W. L., 1075 

Robson, Grover C., 821 

Rock, E. B., Jr., 259 

Rockwell, F. R., 522 

Rodgers, C. B., 127, 1072 

Rodman, W. B.. 316 

Rogers, S. L., 317 

Rogers, William, 1178 

Rogers, W. G., 1024 

Rose, C. A., 1624 

Rose, W. G., 1259 

Ross, A., 171, 216, 258, 317 

Ross, D. C, 821 

Ross, R. J., 72 

Ross, W. L., 34 

Ross, W. M., 1361 

Roth, H. J., 258 

Roth, J. C., 777 

Rowland, W. I., 1075 

Roxbury, E. C, 820 

Roy, R. O., 1024, 1134 

Royster, J. G., 171 

Rudd, W., 403 

Ruden, C. O., 404 

Rudolph, G. H., 405 

Rufer, S. J.. 405, 522 

Ruffer, A., 403 

Ruffer, Augustus E., 1177 

Rumney, T., 73 

Runnion, N. M., 316 

Runyon, H. M., 34 

Rupert, C. L., 216 

Rusch. Frank, 1586 

Russell. T. N., 172 

Rust, G. P., 1360 

Ruth, William West, 449 

Ryan, C. B., 72 

Ryder, E. A., 450 

St. John, R. C, 821, 1024 
Bailee, D., 867. 1072 
Sanders, M. M.. 1362 
Sanders, O., 1074 
Sands, George L.. 976 
Sargent, George W., 217 
Sargent, Harry B., 171 
Sarrels, A. L., 317 
Satterlee, C. E., 1623 
Saunders, George K., 1585 
Saunders, W. C. 34 
Savles. Charles T., 936 
Scandrett. H. A.. 1134, 1174 
Schaff, Chades E.. 776, 819 
Schatzle, X. J., 1624 
Schlacks, C. H., 935 
Schlafge, William, 73, 172 
Schmidt, C. F., 34 
Schoeffel, George J.. 403 
Schultz, F. W.. 217 
Schwarzell, R. R., 522 
Scott, Guy, 317, 358 
Scott, W. B., 126 
Scott, W. D., 216 
Scudder, O. F., 34 
Scully, J. T., 977. 1023 
Seaman, G., 1259 
Searles, E. J.. 260 
Sedam, W. H., 867 
Seibert, T. M., 71 
Sellers, j. M.. 1585. 
Senger, J. W., 129, 217 
Sesser, John. 358 
Sexton, J. E.. 1177 
Shannon,' J. R., 34 

Shannon, W. C, 1179, 1217 
Sharp, G. A., 1072 
Sharp, W. E., 129 
Sharritts, V. B., 259 
Shasteen, C. H., 821 
Shaw, T. M., 1217 
Shawhan, C. S., 1586 
Shea, F. L., 1024 
Sheahan, J. F., 216 
Sheedy, J. A., 259 
Sheffer, C. W., 450 
Shelby, C. K., 172 
Sheldon, W. R., 34 
Shepard, Finley J., 216 
Shepard, H. H., 777 
Shepherd, L. B., 820 
Sheppard, F. L.. 216 
Sheppard, J. B., 259 
Sheridan, W. J., 777, 820 
Shewe, E. A., 1178 
Shillinger, J. G., 698, 821 
Shire, S. H., 171 
Shiriey, W. E.. 126 
Shone, B. F., 1178 
Shonts, T. P., 1623 
Shriver, George M., 935 
Shropshire, W. A., 317 
Silverman, Mortimer, 259 
Simmons, Mark E., 777 
Sims, D. J., 1362 
Sinclair, R., 1259 
Sipe, C. D., 819 
Sisson, E. F., 449 
Sisson, F. P., 698 
Skeele, R. M.. 258 
Skidmore, T. J., 72 
Slagle, H. A., 358 
Slattery, J. T., 697, 978 
Slaven, R. E., 1360 
Sleight, F. S., 259, 317 
Small, J. A., 522 
Small, J. W., 33, 35 
Smalley, J. B., 1134 
Smiley, E. S.. 1178 
Smith, Abram E., 821 
Smith, A. H., 819, 866 
Smith, Clement C, 316 
Smith, C. L., 34 
Smith, D. C, 1259 
Smith, E. C, 1024 
Smith, E. H., 857 
Smith, F. G., 697 
Smith, George A., 1362 
Smith, G. C, 357 
Smith, G. E., 822 
Smith, II. F., 522 
Smith, H. H., 171, 259 
Smith, H. S., 1023 
Smith, J. C, 1586 
Smith, J. W., 1134 
Smith, Marshall B., 1623 
Smith, M. F., 1259 
Smith, M. H.. 126 
Smith, P. F., Ir., 35 
Smith, Pearl F., 868 
Smith, P. W. J., 171 
Smith, R. B., 126, 216 
Smith, R. F.. 1362 
Smith, Walter A., 404, 1217 
Smith, W. E., 778 
Smith, W. R., 1259, 1362 
Snell, E. M., 317 
Snell, W. H., 404 
Snow, George P., 216 
Snyder, Webster, 822* 

Snyder, W. P., 1179 
Somers, G. C, 1074, 1217 
Sommers, T. M., 820 
Sommerville, D. L., 1134 
Southworth, R. J., 217 
Spahr, J. W., 935 
Spangler, N. W., 1073 
Spangler, W. N., 73 
Sparks, J. B., 522 
Spencer, E. H., 34 
Spencer, George, 1586 
Spencer, H. B., 867 
Spencer, William C, 449 
Spining, I. P., 129, 172 
Spoor, J. A.. 776 
Sprott, William A., 777 
Squire, H. H., 172, 1362 
Stafford, E. W., 1362, 1586 
Stairs, R. L., 1624 
Stall, Roy A.. 171 
Stanberry, J. G., 867 
Stapleton, Frank J., 937 
Starbuck, R. D., 1625 
Stebbins, A. A.. 1216 
Steele, Henrj-, 317 
Steers, W. C, 1259 
Steinhoff, H. W., 1586 
Stemm, J. R., 867 
Stemmons, S. A., 1624 
Stephens, J. R., 1259, 1362 
Sterling, Ernest A., 358 
Stevens, A. E., 1134 
Stevens, John J., 449 
Stevens, R. L., 216 
Stevenson, B. C., 34 
Stevenson, W. F., 404 
Stewart, A. H., 34 
Stewart, C. R., 1023 

January 1— June 30, 1912.] 



Stewart, F., 776 
Stewart, G. K., 522, 698 
Stewart, J. B,, 358, 404 
Stimson, W. B., 1259 
Stine, W. I., 1258 
Stinson, J. H., 821 
Stockwell, C. D., 777 
Stohr, P. C. 1135 
Stone, H. M., 449 
Storr. J. N., 72 
Storrs, L. S.. 1360 
Story, S. A.. 73 
Stovall, E. F., 449 
Strachan, W. H., 977, 1023 
Strauss, M. H., 449 
Strickland, Samuel G., 819. 820 
Strickler, C. R^ 72, 128 
Strong, Alan H., 1072 
Stubbs, John C, 14 
Stubbs, W. D.. 73 
Styers. J. V.. 72 
Sullivan, A. W., 33, 257 
Sullivan, Charles, 978 
Sullivan, C. A.. 1362 
Sullivan, D. E., 1074 
Sullivan, Edward S.. 821 
Sullivan, M. J., 33 
Sullivan, W. R.. 71 
Sutherland, F. P., 1586 
Swain, W. E.. 317 
Swayze, H. D., 1178 
Switzer, E. M., 72 
Syme, Andrew, 1586 

Tait, John A., 1362 
Talbot, Percy, 820 
Talmage. J. C, 697 
Tansley, William, 1023, 1135 
Tapp, George F., 217 
Tarrant, E. C, 522 
Tate, D'Arcy, 819 
Tatnall, Henry, 1072 
Taylor, C. C, 259 
Taylor, Clarence D., 1177 
Taylor, C. M., 821 
Taylor, Frank, 698, 821 
Taylor, F. W., 937 
Taylor, Howard D., 73 
Taylor, J. G., 977, 1023 
Taylor, J. H., 522 
Taylor, O. H., 34 
Telfer, R. V., 697 
Templeton, J. N., 405 
Terrell, Roy, 522 
Terry, J. L., 1624 
Thayer, J. B., 1072 
Thayer, J. E., 777, 1586 
Thaver, Otis, 778 
Thayer, Walter, 1075 
Thomas, C. E., 868 
Thomas, Charles E.. Jr., 1217 
Thomas, Edward, 522, 778 
Thomas, F. W., 1178 
Thomas, G. N., 72 
Thomas, George W., 778, 820 
•Thomas, J. W., 317 
Thomas, M. E., 822 
Thomas, O. C, 171 
Thompson, Albert, 34 

Thompson, A. W„ 935, 977 
Thompson, C. S., 259 
Thompson, F. H., 1178, 1362 
Thompson, H. G., 34 
Thompson, W. S., 259 
Thomson, G. L. A,, 34 
Thomson, R. B., 776 
Thomson, Samuel G., 73, 1362, 1586 
Thorn, J. O.. 129 
Thorpe, John, 821 
Tierney, J. E., 1362 
Tiley, William G., 258 
Tinsman, W. S., 216, 257 
Tippin, J. J., 1072 
Tipton, C. L., 72 
Tobin, Garland, 217 
Todd, Beniamin H., 449 
Todd, G. C., 1361, 1585 
Todd, M. J., 404 
Tollerton. W. J., 821 
Tombs, Guy, 1362 
Tomlinson, Charles W., 1074 
Towne, Walter J., 820, 822 
Townsend, Oscar, 1217 
Traber, Herman L., 777, 820 
Trapp, W. G., 259, 317 
Traynor, Andrew, 34 
Trelford, W. R., 778 
Trimble, W. W., 34 
Trout, John F., 1585 
Truesdale, F. P., 1075 
Trumbull, A. G., 73 
Trumbull, Frank, 277 
Trump, William D., 448, 522 
Tucker, E. C, 404 
Tucker, W. D., 216 
Turlington, O. C, 1024 
Turnbull, R. J., 34 
Turner, C. D., 1024 
Turner, E. Horton, 448 
Turner, J. J., 1360 
Turner, J. M., 403, 522 
Turner, R. A., 777 
Turpin, C. J., 1586 
Turrentine, T. J., 821 

Tustin, J. S., 819 
Tyler, J. M., 1624 

Valentine, C. W., 403 

Van Auken, A. M., 73 

Van Auken, S., Jr., 317 

Vanderbilt, W. K., Jr., 448 

Vanderblue, F. J., 1178 

Vaughn, C. L., 777, 819, 820, 822 

Veitch, C. W., 1623 

Verlander, C. F., 1624 

Vickers, T. M., 522, 868 

Vigor, C. F., 34, 867 

Vilas, George B., 820, 867 

Vivian, E. H.. 1178 

Volkman, Sheldon, 1024 

Voltz, C. L., 259 

Von Dom, A. O., 777 

Voorhees, H. B., 1023, 1073 

Waddell, J. T., 697 
Wade, A. J., 1362 
Wagner, A. S., 172 

Wainwright, William, 976, 1193, 

1216, 1623 
Waldo, Gentry, 129 
Waldron, A. B., 317 
Walker, A. E., 216, 217 
Walker, J. K,, 778 
Walker, J. L., 404 
Walker, P. O., 1178 
Walker, Roberts, 976 
Wallace, B. H., 72 
Wallace, H. U., 126 
Wallace, J. C, 976 
Wallace, W. L., 1074 
Wallis, J. T., 129 
Walmsley, A. B., 73, 1362 
Walsbrough, James, 1023 
Walsh, James F., 1587, 1625 
Walsh, J. J.. 35 
Walton, P. G., 819, 1585 
Walton, T. S., 819 
Wanamaker, H., 1178 
Wanklyn, F. L., 448 
Ward, T. W., 1216 
Wardwell, H. F., 317 
Warfield, Frank, 259 
Warner, Glenn, 1362 
Warner, W. P., 259 
Warren, Benjamin S., 1177 
Warren, C. F., 1586 
Waterhous, Joseph, 937 
Waterhouse, Frank, 216 
Waterman, C. A., 217 
Waters, Dudley E., 866 
Watkins, H. M., 71 
Watson, H. W., 72 
Watson, J. H., 522, 778 
Watson, Stanley H., 777 
Wayman, W. A., 259 
Wayne, C. D., 259 
Ways, Robert B., 449 
Wear, F., 1177 
Weaver, G. C, 1360 
Weaver, G. M., 1178, 1362 
Weaver, L. A., 259 
Webb, Charles H., 259, 317 
Webb, E. R., 1217 
Webb, T. D., 317 
Webb. W. A., 1216, 1624 
Webber, F. H.. 936. 978 
Wegener, F. H., 73 
Weisbrod. P. F., 1259 
Welch, James R.. 777 
Welch, W. C, 33 
Wells, E. C. 126 
Wells, R. E., 936 
Wells, W. J., 358 
Welsh. H. B., 450. 1178 
Wemple, F. L.. 777, 867 
Werlich, C. A., 34 
Werne, J. A., 405 
Wescott, C. R., 1259 
West, George F., 1024 
Whaley, C. L., 72 
Whaley, George P., 937 
Wheeler, E. J., 449 
Whelan, Ernest R.. 172, 217 
Whitaker, E. L., 259 
Whitcomb, H. F., 316 
White, C. S., 449 

White, Fred J., 318 

White, I. F., 698 

White, P. T., 1216 

Whitenton. W. M., 216, 777, 1624 

Whiting, H. R.. 1362 

Whitmore, W. E., 1624 

Whitridge, Frederick W., 126 

Whittlesey, Charles A., 171 

Wickham, P. J., 34 

Wight, Fred, 697, 777 

Wilder, C. R. L., 936 

Wilhelm. T. H., 449, 522 

Wilkinson, A. E.. 1178 

Williams, A., 867 

Williams, D. A., 1363 

Williams, Henry A., 403 

Williams, H. C, 778 

Williams. J. E.. 34, 129 

Williams, N. A., 697 ; 

Williams. R. B., 257 

Willsie, A. N., 1259 

Wilson, E. A., 358 

Wilson, E. L., 697 

Wilson, F. D., 1178 

Wilson, G. N., 357 

Wilson, G. W., 819 

Wilson, R. M., 172 

Winchell, B. L., 126 

Windle. T.. 405 

Windsor, G. H., 448 

Windsor. John E.. 171 

Winnfield, W. H., 72, 129 

Winslow, E. D., 448 

Wixon, Ray, 978 

Wolf, M., 405 

Wolfenden, W. E.. 777, 937 

Wolterstorff, F. W., 1135 

Womble, W. G., 404 

Wood, E. B., 522 

Wood, F. L., 404 

Wood. George. 404 

Wood. J. C, 404 

Wood. W. B., 33 

Woodruff. Robert E., 1177 

Woods, George, 35 

Woods, H. A., 405 

Woodul, C. B.. 1362 

Wooldridge. N. C. 778 

Word. George L.. 1624 

Worthington. B. A., 1607. 1623 

Worthington, William Alfred, 126 

Wright, Bayard, 34 

Wright, E. J., 1073 

Wright. R. C. 1074. 1075 

Wulff, J. R. L.. 1075, 1178 

Wyatt. W. R., 1586 

Yeaton. H. T., 1178. 1362 
Yeomans. G. G.. 403 
Yerkes. S. G^ 698 
Yoakum, C. 0., 316 
Young, F. A,, 1362 
Young, F. J., 404 
Young, T. H.. 1072, 1177 
Young. \Valter C, 217 
Yutz. H. C, 34 

Zeigler, E. H„ 403 
ZerBee, F. J.. 450 


Alabama Lumber & Export Co. v. Louisville & 

Nashville et al., 813 
Albree, George, v. Boston & Maine, 356 
Alpha Portland Cement Co. v. Baltimore & Ohio 

et al., 402 
Arlington Heights Fruit Exchange et al. v. 

Southern Pacific et al., 31 
Ashgrove Lime & Portland Cement Co. et al. v. 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe et al., 1621 
Association of Bituminous Coal Operators of 

Central Pennsylvania v. Pennsylvania 

Railroad, 1132 
Atlantic Refining Co. v. Baltimore & Ohio et 

al., 1214 

Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern and Norfolk & 
Western v. U. S. and Cincinnati & Colum- 
bus Traction. I. C. C. intervener. 865 

Baltimore Chamber of Commerce v. Baltimore 
& Ohio et al., 816 

Beaumont & Great Northern v. Atchison, Topeka 
& Santa Fe et al.. 1621 

Bewsher Co. v. ITnion Pacific. 30 

Black. R R.. v. Great Northern. 1214 

Blodgett Milling Co. v. Chicago, Milwaukee & 
St. Paul et al., 1214 

Bluefield Shippers' Association v. Norfolk & 
Western et al.. 443 

Board of Railway Commissioners of Kansas v. 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, 443 

Boileau. John W., et al. v. Pittsburgh & Lake 
Erie. 1621 

Brooklyn Cooperage Co. v. Illinois Central. 356 

Brook-Ra-jch Mill & Elevator Co. v. St. Louis. 
Iron Mountain & Southern et al., 168 

Brunswick-Balke-CoUender Company v. Atchi- 
son, Topeka & Santa Fe et al., 1175 

Businessmen's League of Alberta Lea, Minn., v. 
Baltimore & Ohio, et al.. 1621 

[See also General Index.] 

Byrnes, Edward, trustee for H. Woods Co.. 

bankrupt, v. Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 

et al., 813 
Byrnes, Edward, trustee for H. Woods Co., 

bankrupt, v. Atlantic Coast Line et al., 


Carstens Packing Co. v. Southern Pacific et al., 

Casey-Hedges Co., v. Alabama Great Southern 

et al., 974 
Central Commercial Co. v. Gulf & Ship Island 

et al., 1256 
Chamber of Commerce of Ashburn, Ga., et al v. 

Georgia Southern & Florida et al., 975 
Chamber of Commerce of City of Augusta v. 

Southern Railway et al.. 168 
Chamber of Commerce of Houston, Tex., et al. 

V Galveston, Harrisburg & San Antonio 

et al., 974 
Chamber of Commerce of Newport News, Va., 

V. Southern Railway et al., 1132 
Chamber of Commerce of the State of New 

York et al. v. New York Central & Hud- 
son River et al., 1583 
Chattanooga Feed Co. v. Alabama Great South- 
ern. 399 
Chicago, Wilmington & Vermillion Coal Co. v. 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy et al., 775 
Citizens of Somerset, Md., Drummond and 

Friendship Heights v. Washington Railway 

& Electric Co. et al., 124 
City of Spokane et al. v. Northern Pacific et al., 

Clyde Coal Co. v. Pennsylvania Company et al., 

Cohen, Michael & Co. v. Mallory Steamship Co. 

et al.. 1066 
Colonial Salt Co. et al. v. Michigan, Indiana & 

Illinois Line et al., 1066 

Colorado Coal Traffic Association v. Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe et al.j 168 

Colorado Coal Transportation Association v. 
Denver & Rio Grande et al., 1175 

Continental Iron & Steel Co. v. Louisville & 
Nashville, 215 

Corporation Commission of Oklahoma v. Abilene 
& Southern et al., 1355 

Corporation Commission of Oklahoma v. Atchi- 
son, Topeka & Santa Fe et al., 1257 

Cosby, W. G., V. Richmond Transfer Co. et al., 

Crescent Coal & Mining Co. v. Baltimore & Ohio, 

Crescent Coal & Mining Co. v. Chicago & East- 
ern Illinois. 1621 

Curtis Bros. & Co. v. Southern Pacific et al., 

Davis Sewing Machine Co. v. Pittsburgh, Cin- 
cinnati. Chicago & St. Louis, 215 

De Camp Brothers & Yule Iron. Coal & Coke Co. 
v. Virginia & Southwestern et al., 168 

Denver & Rio Grande v. I. C. C, U. S. inter- 
vening. 866 

Du Pre, E. M., Co. et al. v. Buffalo, Rochester 
& Pittsburgh et al., 974 

Edison Portland Cement Co. v. Delaware, Lack- 
awanna & Western et al., 399 

Eldorado Oil Mills & Fertilizer Co. v. Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific, 215 

Electric Malting Co. v. Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe et al., 1066 

Elmore-Benjamine Coal Co. v. Cleveland, Cin- 
cinnati, Chicago & St. Louis et al., 399 

Erapson Packing Co. v. Colorado Midland et al., 

Escanaba Business Men's Association et al. v. 
Ann Arbor et al., 1583 


[January 1— June 30. 1912. 


Fairmouiit Crcnmerv Co. v. Chicago, Burlington 

& Quincv. 168 , ,,,- 

Fels & Co. V. Pennsylvania Railroad et al., 1215 

Ferguson, C. E., Saw Mill Co., v. St. Louis, 

Iron Mountain & Southern et al., 974 

Galveston Commercial Association et al. v. Gal- 
veston. Harrisburg &■ San Antonio Rail- 
wav et al., 1355 

Gamble-R'ohinson Commission Co., et al. v. 3t. 
Louis. Iron Mountain & Southern, JO 

Gay Coal & Coke Co. et al. v. Chesapeake St 
Ohio et al., 1215 „ r n <■ 

Georgetown Railway & Light Co., v. Norfolk J( 
Western et al., 30 „ -c . 

Gile H S & Co. et al. v. Southern Pacific et 
ai., 356 , o ^T • 

Gill, J. K.. et al. v. Oregon Railroad & Naviga- 
tion et al., 399 

Grand Junction Chamber of Commerce v. Den- 
ver & Rio Grande Railroad Company et 
al., 1132 

Heath Hardware Co. et al. v. Pennsylvania Rail- 
road et al.. 168 . 
Holland Blow Stave Co. v. Atlantic Coast Line 

el al-. 16-2 „ VT 

Houston P;.cking Co. v. Texas & New Orleans, 

et al.. 399 
Humboldt Refining Co. v. Missouri. Kansas & 

Texas et al.. 356 ,. . ^ , , 

Huntington Lumber Co. v. Illinois Central et 

al., 1355 

Indianapolis Freight Bureau v. Cleveland, Cin- 
cinnati. Chicago & St. Louis et al., on re- 
heanns, and Railroad Commission of In- 
dianariolis v. Wabash Railroad et al.. 9/4 
In ru alisorpticns provided for in tariffs of the 
Louisiana Railway & Navigation Co. for 
the movement of sugar. 816 
In re advances in rates from Chicopee, Mass., to 
New Voik via Chatham, N. Y., and Rens- 
selaer. 1021 
In re alleged unreasonable rates and practices 
in the transportation of livestock, pack- 
inghouse products, and fresh meats from 
various Southwestern points to packing 
houses, and from thence «o various desti- 
nations, 30 
In re application and use of mileage, excursion 
and commutation tickets for through 
transportation in connection with other 
lawfully established rates, 930 
In re application of Southern Pacific for relief 

under the Fourth Section, 1582 
In re import cases, 1582 

In re investigation and suspension of advances 
in rates bv carriers for the transportation 
of flaxseed in carloads from Fort William. 
Port Arthur and Westport. Out., to New 
York. Philadelphia and other points, 1021 
In re investigation and suspension of advances 
in rates by cars for the transportation of 
cotton and cotton linters, 1175 
In re investigation and suspension of certain 
regulations and practices with regard to 
pre-cooling and pre-icing, 974 
In re suspension of advances in class rates, 399 
In re suspension of advances in rates by car- 
riers for transportation of apples in car- 
loads, 1622 
In re suspension of advances in rates by car- 
riers for the transportation of soft coal, 
In re suspension of advances in rates on iron 

and steel articles. 399 
In re suspension of advances in rates on lem- 
ons. C. L.. from California to Colorado, 
Utah. Montana, etc., 775 
In re suspension of advances in rates on pack- 
inghouse products from Wichita, Kan., to 
points in Louisiana, 1257 
In re suspension of advances in rates on pota- 
toes, 816 
In re suspension of advances in rates on single 

packages and small lots, 356 
In re suspension of advances in rates on stock 

cattle and sheep. 773 
In re suspension of an advance in the rate by 

the Delaware & Hudson for milk, 1215 
In re wharfage charges of the Galveston Wharf 

Company. 1215 
International .\gricultural Corporation v. Louis- 
ville & Nashville et al., 401 

Johnson. Edwin D., v. Minneapolis, St. Paul & 

Sault Ste. Marie, 169 
Jouannet, .\lfred, v. Atlantic Coast Line et al., 

Kansas City, Mo., and Kansas City, Kan., v. 
Kansas City Viaduct & Terminal et al., 

Kennedy, M. .\., & Co., v. St. Louis South- 
western et al., 168 

Lamb. McGregor & Co., v. Chicago & North 

Western et al., 401 
Leggett & Piatt Spring Bed & Manufacturing 

Co. V Missouri Pacific et al., 448 
Liberty Mills v. Louisville & Nashville et al.. 930 

[See also General Judex.] 

Lindsay Bros. v. Lake Shore & Michigan South- 
ern et al., 517 
Lord & Bushnell Co. v. Mississippi Central et 

a'-. ^'9 „ : 

Ludowici-Celandon Co. v. Missouri Pacific et al., 


McCloud River Lumber Co. v. Southern Pacific 

et al.. 1621 ^ . .„ „ 

McClung. C. M., & Co. et al. v. Louisville isc 

. Nashville et al., 1214 
McCluno. C. M., & Co. v. Southern Railway. 813 
McLean' Lumber Co. v. Louisville & Nashville 

et al.. 356 
Marian Coal Co. v. Delaware, Lackawanna i< 

Wistern. 1622 
.Maricopa Countv Commercial Club v. Maricopa 

& Phoenix Railroad et al., 169 
Maricopa County Commercial Club v. Phoenix i: 

Eastern et al.. 169 
Maricopa County Commercial Club v. Santa Fe, 

Prescott & Phoenix et al., 169 
Marion Iron & Brass Bed Co. v. Toledo, bt 

Louis & Western et al., 168 
Massee & Fclton Lumber Co. et al. v. Southern 

Railwav et al., 934 
Mattison, Cyrus C, v. Pennsylvania Company, 

Mayor and Council of Boston, Ga., v. .\tlantic 

Coast Line et al., 1622 
Medford Traffic Bureau v. Southern Pacific, 1355 
Meeker, Henry E., v. Lehigh \"alley, 1214 
.Memphis Freight Bureau et al. v. St. Louis, Iron 

Mountain & Southern and St. Louis & 

San Francisco, 816 
Memphis Freight Bureau et al. v. St. Louis 

Southwestern et al.. 517 
Merchants' & Manufacturers' Association _et al. 

V. Pennsvlvania Railroad et al., 1176 
Merchants' and Manufacturers' Association of 

Baltimore et al. v. .\tlantic Coast Line et 

al. 448 . . r 

Merchants' and Manufacturers .Association ot 

Baltimore. Md., v. Atlantic City Railroad 

et al.. 864 , ,, 

Meredith, J. J., Shelby Taylor and Henry B. 

Schreiber, constituting the Railroad Com- 
mission of Louisiana, v. St. Louis South- 

weste-n et al.. 747 . . 

Michigan Hardwood Manufacturers' Association 

V. Transcontinental Freight Bureau et al.. 

Milburn Wagon C. v. Lake Shore & Michigan 

Southern et al., 517 
Minneapolis Traffic Association et al. v. Chicago 

& North Western et al., 1215 
Minneapolis Traffic Association v. Chicago, Bur- 

linston & Quincy et al., 168 
Mobile Chamber of Commerce et al. v. Mobile & 

Ohio et al., 1175 
Mutual Rice Trade & Development Association 

of Houston v. International & Great 

Northern et al., 974 

National Manufacturing Co. v. Atchison, Topeka 

& Santa Fe. 816 
National Mohair Growers' Association v. Atchi- 
son, Topeka & Santa Fe et al.. 930 
National Pole Co. v. Chicago, St. Paul. Minne- 

apolic & Omaha et al., 356 
National Refining Co. v. Missouri, Kansas & 

Texas et al., 1256 
Nebraska State Railway Commission v. Chicago, 

Burlington & Quincy et al., 864 
Neilson A. V., Co., Ltd.. v. Louisiana Railway 

& Navigation Co. et al.. 1020 
New England Coal S: Coke Co. v. Norfolk & 

Western et al., 401 
New Orleans Board of Trade. Ltd., v. Galveston, 

Harrisburg & San .Antonio et al., 974 
New Orleans Board of Trade, Ltd., v. Illinois 

Central et al.. 1215 
New Orleans Board of Trade v. Louisville & 

Nashville. 1214 ^ , j 

New Roads Oil Mill & Manufacturing Co.. Ltd.. 

v. St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern 

et al.. 1621 
Noble, William K., v. Baltimore & Ohio et al., 

Norfclk & Western et al v. U. S., I. C. C. Cor- 
poration Commission of North Carolina, 

Norman Lumber Co. et al. v. Louisville & Nash- 
ville et al., 169 


Omaha Grain Exchange v. Chicago. Milwaukee 
& St. Paul, 1622 

Paducah Cooperage Co. v. Nashville, Chatta- 
nooga & St. Louis, 168 

Perrv, Charles T., & Co. v. Northern Pacific et 
al.. 974 

Pierce, Ceoiee E., v. Pittsburgh & Lake Erie et 
al.. 816 ^ . 

Portsmouth Steel Co. v. Baltimore & Ohio et al., 
1^55 „ ., 

Priesmever. A.. Shoe Co. v. Chicago & Alton et 
al'.. 813 

Public Service Commission of Washington v. 
Northern Pacific et al.. 1021 

Railroad Commission of Nevada v. Southern Pa- 
cific et al. Maricopa County Commercial 
Club V. Santa Fe, Prescott & Phoenix et 
al.. 1176 

Railroad Commission of Oregon v. Oregon Rail- 
road & Navigation Company et al. and 
National Wool Growers' Association v. 
Oregon Short Line Railroad Company et 
al, 933 

Railroad Commission of Nevada v. Nevada-Cal- 
ifornia-Oregon Railway and Sierra Valleys 
Railway, 169 

Ralston I'ownsite Co. et al. v. Missouri Pacific, 

Rates and Practices of the Louisiana Railway 
and Navigation Company. 697 

Red Path-\'awter Chautauqua System v. Atchi- 
son, Topeka & Santa Fe et al.. 30 

Red River Oil Co. et al. v. Texas & Pacific et al.. 

Reno Grocery Co. v. Southern Pacific. 1214 

Reno Wholesale Liquor Store, Inc., v. Southern 
Pacific, 1256 

Republic Metal Ware Co. v. Erie et al., 813 

Richards, E.. v. Atlantic Coast Line, 974 

Sanquinetti, E. F., v. Illinois Central et al. 124 

Santa Rosa Traffic Association v. Southern Pa- 
cific et al., 1622 

Silvester, R. W., et al. v. City & Suburban 
Railway of Washington et al., 168 

Simpson, Frank, Fruit Co. v. Wells Fargo & 
Co., 1214 

Sioux City Terminal Elevator Co. et al. v. Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee S: St. Paul et al., 864 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. v. Lake Shore & Mich- 
igan Southern et al., 1021 

Southern Illinois Millers' .Association v. Louis- 
ville & Nashville et al., 1256 

Standard Oil Co. v. Illinois Terminal Co. et al., 

State of Iowa et al, v. .Atlantic Coast Line et al., 

South -Atlantic Waste Co. v. Southern Railway 
et al., 215 

Stiritz. Paul, v. New Orleans, Mobile & Chicago 
et al.. 813 

Stonega Coke &■ Coal Co. et al. v. Louisville & 
Nashville, 775 

SutTern, William H.. Grain Co. v. Illinois Cen- 
tral e. al., 70 

Sun Companv v. Indianapolis Southern et al.. 

Sunderland Brothers Co. v. Missouri Pacific et 
al., 30 

Sunderland Brothers Co. v. St. Louis & San 
I-'rancisco et al., 1021 

Superior Commercial Club of Superior, Wis., v. 
Great Northern et al. Chamber of Com- 
merce of the City of Milwaukee v. Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee & St. Paul et al. Duluth 
Board of Trade v. Great Northern et al., 

Swift & Co. V. Missouri Pacific et al., 356 

Switzer Lumber Co. v. .Alabama & Mississippi 
Railroad et al., 401 

Texas Seed & Floral Co. v. New York, Chicago 

& St. Louis et al.. 1355 
Thropp. Joseph E., v. Pennsylvania Railroad et 

al., 1215 
Traffic Bureau, Merchants' Exchange of St. Louis 

v. Chicago, Burlington & Quincy et al., 401 
Traffic Bureau of the Sioux City 'Commercial 

Club v. Chicago & North Western et 

al., 30 
Transportation Bureau of Wichita, Kan., v. St. 

Louis & San Francisco et al., 1583 
Traugott Schmidt & Sons v. Michigan Central 

et al.. 1256 

Van Natta Brothers et al. v. Cleveland. Cincin- 
nati, Chicago & St. Louis et al.. 775 

■^'ulcan Iron Works Co. v. .Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe- et al., 399 

Wadell. T. P., Show Case & Cabinet Co. v. 
Michigan Central et al., 30 

Washhurn-Crosbv Milling Co., Inc., v. Southern 
Railway, -iOl 

Wells-Higman Co. v. St. Louis, Iron Mountain 
& Southern et al.. 215 

Wheeler Lumber Bridge & Supply Co. v. bt. 
Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern et al.. 
1256 „ , , ,.. . 

Whiteland Canning Co. v. Pittsburgh, Cincin- 
nati, Chicago & St. Louis et al.. 168 

Whiteland Canning Co. v. Pittsburgh, Cincin- 
nati. Chicago & St. Louis et al., 816 

Wisconsin Pulp Wood Co. v. Great Northern, 816 

Wisconsin State Millers' .Association v. Chicago, 
.Milwaukee & St. Paul et al., 1215 

Wolf. Fred W., Co. v. Mallory Steamship Co. et 
' al.. 1215 

Wood. Alan, Iron & Steel Co. v. Pennsylvania 
Railroad et al., 520 . 

Wood Alan, Iron & Steel Co. v. Pennsylvania 
Railroad et al., 1583 , - , . 

Wood-Mosaic Flooring & Lumber Co. v. Louis- 
ville & Nashville. 399 

January 1— June 30, 1912.] 



Alabama & Northwestern, 132 

Alabama Great Southern, 453 

Alabama Ronds, 221 

Alaska Midland, 940 

Alaska Roads, 1220 

Alberta Central, 1077 

Alberta Pacific, 1139, 1364 

Alberta, Peace River & Eastern, 700 

Alberta Railway & Irrigation Co., 1180 

Albion-Marshfield, 1139 

Algoma Central & Hudson Bay, 1220 

Algoma Eastern, 1220 

Altus, Roswell & El Paso, 221 

-Anderson & Saline River, 320, 1077 

Arizona Eastern, 176 

Arizona Roads, 1139 

Arkansas Roads, 320, 1077 

Arkansas Valley Interurban, 1077 

Artesian Belt, '1262 

Asherton & Gulf, 221 

Astoria Southern, 1626 

Atchison. Topeka S: Santa Fe, 176, 524, 1027, 

1077. 1589 
.\tlanta & Macon (Electric). 940, 1589 
Atlantic & Northeastern, 1139 
Atlantic & Western, 1077, 1139 
Atlantic Coast Line, 76, 320 
Aurora, Mendota & Western, 1077 

Bagoteville & St. Lawrence. 320 

Baltimore & Ohio, 940, 1364 

Bamberg, Ehrhardt & Waterboro. 262 

Bangor & Aroostook, 221 

Barre Granite, 262 

Batesville & Northeastern, 1262 

Bartlesville Interurban, 700 

Bartlett Western, 1077 

Bassano (Electric), 360 

Batesville & Northeastern, 524 

Beaver, Meade & Englewood, 221, 262 

Beaverton & Willsburg, 176 

Beersville Coal & Railway Co., 1364 

Binghamton & CThattanoog.':'., 453 

Binghaniton & Southeastern, 408 

Birmingham & Southeastern, 1262 

Black Mt. Ry., 524 

Boston & Albany, 982. 1077 

Boston & Maine, 1139, 1262, 1364 

Boston Subways, 1139 

British Columbia & Dawson, 700 

British Columbia Electric, 453, 524 

Brownwood North & South, 7S0 

Bruce Mines & Algoma, 262 

Butouche & Western, 1220 

Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh, 524 

Burrard Inlet Tunnel & Bridge Company, 982 

Butte, Anaconda & Pacific, 1139 

Cairo, Trumann & Southern, 320 

California Air Line, 360 

Cambria & CTlearfield, 453 

(Tamino, Placerville & Lake Tahoe, 36 

Campbellford, Lake Ontario & Western, 824, 1077 

Canada & Gulf Terminal, 940 

Canadian Eastern Construction Co., 262 

Canadian Northern, 36. 76, 176, 360, 524, 453, 

700, 824, 982, 1027, 1078, 1626 
Canadian Northern Alberta, 824 
(!^anadian Northern Montreal Tunnel & Terminal 

Company, 700, 982 
Canadian Northern Pacific. 524. 1078 
Canadian Northern Saskatchewan, 524 
Canadian Northern System Terminals, Ltd., 1626 
Canadian Pacific, 176, 221, 320, 453, 524, 700, 

780, 824. 871, 1027, 1139, 1180, 1262, 

1364, 1589, 1626 
Canadian Roads, 221, 982, 1139 
Canadian Roads (Electric), 1027 
Canadian Terminal, 1139 
Cape Charles, 824 
Carolina. Clinchfield & Ohio. S24, 940. 1220. 

Cary North & South, 262, 700 
CatskiU Traction Co., 176 
Cedar Rapids & Iowa City, 871 
Central (California, 176 
Central of Canada, 320, 453, 982 
Central Illinois, 132 
Central Pacific, 36, 176, 982 
Central Railroad of New .Jersey, 940 
C^entral \^ermont, 262 
Charlotte Harbor & Northern, 453 
(Chattanooga, Rome & Atlanta Interurban, 1027 
Cherryvale, Oklahoma & Texas, 1220 
Chesapeake & Ohio, 262, 1262 
Chestermere-Calgarv Suburban. 525 
Chicago & Eastern Illinois, 176, 982, 1220 
Chicago & North Western, 453, 780 
Chicago & Wabash Valley, 221 
CThicago, Burlington & Quincy, 221, 982 
Chicago, Joliet & Kansas City, 262 
Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound, 76, 525. 

700. 7.S0. 982, 1139, 1180. 1262. 1364. 1626 
Chicago. Milwaukee & St. Paul, 525, 700, 982, 

1078. 1139 
Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria, 453 
Chicago. Paducah & Thebes, 262 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, 1139 
Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & St. Paul, 408 
Cincinnati, Licking Valley & Virginia, 1220 
Cincinnati, Louisville, Lexington & Maysville 

Traction, 1220 
Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific, 1262, 

1364, 1589 
Oarksburg & Philippi Traction Company, 320 
Clarksburg & Weston, 780 

Clarksburg Northern, 36 
Clear Lake. II SO 

Clinton & Oklahoma Western, 320, 408, 940 
Colorado & Southern, 1139 
Colorado, Texico & Aransas Pass, 1220 
Columbus. Chattahoochee Valley & Atlanta, 1589 
Columbus, Chattahoochee Valley & Gulf, 824 
Concord & Montreal, 1262 
Covington, Big Bone & CarroUton, 453 
Crosby ton-South Plains, 408, 1078 
Crossett, Monticello S: Northern. 871 
Crows Nest Pass (Electric), 360 
Crystal City & Uvalde, 221, 320 
Cumberland Valley, 525 

Cumberland Valley & Interstate (Electric), 940 
Cuyuna Northern, 525 

Delaware & Hudson, 36 

Delaw^are, Lackawanna & Western, 76, 262 

Denver & Rio Grande, 525. 780. 982 

Denver, Laramie & Northwestern, 525, 1139 

Detroit S: Mackinac, 76 

Dodge City & Cimarron Valley, 1027 

Dominion Atlantic, 453, 1027, 1626 

Duluth & Northern Minnesota, 36 

Duluth, Winnipeg & Pacific. 1027 

Dunlap Northern & Pacific, 1078 

Durham & South Carolina, 871 

Eastern Illinois & Peoria, 1589 

Eastern Shore Power, Light & Railway Com- 
pany, 320 

East Texas Traction, 701 

Edmonton. Dunvegan & British Columbia, 408, 
1078, 1180 

Elberton & Eastern. 1262, 1364 

Elgin Terminal, 525, 780 

Elkin & Allegheny, 176, 780, 1221 

El Paso & Southwestern, 1180, 1262 

Enid, Ochiltree & Western, 408 

Erie Railroad, 76, 132, 408, 525, 824, 1027, 1180 

Esquimau & Nanaimo, 320, 1262 

Estacado & Gulf, 871 

Eufaula & Chattahoochee Valley, 453 

Fairchild & Northeastern, 132, 221, 824 
Fairmont & Clarksburg, 780 

Fairmont & Clarksburg Traction Company. 320 
Fairmont & Northern, 7S0 
Farmers' Grain & Shipping Co., 525 
Fernley & Lassen, 1262 
Flemington, Hinesville & Western, 1139 
Fort Smith & Western, 263 
Fort Smith, Arkoma & Wilburton. 701 
Fredericton & Grand Lake Coal & Railway Com- 
pany. 701. 1139, 1589 
Frontier & Western, 1027 
Frontier Terminal, 1027 

Gainesville & Northwestern, 408 

Garrett County (Electric), 701 

Gatineau & Ungava, 1139 

Georgia & Alabama. 176 

Georgia, Alabama & Western, 263 

Georgia Coast & Piedmont. 1221 

Georgian Bay & Seaboard, 1180 

Georgia Roads, 982 

Giencary & Stormont, 263. 701 

Glenmora & Western, 221, 320 

Grand Junction-Paradox Development, 132 

Grand Lake & Belle River, 1139 

Grand Trunk, 132, 321, 780, 1027, 1139, 1221, 

1262. 1364 
Grand Trunk Pacific, 321, 408, 525, 701, 871, 

Grand Trunk Pacific Saskatchewan, 408, 525. 

Great Northern, 221, 263, 321, 453, 824, 1078, 

1180. 1589 
Greenville & Whitewright Northern Traction, 

Greenville Light & Water Company, 701 
Gulf. Colorado & Santa Fe. 525, 824 
Gulf Lines Connecting, 263 
Gulf, Texas & Western, 360. 40,S, 871, 1364 

Ha Ha Bay, 1078 

Harriman, Knoxville & Eastern, 780 

Holton Interurban, 824 

Houston & Texas Central. 263. 408 

Hudson Bay Railway, 221, 360, 453, 940, 1139, 

1262, 1626 
Hutchinson & Northern. 780 
Hutchinson & Western Interurban, 780, 1262 

Illinois Central. 36. 408 
Intercolonial. 701. 1139 
International & Great Northern, 321 
Iowa & Southwestern, 76 
Iowa Short Line. 360 

Tacksonville, MeRae & Dublin, 1078 
'Tacksonville, McRac & Northern, 780 
'Toliette & Lake Manuan Colonization, 1027, 1626 
Jonesboro, Lake City & Eastern, 408 

Kansas City & Memphis, 221, 1078, 1140 
Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph. 221 
Kansas City, Mexico & Orient, 36, 408, 1262, 

Kansas City Terminal Railway, 263 
Kansas, Oklahoma & Southwestern, 1221, 1364 
Karwatha Transportation Co., 525 
Kaslo & Slocan. 1364 

Kenilworth & Helper, 525 i 

Kettle Valley, 453, 780, 871, 1027, 1181 -; 

Kingston & Pembroke, 1181 

Kinstun Terminal, 701 

Kirkland-Redmond Railway, Light & Power Co., 

Kissimmee. Narcoossce & East Coast, 263 
Kittitas Railway & Transportation Compan/, 701 
Knoxville, Sevierville & Eastern, 1589 

Lac Seul, Rat Portage & Keewatin, 453 
Lake Erie & Eastern, 1027, 1221 
Lake Erie & Northern (Electric), 221, 321. 1364 
Lake Erie & Ohio. 132 
Lake Erie & Youngstown (Electric), 1078 
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, 1221 
Lake Superior & South Dakota, 1078 
Lawton Railway & Mining Company, 1181 
Lehigh & New England, 1262, 1627 
Lexington & Eastern, 263, 1262 
Liberty-White, 76 
Lindsay & Minden, 263 
Little Falls & Johnstown, 221 
Live Oak, Perry & Gulf, 1078 
London & Northwestern, 525 
Long Fork Railroad, 525 
Long Island, 940, 1221 
Louisiana Purchase, 941 
Louisiana Roads, 453 
Louisiana Roads (Electric), 263 
Louisiana Western, 176 

Louisville & Nashville, 176, 263, 321, 408, 453, 
701, 824, 9S2, 1078. 1221. 1262. 1589, 1627 
Lynchburg-Danville & Carolina, 76 

i\Iahar (Electric), 360 

Mahoning & Schenango Railway & Light Com- 
pany, 321 

Maine Central, 132, 221, 701, 1027, 1262, 1589 

Maine Roads (Electric), 780 

.Manitoba & Nelson, 1078 

Manitoba Northern. 872 

Maxton. Alma S: Southbound. 982 

Medicine Hat (Electric). 408 

Memphis 6sr Pensacola, 1263 

Memphis Railway Bridge & Terminal Com- 
pany, 76 

Meridian '& Memphis, 941, 1589 

Mexican Pacific, 176, 824 

Mexican Roads, 36, 454, 1365 

Mexican Southern, 263, 321 

Mexico & North Western, 321 

Mexico Northwestern Pacific, 525 

Mexico Northwestern Transportation Co., 525 

.Mexico, San Antonio & Gulfi 321 

.Mexico Tramways Company, 1221 

Midland Continental, 176. 1078 

.Midland of Manitoba, 263, 1589 

Milwaukee, Peoria & St. Louis, 176 

Minneapolis & St. Louis, 360 

Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Stc. Marie, 263, 

Minnesota, Dakota & Western, 176, 408 

Miramichi Valley, 1140, 1365 

Missouri & North .Arkansas, 982 

Missouri, Arkansas & Gulf, 37, 132 

Missouri, Kansas & Texas. 408, 701, 824 

Missouri, Oklahoma & Gulf, 132, 525, 780, 824, 
872, 1589 

Monongahela Valley Traction, 780 

Montreal Transcontinental, 176 

Montreal Tunnel Co., Ltd., 525, 824 

Montrose- Paradox Railroad Construction Co., 176 

Morgan's Louisiana & Texas, 176 

Moigantown Interurban, 701 

Mountain Quarries Company's Line, 408 

Mount McKay & Kakabeka Falls, 701 

Murfreesboro Electric. 824 

Muscatine North & South. 454 

Natchez Eastern, 263 

National Railways of Mexico, 37, 360. 780, 941. 

Navajo Southern, 321 
Nebraska Roads, 360 
Nebraska & Northwestern, 1627 
Nerepis & Long Island, 1140 
Nevada & California, 176 
New Brunswick & Railway, 221 
New Iberia & Northern, 1078 
New Iberia, Lafayette & Northeastern, 780 
New Orleans & Grand Island, 525 
New Orleans & Western (Electric), 1627 
New Orle.ins, Clin'on & Birmingham. 780 
New Orleans, Mobile & Chicago, 176, 982 
New Orleans, Natalbany & Natchez, 321 
Newton, Kansas & Nebraska, 1263 
New York Connecting, 454 
New York. New Haven & Hartford, 1140, 1181. 

New York. Philadelphia & Norfolk, 824 
New York Subways, 133, 176, 221, 408, 824, 

941, 982, 1140 
New York, Westchester & Boston, 37, 118), 

Niobrara & Sioux City, 780 
Kipissing Central (Electric), 408 
Norfolk & Western, 176, 263, 982 
Norfolk Southern, 221' 
North & South Carolina, 824 
"North Buffalo Railroad, 133 
North Lanark Railway, 982 
Northern Pacific. 76, 263, 321, .161, 454, 872 
North Railway. 1627 
North .Shore Railway. 1365 
North Shore Railway & Navigation Company, 

1140, 1365 


[January 1— June 30, 1912. 


Northwestern Pacific, 321, 1589 
Neva Scotia Railway, 408 

Ocilla Southern, 701, 1078 

Ohio & Kentucky, 77, 321 

Oklahoma & Golden City, 321 

Oklahoma-North Western, 77 

Oklahoma Roads, 525 

Oklahoma Roads (Electric), 1027 

Orange & Northwestern, 221 

Oregon & California, 176 

Oregon & Southern (Electric), 824 

Oregon Eastern, 37, 133, 176, 361, 408 

Oregon Electric, 824 

Oregon Roads, 1627 

Oregon Short Line, 77, 133, 361, 408 

Oregon-Washington Railroad & Navigation Co., 

176, 1365 
Oregon Western, 177 
Ottawa & Lake McGregor, 454 
Ottawa & St. Lawrence (Electric), 982 
Ottawa & Ungava, 1140 
Ottawa, Smith's Falls & Kingston, 526 
(Jzark Land & Timber Company's Road, 526 

Pacific & Peace, 516, 701 

Pacific & Peace Railway Department Syndicate. 

526, 701 
Pacific Great Eastern, 526, 1078, 1365 
Pacific Railway & Navigation Co., 177 
Pacific, Trans-Canada & Hudson Bay, 263 
Panhandle Pecos & Gulf of Texas, i? 
Paris & Mount Pleasant, 1263 
Pecos Valley Southern, 77, 321, 409, 1221 
Pembroke, Red Springs & Northern, 77 
Peninsular Railway (Electric), 77 
Pennsylvania, 454, 780 
Pennsylvania System, 780 
Pere Marquette, 1181 
Petaluma & Santa Rosa (Electric), 824 
Philadelphia, Baltimore & Washington, 454 
Piedmont & Northern (Electric), 824 
Pincher, Cardston & Montana, 1140 
Pine Bluff, Sheridan & Southern, 1079 
Pittsburgh & Lake Erie, 1221 
Porcupine- Rand Belt (Electric), 454 
Port Bolivar Iron Ore, 263 
Port Huron & Northern, 872 
Portland & West Coast Railroad & Navigation 

Company, 77 
Prince Edward & Hastings, 409 

Quanah, Acme & Pacific, 77, 409 
Quanah, Seymour. Dublin & Rockport, 781 
Quebec & Saguenay, 409, 825 
Quebec Central, 983 

Raleigh, Charlotte & Southern. 1079 
Rangeley Lakes & Megantic, 133, 221 
Richmond & Rappahannock River (Electric), 

Richmond, Urbana & Peninsula, 701 
Rio Grande & Eagle Pass, 321 
Roaring Fork, 77 

St. CroLt Docks & Railway, 1140 

St. John & Ophir, 701, 781 

St. John & Quebec, 526, 1263 

St. John Valley, 263, 321, 1181 

St. Louis & San Francisco, 221, 781, 1079, 1140, 

St. Louis, Arkansas & Pacific, ^7 
St. Louis. Brownsville & Mexico, i7 , 361, 1221, 

1365, 1589 
St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern, 526 
St. Louis, Peoria & Northwestern, 781 
St. Louis Southwestern, 526 
Sacramento Southern, 177 
Sacramento Valley (Electric), 1181 
Sales, Falls City & Western, 263 
San Antonio & .Aransas Pass, 454, 983 
San Antonio & Northern, 872 
San Antonio Belt Terminal Company, 1181 
San Antonio, Rockport & Mexican, 37, 825, 

San Antonio, Uvalde & Gulf, 526, 983 
San Benito & Rio Grande \'alley, 872 
San Diego & Southeastern (Electric), 526 
San Diego Southern, 526 
San Diego & Cuvamaca, 526 
Sandy River & Rangeley Lakes, 941, 983, 1263 
Sandy Valley & Elk-horn, 222 
San Francisco & Northern (Electric), 361 
San Jose & Almaden (Electric), Z7 , 321 
San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake, 526, 781, 

Saskatoon Transfer, 526, 1365 
Savannah Southern, Z7 
Seaboard Air Line, 77 
Sebasticook & Moosehead, 1589 
Sharpsvillc & Western, 1140 
Sioux City, Mitchell & Pierre, 781 
Southampton Railway, 1027, 1627 
Southern Alberta, 454 
Southern Illinois Railway & Power Company, 

Southern New England, 321, 454, 1027, 1140, 

1263, 1365 
Southern New England Railroad Corporation, 

Southern Pacific, 37, 177, 263, 983, 1263, 1589. 

Southern Pacific of Mexico, 177, 454, 941 
Southern Railway, 263, 1181, 1589 
Southern Railway & Navigation Co., 526 
Southern New England, 526 
Southern Traction Co., 526 
Southwestern Traction & Power Company, 222, 

Spalding-Sprincview, 526 
Spokane, Portland & Seattle, 1181 
Springfield & Central Illinois Traction, 321 
Springfield Western (Electric), 526 
Stamford & Eastern, 701 
Stanton & Cave Bluff, 1627 
Statesville Air Line, 133 
Stuttgart & Rice Valley, 177 
Sudbury-Copper Cliff Suburban, 263, 526 

Sugarland Railroad, 1140, 1627 
Sullivan County Electric, 983 
.Sullivan County Railroad, 1263 
Sussex, Studholm & Havelock, 1140 
Syracuse, W'atertown & St. Lawrence River 
(Electric), 872 

Tacoma Eastern, 1181 

Tallahassee & Gulf, 983 

Tallassee & Montgomery, 1263 

Tampa & Gulf Coast, 263 

Teraiskaming & Northern Ontario, 361, 409, 781, 

825, 1140 
Texas & Pacific, 701 
Texas Central, 409 
Texas Electric, 1221 
Texas Roads, 781, 1079 
Texas Roads (Electric), 526, 1265 
Texas Southeastern, 454 

Three Forks, Helena & Madison Valley, 825, 941 
Tidewater Southern (Electric), 1181, 1365 
I Tidewater & Southern (Electric), 133, 1181 
Tidewater & Transit, 1181 
Toronto Suburban, 454 

Uintah, 1079 

Union Pacific, 701, 1140, 1589 

Utah Coal Railway, 263 

Utah Roads. 133 

Utah Roads (Electric), 321 

Upalika Si Southern, 527 

Utah Coal Ry., 527 

Valdosta, Fort Gaines & Montgomery, 1181 

Valley & Siletz, 263. 872 

"Vancouver, Frazer Valley & Southern. 454 

\'irginia-Carolina, 1627 

\'irginia & Kentucky, 264 

Virginia Roads, 983 

Wabash, 264, 872, 983 

Washington Roads, 983, 1181 

Washington Roads (Electric), 1263 

Washington Western, 1181, 1589 

Wasiota & Black Mountain, 264 

Waycross & Western, 454 

Wenatchee Valley (Electric), 222 

Western Canada Power Co., 527 

Western Dominion, 1365 

Western Maryland, 1221 

Western New York & Pennsylvania, 454 

Wichita Falls & Northwestern, 77, 177 

Wichita Falls Route, 177, 264 

Wichita, Kinsley, Scott City & Denver Air Line, 

Williamson & Pond Creek, 983 
Winnipeg Electric, 527 
Winnipegosis & Northern, 701 
Winnipeg, Salina & Gulf, 77, 133, 1079 

Yadkin River, 409, 825 

Yampa Valley, 1627 

Youngstown & Southern (Electric), 177 

Alberta Railway & Irrigation, 1141 

American Railways, 1182 

Argentine Central, 1628 

Arkansas, Oklahoma & Western, 222, 410 

Artesian Belt Railroad, 782, 826, 1366 

Asherton & Gulf, 222 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, 38, 322, 410, 455, 

Atlanta, Birmingham & Atlantic, 528, 873, 1080, 

Atlantic & Western, 1080 

Baltimore & Ohio, 78, 17S, 1141, 1182 

Bangor & .Aroostook, 1182 

Bartlett & Western, 1028 

Bellingham Bay & British Columbia, 528 

Birmingham & Northwestern, 873 

Birmingham & Southeastern, 1141, 1264 

Boston & Albanv, 322, 873, 1141, 1590 

Boston & Lowell, 78 

Boston & Maine. 38, 134, 826, 1080, 1141, 1182, 

1222, 1590 
Boston & Providence, 1080, 1264 
Boston Railroad Holding Co., 78 
Bridgton & Saco River, 1590 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit, 1366, 1590 
r.utfalo & Susquehanna, 134 
Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh, 38, 78 

California Northeastern, 264 

Camino, Placerville & Lake Tahoe, 78 

Canadian Northern, 942, 1182, 1628 

Canada Southern, 873, 1080, 1590 

Canadian Northern. 1222 

Canadian Pacific, 134, 222, 455, 1182, 1222, 1366 

Carolina. Clinchfield & Ohio, 826, 942, 1222, 

Central California Railway, 134 
Central New England, 38, 826, 942 
Central of Georgia, 873, 942, 1141, 1366 
Central Pacific, 873. 984 
Central Vermont, 1080 
Chesapeake & Ohio, 78, 322, 361, 528 
Chicago & .Mton, 1264_, 1366, 1628 
Chicago & Eastern Illinois, 134, 178, 410 


Chicago & North Western, 38, 134, 264, 361, 

Chicago & Western Indiana, 528, 1141 
Chicago & West Michigan, 1141 
Chicago Great Western, 1141 
Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville, 528, 942, 984 
Chicago, Memphis & Gulf, 782, 1028 
Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound, 528 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, 222, 702, 873, 

Chicago River & Indiana, 1182 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, 134, 782 
Chicaeo. St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha, 264, 

Chicago, Terre Haute & Southeastern, 984 
Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, 178, 942 
Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific, 1222, 

Cincinnati Northern, 455 
Cleveland & Pittsburgh. 38 
Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis, 38, 

455, 984 
Colorado & Southern, 78, 178 
Colorado Midland, 178 

(Colorado Springs & Cripple Creek District, 78 
Concord & Montreal, 826, 1366 
Connecticut River Railroad, 1590 
Copper River & Northw'estern, 873 
Cripple Creek Central, 78, 1141 
Cuba Railroad, 1590 

Dayton, Lebanon & Cincinnati, 361, 455 
Delaware & Hudson, 1141 

Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, 222, 410, 702 
Denver & Rio Grande, 78, 178, 322, 528, 782, 

826, 984, 1080 
Denver, Laramie & Northwestern, 410, 1141, 

1264, 1366, 1590 
Denver, Northwestern & Pacific, 702, 1080, 1182 
Des Plains Vallev Railroad, 38 
Detroit. Toledo '& Ironton, 38, 322, 455, 873, 

1142, 1182, 1590 
Duluth, Missabe & Northern, 1222 

Eagles Mere Railroad, 159Q 

East Pennsylvania Railroad, 873 
Elkin & Allegheny, 1222 
Erie, 410, 826, 873, 942, 1628 

Fitchburg Railroad, 38, 134 
Florida East Coast, 1028 
Florence & Cripple Creek, 78 
Florida Railway, 38 
Frankfort & Cincinnati, 178, 1142 

Galveston, Harrisburg & San Antonio, 1628 
Galveston, Houston & Henderson, 1080, 1182 
Georgia & Florida, 455, 702, 782, 984 
Georgia Coast & Piedmont, 1222, 1366 
Grand Trunk, 134, 178, 322, 782, 984, 1028 
Grand Trunk Pacific, 38, 178, 322, 455, 1080 
Great Northern, 1628 

Hampden Railroad, 178 
Hocking Valley, 1628 
Houston & Brazos Valley, 984 
Howe Sound & Northern, 455 
Hudson & Manhattan, 942 

Illinois Central, 782, 1590 

Illinois Southern, 410 

Interborough Rapid Transit, 1080, 1222, 1366 

International & Great Northern, 264 

Interoceanic of Mexico, 1222 

Jonesboro, Lake City & Eastern, 528 

Kalso & Slocan, 1182 

Kanawha & Michigan, 1628 

Kansas City & Memphis Railway, 410 

Kansas City, Mexico & Orient, 38, 264, 528, 

782, 942, 984, 1182, 1264, 1366 
Kansas City Southern, 1182 
Kootenay Valley, 1222 

Lake Erie & Eastern, 1628 
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, 361, 528 
Lancaster, Oxford & Southern, 826 
Laramie, Hahn's Peak & Pacific, 1590 
Lehigh & Hudson, 984 

January 1— June 30, 1912. ] 


Lehigh Valley. 134, 361 
Louisville & Nashville, 178, 1080 
Louisville, Henderson & St. Louis, 178 

Maine Central, 38, 410, 1182, 1222, 1590 

Mexico Northwestern, 1590 

Michigan Central, 873, 1080 

Milwaukee, Sparta & North Western, 942 

Minneapolis & St. Louis, 78, 222, 361 

Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie, 782 

Missouri & North Arkansas, 826, 873, 1028, 

1182. 1366 
Missouri, Kansas & Texas, 361, 826, 942, 1080 
Missouri Pacific, 455, 528, 782, 1366 

National Railways of Mexico, 222, 942 

Nevada & California, 873 

New England Investment & Security Company, 

New England Railroad, 826 
New Orleans, Mobile & Chicago, 134, 264 
New York & Harlem, 38, 78, 942, 1182 
New York & Ottawa, 264 
New York Central & Hudson River, 38, 78, 134, 

178. 264, 528, 826, 873, 1028, 1080, 1142. 

New York, New Haven & Hartford, 78, 178, 

702, 782, 826, 1028, 1080, 1142, 1366, 

New York, Ontario & Western, 264, 1222 
New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk, 826, 1182, 

New York State Railways, 1080, 1182, 1264 
Norfolk & Western, 134. 1222 
Norfolk Southern, 455, 702, 942, 1028 
Northern Pacific, 702 

Ocilla Southern, 178 

Ohio River & Western, 826, 873 

Oklahoma Central, 873 

Old Colony Railroad, 38 
Oregon Eastern. 264 
Oswego & Rome, 1028 

Pacific Railway & Navigation, 134 

Paris & Mount Pleasant, 1264 

Pascagoula Northern, 361 

Pennsylvania, 782, 826, 873, 1142, 1366 

Pennsylvania Company, 38, 361, 528 

Pere Marquette, 78, 410, 455, 826, 873, 984, 

1080, H42. 1182. 1264. 1590. 1628 
Philadelphia & Baltimore Central, 1590 
Philadelphia & Reading, 410 
Pittsburgh & Lake Erie, 455, 528, 1628 
Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis, 826 
Pittsburgh, McKeesport & Youghiogheny, 528 
Pittsburgh, Sumraerville & Clarion, 702, 826 
Placerville & Lake Tahoe, 78 
Portland Terminal, 528 

Quebec & Lake St. John, 942 
Quebec Central. 455. 1366 
Quebec Oriental, 826, 1142 

Raleigh, Charlotte & Southern, 1028 

Reading & Columbia, 3S 

Reading Company, 38, 1264 

Rome, Watertown & Ogdensburg. 1028 

Rutland Railroad, 78, 264, 942, 984, 1080, 1142 

Si. Tohnsbury & Lake Champlain, 38 

St. Louis & San Francisco, 782, 942, 1080, 1142, 

St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern, 1080 
St. Louis, Rocky Mountain & Pacific, 1222 
St. Louis Southwestern, 134, 322, 361, 528, 782. 

984, 1080, 1182, 1222, 1590 
Sanford & Troy, 410 

San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake, 78 
Seaboard Air Line, 1222, 1264. 1366. 1590 
Seaboard Company, 38 

Shamokin, Sunbury & Lewisburg, 984 

Southampton Railway, 1182 

Southern New England, 1366 

Southern Pacific, 38, 134, 264, 322, 782, 873, 

984, 1628 
Southern Railway, 322 
South Ontario & Pacific, 134 
Stephenville North & South Texas, 361 
Sugarland Railroad, 1142, 1628 
Syracuse, Binghamton & New York, 410 

Tallassee & Montgomery, 1264 
Tampa & Gulf Coast, 1628 
Temiskaming & Northern Ontario, 782 
Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis, 361, 

Texas & Pacific, 1028, 1590 
Tide Water Southern, 1182 
Toledo & Ohio Central. 942 
Toledo, Columbus & Ohio, 38 
Toledo, St. Louis & New Orleans, 528 

Union Pacific, 826, 1080 
Utica & Black River, 1028 

V'aldosta, Fort Gaines & Montgomery, 1182 
Verde Valley Railroad, 1590 

Virginian Railway, 134, 178, 264, 782, 826, 1028. 

Wabash, 134. 178. 222. 264, 361, 826, 942, 1028, 

1080, 1264, 1628 
Wabash-Pittsburgh Terminal. 873. 1366, 1628 
Wellsburg & State Line Railroad, 361 
Western Maryland, 38 
West Shore. 826 
West Side Belt, 1628 
Wheeling & Lake Erie, 942, 1366 
Winnipeg. Salina & Gulf, lOfO. 1182 
Wisconsin & Michigan, 134, 782 

January 5, 1912. 



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Volume 52. 

January 5, 1912. 

Number 1. 



Editorial Notes 1 

The "Rule of Reason" and the Railways 2 

A Possible New Competitor in the Soutli 3 

New Books 4 



New Ore Deck at Two Harbors, Minn 8 

John C. Stubbs 14 

Indirect Lighting for Passenger Equipment 15 

New General Office Building of the Union Pacific at Omalia 18 

.\ir Washer and Cooler 23 

Street Mechanical Stoker 24 

Tank X'alve for Refrigerator Cars 25 


.\ Living Rate for the Railways 10 

.\nnual Report of the Interstate Commerce Conmiission 16 

Railway Bonds and Notes 19 

Another View of the Supply Department 22 

Foreign Railway Notes 14, 19 


IN his article describing railway funded indebtedness, Professor 
* Ripley illustrates his points by citing numerous specific in- 
stances. This adds interest to the discussion of general prin- 
ciples, but it is fair to point out that the instances selected are 
notable instances, and frequently e.xceptions to the rule. In the 
hundreds of millions of bonds sold each year by the railway 
companies, all classes of securities are represented, because, of 
course, of the varying problems that have to be met by the 
financial officers of the different companies, and in the great ma- 
jority of cases the financing is carried through very successfully. 
Professor Ripley takes pains to point out that when he cites a 
particular case it is not necessarily a typical case, but is often 
an extreme case illustrative of what a certain kind of financing 

may lead to. Nevertheless, it is well to call especial attention 
to this when we publish the first of Professor Ripley's articles in 
this week's issue of the Raihvay Age Gazette. One thing fur- 
ther may be mentioned : Professor Ripley condemns certain 
forms of financing or finds them less desirable than certain 
other forms. This may be good theory, but in practice the 
thing that should be done is the thing that can be done. A 
railway's board of directors are given a specific problem which 
they vHist solve. They may solve this skillfully by the issue of a 
certain kind of securities, or clumsily by the issue of a certain 
other kind of securities, but the success or non-success of their 
efforts sliould be judged from practical, not theoretical, stand- 

■"PIIE reduction from a 4 to a 3}4 per cent, rate of interest by a 
■^ good many savings banks, notably in New York City, with- 
out doubt is directly related in a measure to railway bond invest- 
ment. The financial strength of a savings bank depends mainly on 
three classes of securities : railway bonds, municipal and state 
bonds, and notes secured by realty mortgages. The last may be 
described as constants and reckoned at neither above nor below 
face value so long as they are sound, as they usually are. But the 
other two are variants depending on market values, and the 
actual surplus of a savings bank rests on those values and 
whether they go up or down. At the present time, in the case 
of the savings banks, we are witnessing an anomalous situation. 
Municipal, railway and state bonds are selling low, that is to 
say, giving a high investment return. The state of Connecticut, 
for a recent example, has just marketed $4,000,000 non-taxable 
4 per cent.'s at a little above par, while a few years ago her 3J4 
per cent.'s commanded about the same price. As regards present 
investment, therefore, the Eastern savings banks can secure a 
higher return than in past years, and to that extent are better 
able to maintain the old 4 per cent, interest rate. But it is far 
from making good the bond shrinkage of the recent years, that 
impairs a surplus based on market values. When we look back 
on the causes of that shrinkage there can hardly be a doubt that 
it is to be ascribed originally to the lowered market value of the 
"good" railway bond, and that, in time, to adverse state and 
federal action. The good railway bond fell and has brought 
down with it the municipal and state bonds which, along with 
railway bonds, the banks hold as security for their deposits. 
The assault on railway credit has hit public credit too ; and not 
only that but, still proceeding, has hit the savings bank depositor, 
reducing his dividend one-eighth, or 12.66 per cent. It is not 
the so-called capitalist alone whom a misguided governmental 
policy affects ; the wage earner when he takes his deposit book 
to be written up has occasion now to learn that he is a capitalist 
also — and, in an indirect way, a raihvay capitalist. 

SOME three months ago (September 1, 1911) we gave returns 
of the Interstate Commerce Commission showing, since 1901, 
the sustaining power of railway passenger traflic and its rela- 
tive increase as compared with freight traffic. Since then an 
interesting table has been compiled for forty-two important rail- 
ways, by T. A. PoUey, tax commissioner of the Chicago, St. 
Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha, which brings many of the returns 
down to the current year. Taking his returns for a five-year 
period ending in 1910, the average annual increase for freight 
business was 4.63 per cent., as compared with 5. IS per cent, for 
passengers. In a general way, and with one or two decided 
exceptions, his later table, which in most cases includes the 
figures for 1911, indicates a tendency of lines of high intensive 
freight business to increase that form of traffic, while lines of 
high passenger intensity do not show a corresponding passenger 
increase. It seems, therefore, as though the proverb of "making 
the meat one feeds on" reverses itself in the transfer from freight 
to passengers. This seems somewhat anomalous when it is re- 
membered that passenger density in a great degree depends on 
city and suburban traffic, and tliat the .American city grows fast 


Vol. 52, No. 1. 

while the rurel districts grow slowly. On the other hand, it is 
to be recalled that two forces — the automobile and the long dis- 
tance telephone — which have a tendency to reduce passenger 
traffic, have worked most actively among urban populations, and 
even the competition of electric railways, especially to suburban 
points, has not been quite exhausted. Again, there is probably 
on low passenger density lines an effort to make good in that 
direction. At any rate, it is from such lines that the sustaining 
power of pas.senger business, taking the railway companies as a 
whole, appears to have been derived, contrary to the natural 
inference. On some lines like the Seaboard Air Line, the St. 
Louis & San Francisco, the Soo and the Great Northern, which 
are at the foot of the list in absolute passenger density, the 
percentage is highest. 

""pHE comments of the Interstate Commerce Commission in 
•*■ its annual report on the decisions of the Commerce Court in 
the various cases that have been appealed to it from the com- 
mission cannot be regarded otherwise than as a direct attack on 
the court's intelligence and fairness. The commission contends 
vigorously that several of the court's decisions are not good law. 
Its principal complaint, however, seems to be that both the Com- 
merce Court and the Supreme Court have been reviewing its 
findings of fact. Of course, if, as the commission implies, the 
Commerce Court does not know the law and should not be 
allowed to review the commission's findings in fact, the Com- 
merce Court has little excuse for its existence. However, that 
the commission attacks also the decisions of the Supreme Court 
in certain cases seems to indicate that its grievance is not merely 
against the Commerce Court, but grows out of its idea that it 
(the commission) has a very comprehensive authority, indeed. 
Its position seems to be that when an appeal is taken from one 
of its orders affecting rates the courts have no right to set it ■ 
aside unless it be shown to be confiscatory. On this theory it 
might make a rate of $15 from Chicago to Omaha and one of 
IS cents on the same commodity from Chicago to San Francisco, 
and nobody would have any right to interfere except Congress, 
unless it were not shown that the result was to confiscate the 
railways concerned. But such an adjustment would be unreason- 
able, and the law as made by Congress requires railway rates to 
be reasonable and merely empowers the commission to fix reason- 
able maximum rates. If the commission chooses to disregard the 
expressed will of Congress that the rates it fixes shall be reason- 
able, have those injured no recourse except to appeal for further 
legislation by Congress to change the rates fixed by the com- 
mission? If the commission is to be a law unto itself why require 
the rates it fixes to be reasonable? That Congress meant all 
the orders of the commission to be subject to review by the courts 
is implied by the language of the law itself and is a matter of 
historic record ; and the courts in reviewing them are merely 
carrying out the will of Congress. That most of the decisions of 
the court have reversed the commission is just what might be 
expected ; for the railways only appeal from the comparatively 
small minority of the commission's decisions against them which 
they are pretty sure they can get reversed. It is a matter of 
record that, for similar reasons, the commission was continually 
reversed by the courts before the Commerce Court was estab- 
lished ; and for similar reasons it would continue to be if that 
court were abolished. No doubt the Commerce Court could 
present some pretty pertinent facts and cogent reasoning in its 
defense, if it were not contrary to custom and good form for 
courts to do such things. That the commission knew it was 
attacking a body that could not talk back does not put its assault 
in a more favorable light. 

idea that the stoker must be prepared for the coal and be so 
constructed as to handle everything from dust to large lump, in 
all classes of services and on all kinds of locomotives, has been 
abandoned. In- its stead has come the acceptance of the condition 
that the coal should be prepared for the stoker. This is a simple 
thing in itself, but really means more than it seems. It means 
that we have abandoned the old requirements that we are accus- 
tomed to put on every new device that is presented for acceptance, 
which require that it shall do far more than we ever dreamed 
of doing in the old way, and shall do it so smoothly and with 
such a total absence of trouble that cost of maintenance shall be 
nil, and the veriest fool cannot harm it. Instead, we recognize 
it as a machine w'ith its own physical limitations, and as a 
thoroughly efficient and economical one within these limitations. 
Instead of saying: 'Tf it can't handle run of mine coal, it will 
never do." We say: "If the stoker is to do good work, the coal 
must be fitted for it." And so the stoker manufacturers are to 
be congratulated on the breaking down of this really formidable 
barrier to their progress and the recognition of the necessity for 
crushing coal before it is put on the tenders of locomotives 
equipped with mechanical stokers. This done, the introduction 
will be more rapid and the crusher at the coaling station and 
the stoker on the locomotive will form a combination that will 
be taken as much as a matter of course as a dryer for the sand, 
and the box that holds it on top of the boiler. It has been a 
very long and hard struggle to gain this point, and as it is 
a crucial one, one on which the success of the mechanical stoker 
really depends, and one that has been urged upon deaf ears 
for a long time and seemingly to no avail, the fact that it 
has been accepted by one progressive road cannot be too strongly 

/^XE of the best evidences of the arrival of the mechanical 
^— ' stoker for locomotive work and its acceptance as an accom- 
plished fact, is to be found in an improvement of one of the 
stokers on the market, as described in another column. The old 


IN the light of the recent Supreme Court decisions in the 
■* Standard Oil and the Tobacco cases, an interesting question 
arises as to the position which the railways now occupy and how 
far they are now legally permitted to go in the direction of co- 
operative action. President Taft has expressed clearly his 
opinion of these decisions, and his view of the law as it stands 
today. Because of his training and experience upon judicial 
questions, his attitude carries more weight than does the opinion 
usually of our chief executive. Upon questions that relate to 
combinations and restraint of trade, his views have the prestige 
that comes from the fact that he delivered the Circuit Court of 
Appeals opinion in the Addyston Pipe & Steel Company case, 
which was upheld in every respect by a unanimous decision of 
the court of last resort. President Taft, in his message to Con- 
gress, declares that these recent decisions are epoch-making 
and that they serve to advise the business world authorita- 
tively as to the scope and the operation of the Sherman Anti- 
trust act. 

Now, what advice do they give to the railway managements? 
The Trans-Missouri Freight Association case, which dissolved 
that organization as being a combination in restraint of trade 
and in violation of the Anti-trust act, was decided in March, 1897 
This organization had been 'created according to its expressed 
intent "for the purpose of mutual protection by establishing and 
maintaining reasonable rates, rules and regulations on all freight 
traffic." The majority of the court, disregarding the mass of 
authoritative and undisputed fact showing the disastrous results 
of unrestrained competition of paralleling lines, held that the act 
covered all restraints, whether reasonable or unreasonable. Said 
the Court: "It may be that the policy evidenced by the passage 
of the Act itself will, if carried out, result in disaster to the 
roads, and in a failure to secure the advantages sought from such 
legislation. Whether that will he the result or not tee do not 
linozv and cannot predict. These considerations are, however, 
not for us." This opinion was rendered by Justice Peckham and 
concurred in by only four other justices. The opinion in the 

January 5, 1912. 


Joint Traffic case a year later was rendered by the same justice 
on the same grounds, with the same four justices concurring. Of 
these four, Justice Brewer, five years later in the Northern Se- 
curities case, rendered a separate opinion for the express purpose 
of announcing his change of attitude. He said, "Instead of hold- 
ing that the Anti-trust Act included all contracts, reasonable or 
unreasonable, the ruling (in the Trans-Missouri and Joint Traffic 
cases) should have been that the contracts there presented were 
unreasonable restraints of interstate trade, and as such ivithin the 
scope of the act." 

Moreover, in the able dissenting opinion in the Trans-Missouri 
case delivered by Justice White, the present Chief Justice, and 
concurred in by Justices Field, Gray and Shiras, in which it is 
pointed out that tlie contract between the railway companies sub- 
stantially embodies only an agreement to obtain uniform classifi- 
cation, avoid rate cutting, and arbitrary and sudden changes in 
rates, occurs this significant sentence: "The opinion of the 
court rests upon the hypothesis that the provisions of the contract 
are reasonable," and again, "It is conceded that the contract does 
not unreasonably restrain trade." In other words, the traffic as- 
sociations were condemned not because they were in unreasonable 
restraint of trade (for the opinion of the Court assumed their 
reasonableness), but because the act of Congress forbade all 

We now come to the Standard Oil and Tobacco decisions in 
which the opinions of the Court, unanimous except for a dis- 
agreement upon one point by Justice Harlan, were delivered by 
Chief Justice White, who was the leader in dissent in the Traffic 
cases. With seven concurring justices, he dixlares that the Anti- 
trust Act indubitably requires a standard, and that it was in- 
tended by the act that the standard of reason should be applied, 
a position which is strikingly confirmed by former Senator 
Edmunds in his article in the North American Review for De- 

If, then, a practically unanimous Court has declared in so 
emphatic a way that only unreasonable restraints are illegal, a 
position which the majority of the Court have unquestionably 
maintained since the Northern Securities decision in 1903, where 
does this situation leave the railways in respect to the right to 
form traffic associations? No better answer can be given than 
to quote a sentence from the opinion of the Chief Justice in the 
Tobacco case : 

"The necessity for not departing in this case from the standard 
of the rule of reason which is universal in its application is so 
plainly required in order to give effect to the remedial purposes 
which the act under consideration contemplates, and to prevent 
that act from destroying all liberty of contract and all substantial 
right to trade, and thus causing the act to be at war zvith itself by 
annihilating the fundamental right of freedom to trade, zvhich on 
the very face of the act it ivas enacted to preserve, is illustrated 
by the record before us." 

The railway traffic association, while it restrained competition, 
never in the remotest degree restrained trade unreasonably. It 
conferred enormous benefits upon business by promoting stability 
and guarding against arbitrary fluctuations in rates. It never 
suggested monopoly in any sense except to the anti-railroad 
crusader. It preserved that "fundamental right of freedom to 
trade" which the Sherman Anti-trust act was "enacted to pre- 

It is well known that after the Trans-Missouri and Joint Traffic 
Association decisions the various traffic associations were re- 
organized, but in such a way as was intended to conform, at least 
technically, with the decisions. No one has ever been certain, 
however, whether as reorganized they are legal and the fear of 
prosecution has prevented the railways from making them as 
effective, beneficial and public means of co-operation regarding 
traffic matters as it is desirable they should be. Have not the 
recent decisions under the anti-trust law cleared away all doubt 
of their legality and all obstructions to their restoration to a 
basis where they will be as effective organizations as they ought 
to be? 


'T'HE large railway systems of the Southeast have been built 
■*• up in good part by a system of buying and connecting up 
short lines, but big southern railway companies are not now, to 
any great extent, adding to their mileage by buying short lines. 
One can sit down with a railway map of the southern states and 
plan out quite a number of railway systems that could be made 
by connecting up short lines now in operation ; and on paper 
these combinations often look attractive. Apparently, however, 
most of the important southern railway companies have come to 
the conclusion that in practice this is not profitable. 

The Norfolk Southern is the new company that took over the 
Norfolk & Southern after the receivership and foreclosure sale 
under plan of reorganization, which sale took place in 1910. This 
company has begun a policy of expansion that might, if carried 
very far, be an attempt at building up a new railway system by 
connecting existing short lines. The Norfolk Southern itself is 
a sound, compact, small property that operates about 608 miles, 
of which the main line and the two important branches are shown 
in the accompanying sketch map. Its operating revenues in 1911 
totaled $2,960,000, and after the payment of expenses, taxes and 
fixed charges, the company had a surplus of $610,000, from 
which it paid $240,000 dividends. 

There is no competing railway between the main north and 
south line from Norfolk to Beaufort and the coast. A large part 
of the company's business is carrying lumber, and it owns all 

The Norfolk Southern and Its Three New Lines. 

of the securities of the John L. Roper Lumber Company. The 
railway competes only to a limited extent with the Southern 
Railway and the Seaboard Air Line, and the company has a tidy 
and, probably, profitable property which may well be expected 
to develop a considerably larger business than it is now doing. 
The development of the country through which the road runs is 
rapid, and, as the timber is cut off, the land, which is unusually 
fertile, can be put under cultivation and made to produce profit- 
able crops at a minimum cost. 

It was recently announced that the Norfolk Southern had 
bought control of the Aberdeen & Ashboro, the Durham & Char- 
lotte and the Raleigh & Southport. There was also recently in- 
corporated, as mentioned in our construction news columns, the 
Raleigh, Charlotte & Southern, and it is understood that Norfolk 
Southern interests are behind and intend to help finance this 
Raleigh, Charlotte & Southern. 

Details of the proposed route of the R. C. & S. have not 
probably been fully worked out even by those interested, but in 
the main their plans indicate an intention of having a line con- 
trolled by the Norfolk Southern running from Raleigh at least 
as far southwest as Charlotte, of which line the detached east 
and west line, shown in our sketch map marked D. & C, would 
form the middle section. Such a line would parallel the Sea- 
board Air Line from Raleigh to a point south of the terminus of 
the D. & C, as shown on the map, and would compete with the 
Southern Railway and the Seaboard Air Line for business from 


Vol. 52, Xo. 1. ' 

If the Norfolk Southern stopped at Charlotte, the competition 
on the ISO-mile extension from Raleigh might well not be keen 
enough to make its operation unprofitable. If the Norfolk 
Southern, however, extended much further into Southern Rail- 
way territory, it might be within the bounds of possibility that 
competition would become uuprofitably keen. It is not intended 
to assume here that the Norfolk Southern has any more am- 
bitious plans than the extension to Charlotte, but it is quite 
interesting to speculate on what the results of such an extension 
might possibly be. In the South, more than in any other part 
of the country, a situation may exist in which short, independent 
roads not connected with each other but connecting with lines 
of the larger systems may well be operated at a fair profit, and 
yet if they were to be connected up with each other, formed 
into a system and brought into competition with the big roads 
to which they had heretofore been feeders, one might well find 
tliat they could no longer handle their business on a profitable 

The Norfolk Southern itself handles as we have said a large 
tonnage of lumber — more than half of the total tonnage last year 
was furnished by lumber and lumber products — but its ton mile 
rate is quite high. This is one of the factors that permits it to 
operate at a low ratio. This low operating ratio is essential. 

The Southeast is developing more rapidly in many ways than 
any other section of the country. The country is covered with 
a network of railways, most of which, with the exception of a 
few great main lines, are cheaply built and capable of carrying 
only comparatively light traffic for which, to handle on a profit 
basis, they must charge a high ton-mile rate. Notwithstanding, 
however, the large proportionate mileage of branch lines and 
light railways, the country has by no means as yet grown up to 
its railway facilities. On the Southern Railway it is probable 
that traffic could be increased five or si.x times on hundreds and 
hundreds of miles of branch lines without increasing the facilities 
of these lines with the exception of rolling stock. This is even 
more true of a considerable number of independent short lines. 
These short lines now make more or less of a living because they 
are local enterprises, but were they brought together and made 
part of a large system, competing with the older lines and no 
longer local businesses but foreign corporations witli a capital 
C, they might well find it impossible to earn even their fixed 

'S^tltr^ to the SdUon 



The Mechanical World Pocket Diary and Year Bock for 1912. Emmott & 
Co., Manchester, England. Cloth, 4 in. x 6 in., 263 pages. Price, 
12 cents. 

The twenty-fifth annual edition of this publication appears 
promptly, and with some improvement over previous issues. The 
section on steam turbines has been rewritten and extended con- 
siderably, with new illustrations. There are new sections deal- 
ing with roller bearings, helical springs and milling cutters, and 
a number of new tables. The book is more fully illustrated than 
formerly, and the whole work has been subject to a thorough 

Technology and Industrial EfRciency. Published by the McGraw-Hill Book 
Company, New York. 6 in. x 914 in. 486 pages. Bound in cloth. 
Price, $3.00. 

This volume contains the proceedings of the Congress of Tech- 
nology, held in Boston, Mass., last April at the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology. Some seventy papers are included 
which form a valuable and up-to-date record of the present state 
of industrial science, including the presentation of some of its 
problems and probable solutions. The six sections into which the 
congress was divided are represented by papers on : Scientific 
Investigation and Control of Industrial Processes, Technological 
Education and its Relation to Industrial Development, Admin- 
istration and Management, Recent Industrial Development, Public 
Health and Sanitation, and Architecture. These divisions are 
logical and comprehensive. 

Pittsburgh, Pa., November 29, 1911. 
To THE Editor of the Railw.w Age Gazette : 

Mr. Ballantine's paper entitled "Locomotive Efficiency and 
Condition Reports'' which appeared in your paper October 27 
strikes me as retrogressive. It did seem a short time ago that 
the railways had gone statistically mad, but the present tendency 
is to railroad more in the present and less in the past. 

If the government regulating e.xperts and scientific manage- 
ment experts would give real railway men of the type of Atter- 
bury, Kruttschmitt and Hine a chance they might yet save the 
valuable properties which our too zealous critics seem bent on 
destroying. Let us grant that old business methods were not 
all they should have been, and publicity and agitation were 
necessary. Would it not be well to cease the agitation for awhile? 
The men as well as the customs of the old days are gone. Give 
the new men a chance. Prosecutions for real wrong and perse- 
cutions as a hobby are quite different. 

Brandies and Emerson, with their irresponsible $l,O0O,OOO-a- 
day talks, do not attempt to show where the waste is, or how 
it can be corrected. This $1,000,000 a day seems an enormous 
sum, but is it? Figures are only comparative, and does $1,000,- 
000 a day waste represent more than 10 per cent, of the gross 
income? Is it possible to operate any corporation or even house- 
hold with less than 10 per cent, waste? In fact, would it not be 
painful to be keyed up to 100 per cent, efficiency in all our ac- 
tions? The gross earnings of all the railways in the United 
States for the last fiscal year were $2,787,266,136. Ten per cent, 
of this is $278,726,614, or $763,635 a day. Ninety per cent, effi- 
ciency means, then, $763,835 a day waste. Odd figures do not 
make an attractive headline, so the more attractive figure of 
$1,000,000 a day waste was given. Analysis really shows this 
statement to be an estimate. Ninety per cent, is considered a 
good average in anything. If the statement had been that the 
railways were wasting 20 per cent, of the gross earnings, and 
that at least 10 per cent, of this should be saved, it might not 
have made such an attractive headline, but it would have been 
more logical. 

Before we abandon this efficiency-statistical craze it would be 
interesting to have figures showing the cost of productive and 
non-productive labor on the railways. It would not be surprising 
to find the latter near the 50 per cent. mark. What is the answer? 
Too much so-called efficiency. 

After all, what do these lawyers and engineer enthusiasts know 
about railway operation. Wt admit that the educated man who 
enters the railway service and makes an honest study of the 
intricate railway problems should make a better railway man than 
the one lacking education. We do not admit, however, that the 
man who has taken a railway course in some school can tell us 
anything about railway operation. 

The Pennsylvania and Harriman Lines have railway schools 
(apprentice courses) that have .been turning out real efficiency 
men for years. 

Shop supervision is more simple than operating supervision. 
The railway people know this, however, and are trying to get 
effective supervision closer to the actual operation. The unit 
system now in operation on the Harriman Lines is a practical 
step in this direction. 

This lack of on-the-ground supervision represents phenomenal 
traffic growth instead of inefficient management. The organiza- 
tion which a few years ago gave us on-the-ground supervision 
has grown with the traffic, until the superintendent of today has 
almost as much traffic and as many men to look after as the 
general manager of a few years ago. What is needed, and what 
is coming, is reorganization below the position of superintendent, 
which will give this on-the-ground supervision. 

January 5, 1912. 


To get back to Mr. Ballantine's paper. The railwaj'S have dis- 
covered that efficiency and statistics can be overworked, and they 
are trying to get away from the unpractical. While the politi- 
cians and efficiency men think they have discovered something 
new, and are calling for all kinds of statistics, the railways have 
learned that what is needed is fewer post-mortems and more ac- 
tion. Dwell less on what was done yesterday and get on the job 
today, and there will be less concern about the net earnings show- 
ing up on the wrong side of the ledger. Conductors, roundhouse 
foremen and yardmasters already make too many reports that 
are at best only good estimates. When an emergency arises we 
find the reports did not give the picture as had been intended. 
We then fall back on the expert explainer. He discovers some 
new factor that has thrown our machinery out of gear. The evil 
is not corrected, but the excuse lets us out temporarily. 

We have a board of uniform cost, but we find uniformity of 
cost is more apt to run to the maximum than to the minimum. 

We have a store department, which apportions supplies to all 
departments. One department has been fortunate, not using all 
its supplies, but to provide for a rainy day the full allotment for 
the next period is drawn. It might be necessary to bury some 
bridge stone, or rails, or perhaps resort to the scrap pile, so 
the inspector will not catch us with a surplus, but the labor 
necessary to do this also being alloted, the expense will not 
show up against us. 

The serious nature, however, of the allotment evil is for the 
chap who has had to use his allotment. For example, each 
roundhouse is allotted a certain number of engine parts. The 
roundhouse manages by patch jobs, etc., to keep the engines go- 
ing, but some foreman less fortunate than the others will have 
the same part on several engines to give way entirely, and his 
whole allotment is gone in a few days. He makes requisi- 
tion for an additional supply. After much correspondence and 
grilling by a chief clerk, or a storekeeper who has been a chief 
clerk, his mechanical knowledge being nil, the much needed parts 
are furnished. In the meantime, each engine that comes to the house 
for running repairs is robbed of the needed part in order to keep 
the engine in service, the job being done and undone a half 
dozen times before the supply arrives. When it is impossible to 
resort to the robbing system you have the gratifying spectacle 
of a $15,000 piece of machinery lying idle for a week, awaiting 
a $2 part. 

These are some of the "efficiency" methods that our practical 
railway men are trying to get away from, but to go off half-cocked 
and try something that might be worse would be poor policy. 
The railway officials saw these leaks long before the efficiency 
people knew they existed. Mr. Kruttschnitt's paper in the 
Rail'tvay Age Gazette of May 5, 1911, shows the good work of the 
past. It might be known that a leak existed, but a watertight 
bung might not be easy to find. We will always find the railway 
official on solid ground several years in advance of the self-styled 
efficiency man. 

Bigger men closer to the actual operation and fewer statistics 
would seem more along the line of real efficiency. 

Regulation is here to stay and this is really as it ought to be. 
It should be, however, by one commission in no way governed by 
politics, and not by 48 commissions all more or less influenced 
by politics. 

In conclusion, why do not the efficiency men try to solve the 
question of the real inefficiency men, union labor? This is a 
purely social question and inore properly comes within their 
province. Why delude ourselves longer under the guise of policy 
or political expediency, with the argument that combinations of 
labor are necessary? Justice to the working man is necessary if 
we wish to get efficient service, but the present position of union 
labor is selfish and untenable, their one idea being to get the 
maximum wage and give the minimum service. What will be 
the government's position in the struggle which cannot be much 
longer avoided? Are the railways to be arbitrated out of exis- 
tence? The past decisions of the arbitration courts have been to 

give the men all they asked for. If the other decisions are 
to be similar we might as well prepare for government owner- 
ship. Y..\RDMASTER. 


Ottaw.\, Ont., November 29, 1911. 

To THE Editor of the Railway Age Gazette : 

In the issue of the Railway Age Gazette of November 17 I 
find a short letter of my own on this subject,* and note that 
the editor has kindly stated that he will allow me a little more 
space in which to further consider the matter of supplies, and 
the supply department. 

I have no quarrel with any one who claims that the supply de- 
partment has not reached perfection. In fact, I have small use 
for those who think it, or their particular part of it, has reached 
that desirable point. From that class we can only look for that 
self-complacence that is death to advancement and improvement. 
But surely it is rather late in the day to intimate that there is 
no place in the railway world for the supply department organ- 
ization. D. A. D. cites two roads that have no such organization ; 
and they were doing very well, thank you, when last heard from. 
As I don't know anything about these roads, I will only take his 
word for their happy state, and let it go at that. The only road 
I have known of late years without a supply department never 
got more than two jumps ahead of the sheriff in its life, and 
finally its foot slipped. When rounded up, and started on again 
it had a supply department, of a kind, added to it. Verbuin sat 

Now, I am not saying that the lack of a supply department 
organization put this particular road "into clear," but the fact 
that there was no supply organization indicated that there was 
a lack of organization generally. Had the men in charge organ- 
ized their supply department, such an act on their part would 
have indicated a good work finished and done. For we all know 
that this is the last piece of work in the organization line under- 
taken. Its absence was only the outward and visible sign of an 
inward and real lack of cohesiveness : result, it fell to pieces. 

In looking back over the history of our railways we find that 
they have been built up bit by bit, and piece by piece, as the need 
of the parts were felt, with, until very recently, small regard to 
the thing as a whole. How imperfect the whole is has been 
pointed out by better men than I ; but we of the supply depart- 
ment have at least as good a right as others to feel that our 
small brick was not added to the pile until the need of us was 
felt. If we do not yet fit in well is the fault more with our 
brick than with the others? I am not so sure but what the fault 
lies more in the foundation than the superstructure, for who can 
honestly say that the place of the supply brick is not in the 
foundation itself, rather than stuck on to some corner in an at- 
tempt to bolster up a none too steady structure? 

The trouble with the question of supply is that we hate it. We 
hated it when as a boy we filled that old woodbox behind the 
stove. We hated it later when the "kiddies'" wanted new boots, 
that wore out so quickly ; and we continued to hate it when we 
were general manager of a railway, and the same old question 
held us down, and made our annual reports look so cheap. But 
as it is the beginning, the middle, and the end of all things, 
we cannot get away from it ; so we must face it, as we would 
any other enemy, and subdue it lest it devour us. It cannot 
be eliminated ; to tame it, and keep it in reasonable bounds, is all 
we may hope to do; and for that purpose we have the supply 
department organizations on our railways. That they are im- 
perfect we allow, but the knowledge that not one other depart- 
ment is perfect enables us to keep on with some small hope for 
the future. 

I have no desire to point out defects in other departments; 

•This was the letter entitled "D. A. D. and the Supply Department," 
and signed "Storekeeper." 



Vol. 52, No. 1. 

the live ones know them for themselves, and it is a waste of 
breath to talk to the dead ones. If we of the supply department 
do not know most of ours, it is not because we have not been 
told of them ; we have, by all and sundry. But so long as we 
are only accused of trying to save our company money we feel 
that we cannot be so far wrong. A wise statesman once said 
that when he went- to steal apples he always looked for the tree 
with the greatest number of sticks lying around it; on it was sure 
to be the best apples. If we can only manage to twist that into 
a simile for our own case, we would be happy, but can we? 

In the beginning, man, each of him, hunted for himself alone, 
later for himself and mate. In the early days of the railway it 
was much the same; and the first attempt at organization was 
the appointment of the purchasing agent, or the setting apart of 
one to buy for all. There are men living today who can remember 
that they thought this move settled the question for all time. 
But to their surprise it settled nothing beyond the fact that they 
knew little, or nothing, about the matter. It did not decrease the 
outlay as a whole, nor did it show more clearly than before 
what it was costing to order, receive, and distribute the material. 
On attempting to learn this, the business was found so mixed up 
with the regular work of the different departments, that it could 
not be separated, nor could the cost be even guessed at, while the 
only interest the departments felt in the matter was to get all 
they wanted, and a little more, to be safe. For this reason each 
department had its own little surplus, which in the aggregate 
made a big one, and j'et there was no surplus for general use. 
So the next logical idea was that, if it was good business to have 
one man devote his time to buying for the whole, why not have 
one or more men receiving, caring for, and distributing for the 
whole? And here is where the storekeeper, and storehouse, 
enterea on the scene. 

In what way was this move designed to be of general benefit? 
There were many reasons why it should be. In the first place, 
it removed a large amount of work from the department offices 
that did not fit in well with the work the department office was 
designed to perform, and left those offices in much better shape 
for carrying on their legitimate functions. It took the work out 
of the hands of men to whom it was a secondary matter, and 
placed in the hands of men to whom it was the first, and if 
properly done, only matter. It brought supplies to a central 
point, and placed the surplus at the disposal of all. The man, 
or men, to whom the handling of supplies was now the chief 
aim, would naturally become proficient in the work, and pro- 
ficiency has generally meant economy. 

Now, as to the cost. For here we have a new department, and 
we know what it costs. But is the cost more, or less, than under 
the old plan? Who is there that can answer this question and 
show the figures to prove his statement? I refer here to the 
cost of handling, receiving, caring for, and distributing. Owing 
to the manner in which the work had been mixed up with the 
department work, we cannot well get these figures, but the work 
was there to be done, and it was done, and as we have never 
yet succeeded in getting something for nothing, nor any great 
amount of work done at that price, it is only fair to assume that 
it was paid for. But we don't know how much was paid for it, 
and we like to know what a thing costs. As done by the store- 
keeper we do know, and would it not be also fair to assume that 
in doing it, and it alone, he does it at least as cheaply as it was 
done by many others, who had other, and from their point of 
view more important, duties to perform? I think it would be 
fair to assume this without further evidence. But now and then 
we can get a small amount of what we might call corroborative 
evidence. For instance, when a department other than the sup- 
ply department, owing to local conditions, and the wish of some 
official, assumes the care of certain material and supplies, report- 
ing same to the supply department, we find one of two con- 
ditions : Either the supplies are not properly looked after and 
reported, or the work is well done, but more money is spent in 

doing it in proportion to bulk and value than when it is done 
by the supply department people. And the money so expended 
does not appear in the right place, for it is not shown as expense 
in connection with supplies. Now, before setting the above down 
as a prevarication, take a look around and see what you can find 
for yourself. 

I am not sure that I grasp D. A. D.'s full meaning when he 
says the development of the store department has been one sided. 
If I may take it that he means it is, as yet, incomplete, I would 
be glad to agree with him. It is. For one thing, it has not as 
yet secured such complete control of material and supplies as 
it should have, and there is constant effort on the part of minor 
officials, and some who are not so minor, to further weaken 
that control. Will our critics say that the reason for this is that 
we have shown ourselves incompetent? Well, now, would a 
general manager consider himself, and the results he can show, 
fairly judged if his authority were restricted, or his control of 
the property incomplete? I think not. 

The question, "Have you given due weight to concealed items 
of expense in arriving at the point of handling company's mate- 
rial?" is very much to the point. But I am not sure that the 
full force of this question is levelled at the supply department 
men. The man who asks that question knows that many of the 
concealed items are not concealed by him; he is not called on to 
show them up, and oh ! my brethren, how many of you have 
seen a railway man digging up "concealed item" of expense for 
the fun of showing them to the "old man" and hearing his 
opinion of your department? Alas, the supply man is only 
human, and if it be permitted that others take a few "items" and 
bury them, as they do, can we expect him to rob a grave just to 
make a smell around himself? 

But why are there concealed items at all? That brings us 
back to our starting point: our dislike of the whole question; 
right back to that old woodbox that we were always filling, and 
that would not stay full. Do you remember how we would slip 
the tough old "chunk" off to one side in the hope that some one 
else would tackle it, or how we would cross the bottom sticks 
so it would take less wood to make a showing at the top. And 
how our little tricks were always seen through? Well, "men are 
but children of an older growth," and in some way or other we 
are still filling our woodbox, not loving it yet, and playing our 
poor little tricks. Then along comes D. A. D. and kindly, but 
firmly, with a twinkle in his eye, tells us to "saw wood." All 
right, D. A. D., there are no hard feelings, but we hope you can 
spare a day soon, to help with some of those hard chunks that are 
too much for our, as yet, weak arms. You swing a good axe, 
and little you care where the chips fall. 

In spite of all the stones thrown at us, we doubt if there are 
many railway officials who would be willing to see the supply 
department eliminated. Why, what would then become of that 
old stock excuse for delay to work "waiting on the stores." 
Like a good lie, it has become "our ever present help in time of 
trouble" to so many of us. I say us, because I have sat in the 
seat of the scornful myself, when the question of supplies, with 
me, began and ended with my own small wants, and little I 
cared for the quantity or cost, so long as I could show my piece 
of work complete, in a manner to' pass inspection. And am I 
not as other men knowing one thing at a time, and that im- 
perfectly ? 

The supply department was created for a purpose, when the 
need of it, for that purpose, was felt. It is imperfect, as all work 
of man is imperfect, but before being judged either for praise 
or condemnation it must have a fair trial, and it cannot be tried 
fairly until it has full scope in its own field. The mechanic who 
is allowed to begin a work that a man of less training will 
finish — should he be held responsible for the finished article? 
And we ask for an extended jurisdiction, and more complete con- 
trol. The writer to whom reference has been made points out 
clearly and sharply the manner in which the chief executive 

January S, 1912. 


officer will so often give purely perfunctory attention to requisi- 
tions, even at times refusing to sign them at all, but passing 
them on to the supply department, with a hint to supply what 
they can't hold back, or words to that effect. Now, I sym- 
pathize with that chief executive officer from the bottom of my 
heart. How is it possible for him to know that each of these 
hundreds, nay, thousands, of items are actually required, and in 
the quantities shown? He cannot. But do you say he has there 
the signature of his heads of departments to show? Tha'. all is 
well ; but if he is a wise old bird he has learned long ago that 
in this matter of supplies the signature of his chief of department 
is only too often there simply because his foreman, or cl;ik, 
has signed it ahead of him. And what is the chief executive do- 
ing when he acts thus more than applying to this half-understood 
matter the principles of the most modern political science, and 
leaving it open to the referendum, and recall, after it has passed 
the test of the purchasing agent's analysis, and bid for prices? 
There is a reason for such action on the part of the e.xecutive. 
He has his supply department ; why should he not make use of it 
to the utmost? 

On the other hand, let me cite a case. A manager who was 
most painstaking in viewing each item on requisition reduced 
the number of hand lanterns and monkey wrenches, then signed 
the sheet so amended, with a feeling of duty done. But he had, 
in looking for small things, overlooked an item for a piece of 
machinery that a foreman had a notion he wanted, and that 
cost more than all the other items put together. The requisition 
was signed ; there was not the sympathy between the executive 
and the purchasing agent that there should be; so the ma- 
chinery was bought without further reference. The manager 
nearly had a fit when he had to approve the invoice, and to help 
soottie his feelings he found he had created an extremely 
awkward situation on his road, because there was want of hand 
lanterns and monkey wrenches. Oh, no ; this was not on your 
road, but I know the road, and men. And there are others. 

The executive is appointed to operate the railway, and the 
many departments are created, each to do a part, and assist in 
the whole, and while they must all work together we hear little 
complaints from one against the other. Indeed, some of them 
are so far apart, and come in contact so little, that it would 
be strange, indeed, if they should not find anything to disagree 
about. But far or near, great or small, they all come in contact 
with the supply department, and they come with complaints. 
We cannot say to them, come with a good will or come not at 
all, for they must come. We would not exist if they were not 
here, they could not exist if we, or something to take our place, 
were absent for long. Are they justified in their complaints? 
At times, perhaps, yes. But is not a man prone to forget quickly 
the one thousand times his wants have been met, and remember 
long the one time he has had to wait? One charge they have 
not yet made against us, and that is that we are too liberal 
with the goods intrusted to our care. Responsibility has made 
us conservative. But while the departments charge us with 
following a niggardly policy, the executives are firm in the belief 
that we delight in handing out everything we have, and roming 
back, like the daughter of the horse leech, with cries of "more," 

We have good authority for the statement that man cannot 
serve two masters, but we must keep trying to do so, anyway, 
and if we do not succeed in fully satisfying both we can at least 
plead that we are attempting the impossible, and leave it to fair 
and understanding minds to say to what extent we have failed. We 
have many problems ahead of us ; the railways are in themselves 
a great problem. Their history is a history of great things done, 
and many costly mistakes made. D. A. D.'s criticisms and ques- 
tions are mostly pertinent and to the point. But we have long 
known that a person of inferior mental capacity may often 
puzzle a sage, so it would be strange indeed if the old gentle- 
man would not have the boys guessing at times. He does not 

hit the supply department any harder than he does some others, and 
honest criticism should do us good, rather than harm. We are 
called the "spending department." Know then all men by these 
presents, that it is our ambition to be, and some day be known 
as, the "saving department." We can take no part in selling 
that "intangible commodity, transportation," that you other de- 
partments deal in, but we do help in making it for you to sell. 
We give the best that is in us to our part in serving each and 
everyone of you, and helping you to make money. Do you, then, 
give our part some thought, and help us to save? The end is- 
the sum. Devote a little time to the thought of what you can 
get along without, rather than to figuring on how much you can 
get. Collect your tag ends of unused raatfirial and send them to 
the supply men. If you can't use them to advantage, someone 
else may be able to do so, and if they can't, the supply man just 
loves to turn them into cash. That is about the only chance he 
has to bring money in. 

The alleged fallacy that the user of material cannot be trusted 
with its custody was not introduced by the store people; far 
from it. The store people were introduced because many good 
men had, after years' of experience, come to the conclusion that 
it was not a fallacy. 

The editor says, in defense of D. A. D. against "Orphan," 
that D. A. D. knows all about storekeeping. Well, perhaps he 
does, but, if my salary would allow of it, I would like to make a 
small bet, that he was never a railway storekeeper for very long. 
It's a very subduing occupation, and who can read "D. A. D.'s'' 
exuberant effusions, and dream that he has ever been subdued? 
He skips like a roe upon the mountain, clearing obstacles with 
a bound, regardless of what may be beyond, in a manner that 
excites our admiration and envy. But, alas, we have in our time 
placed our profane feet, hastily, where even the angels walk 
carefully, or not at all, and the resultent slip has taken the "skip'' 
out of us. 

The user of material is the man who does the work. Have we 
ever seen the time when we considered it unnecessary to watch 
and supervise that work? Could we expect to get satisfactory 
results if we did not do so? Then, if it is necessary to check 
him in the thing by which he must stand or fall, the thing that 
is of first and vital interest to him, surely it is necessary to 
check him in a matter that is of secondary interest. Let me 
illustrate; A member of the B. & B. department sends to his 
chief a requisition for a carload of B grade 2 in. planking. His 
chief, with many calls on his attention, signs the requisition, and 
it goes through until it reaches the supply men, or, say, the store- 
keeper. He, being familiar with material and prices, as well as 
having a general knowledge of the work going on, wonders why 
a carload of best quality plank is required in the district from 
which the requisition came, and he returns the requisition to the 
maker of it, asking just what the plank is to be used for, and 
learns that it is required for repairs to coal bins. Result, a sav- 
ing of $200 on the carload, and the work does not suffer. This 
is one fact taken at random from many at hand. 

The truth is that the man who actually fills the requisition is, 
if he knows his business, the best critic of the same. I venture 
to say that there is not a railway storekeeper in America but has 
many such items in his records. But he has no authority in the 
matter, and must handle them with diplomacy, and make the 
eflfort again and again, even when turned down with contumely 
by those who are more jealous of their fancied prerogative than 
they are of their company's interest. 

The supply man is judged by the departments on his ability 
to meet promptly all of their real, and fancied, wants ; what a 
good time we could all have here if there was no hereafter. He is 
judged by the executive on the smallness of his stock on hand, 
and the amount of his bills payable; how easy to prepare for 
the hereafter if we did not have to live in the present. 

Storekeeper, Grand Trunk. 


Vol. 52, No. 1. 



The Duliitli & Iron Rniigc has recently completed a new ore 
loading dock at Two Harbors, Minn., wliich replaces a wooden 
structure known as dock No. 1. The new dock makes use of 
steel instead of timber framing, reinforced concrete for bin walls 
and foundations, has an improved type of door for controlling 
the flow of ore and provision for raising and lowering the spouts 
by electric power. In addition to the increased capacity, these 
features of design embody the principal improvements made in 
ore dock construction in recent years. 

The new dock is on the same site as the one it replaced, its 
center line being 18 in. from that of the old and parallel to it. A 
timber trestle approach 225 ft. long and a steel approach 317 ft. 
long lead up to the dock proper. The inner end of the timber 
approach is on a 9 deg. 30 min. curve, and both the timber and 
steel approaches are on a 0.304 per cent, grade rising towards 

^2 ft. tower girders and 63 ft. intermediate girders. The cross 
section of bent No. 7, shown in one of the accompanying draw- 
ings, illustrates the framing of these steel Iients, and the accom- 
panying elevation of the dock and approaches illustrates the 
transverse bracing used in the towers. The bents are supported 
on concrete pedestals carried on piles, the pedestals being spread 
to form a concrete cap over the head of the piles. The double 
track diverges to four tracks over the third tower of the steel 
approach. The section carrying the double track has four girders, 
the section carrying four tracks has six girders and the section 
over the third tower, where the change is made, has five girders. 

Intermed'iafe cross ties have4--/2 rods:^ 

■ 46-0" - 





/3' 'j~^^^| 

Sfeel Approach. 

Framing of Steel Bents in Approach and Dock Proper. ^^ 

the dock. The dock itself has 112 ore pockets on each side, each 
pocket being 12 ft. long, making a total length of 1,344 ft, in 
addition to which there is at the outer end a tower 32 ft. long 
on which engines at the head of ore trains can be run so as not 
to interfere with tlie filling of the outer pocket. This length of 
dock provides for the simultaneous loading of four of the largest 
boats used in the ore traffic. The dock is 51 ft. 8 in. wide, ex- 
clusive of machinery platforms, and -74 ft. high above mean water 
level, or 65 ft. 6 in. above top of masonry. 

The timber approach consists of 14 framed bents spaced 15 ft. 
center to center, with the exception of the last three bents, the 
spacing of which is made irregular to allow the outgoing engine 
track to pass under the structure. The timber approach carries 
a double track laid on 8 in. x 16 in, stringers. The steel approach 
consists of four towers made up of three-column bents carrying 

Section on i a'f Inner End. 

Verfical bars in face ofs/ab 
/ ^doubletJ fo/£'radius. 

Details of Reinforced Concrete Foundation Slab and Cross 


The foundation of the dock proper consists of longitudinal 
concrete slabs under the two rows of pedestals tied together by 
transverse concrete cross ties at intervals of 24 ft. The piling in 
the foundation of the old dock was utilized as far as possible to 
support the new concrete foundation, piles being driven where 
necessary to complete the cribs under the new structure. The 
continuous concrete slabs are supported on pile cribs consisting 
of rows of seven piles spaced 2 ft. 6 in. apart in the row and 3 ft. 
between rows. Each tie wall between these slabs is carried on a 


Plan iamp post-^ Motor drnotor bearing^ 


- Timber approach.- 



- Sfeel approach. 
r Grade 0.304 on approach 

^ Track-) 

Outgoing Engine Track.— "j^------^ ^^ x-TsJ ^ 

prBase of Rail kj 

^Dock wftti pockets 

ay — r~^ ^ '.^l^eqn water level of Lat<e Superior. L^op of Piers 
3ZW~63'-0'-\'3c:-0\f^f^^ m-Pockefs @ IS-0''l344-0' 

t- — l2@l5-0'-l80-0' -kff%i'4-32-:'i?t-e3; 

Plan and Elevation of New Dock and Approaches; Duluth & Iron Range 

Jani-arv 5, 1912. 


single rnxv of piling driven on 2 ft. 6 in. centers. The entire 
foundation under tlie dock is enclosed by a wall of wooden sheet 
piling, and the space between cribs is tilled with sand or gravel. 
The piles extend 1 ft. 6 in. into the concrete slabs. 

The details of the concrete slab are shown in a drawing repro- 
duced herewith. The slab is 4 ft. thick reinforced in both the 
upper and lower reinforcing planes by lJ/2-in. round bars tied 
together by 1-in. spacing bars. This depth of slab is increased 
over the pile cribs on either side to enclose the tops of the piles 
and to provide a fender for boats lying alongside. The face of 
the flab is reinforced by 1-in. round bars doubled to a 12-in. 
radius and spaced 24 in. center to center. The center line of 
pedestals supporting the steel bents under the dock is 10 ft. inside 
the face of the concrete slab. These pedestals are 4 ft. 9 in. 
square on top and are battered one to four. They are reinforced 
by l-)^-in. scrap rods set parallel to the surface of the concrete 
near each corner and extending down into the concrete slab. 
The concrete cross ties connecting the continuous slabs are 3 ft. 
wide and 4 ft. thick. The six ties at the inner end are reinforced 

support 6 in. x 12 in. liUer planks on which is laid a 3-in. hard 
maple floor. The pitch of this floor is 48 deg. with the horizontal, 
which is 3 deg. steeper than has been commonly used. It is ex- 
pected that this change will considerably facilitate the emptying 
of the bins. The partitions between the bins, which are placed 
directly over the supporting bents, are of reinforced concrete 12 
in. thick, in which are embedded vertical structural steel members 
which carry the load on the dock tracks down to the supporting 
bents. Each pocket has a capacity of 4,150 cu. ft., or 290^4 tons 
on the basis of 140 lbs. per cubic foot of ore. The outside face 
of the bins is made up of 3-in. planks secured to 4-in. nailing 
pieces placed inside longitudinal channel members which arc tied 
to the vertical members in the partition walls by 1^ in. round 
rods. Machinery platforms and galleries for operators are pro- 
vided on the dock on built-up cantilever structures. Each rail 
of the double track on the dock is laid directly on a 20-in. 6S-lb. 
I beam stringer, and the spacing between the rails is left entirely 
open. The tracks are spaced 10 ft. 4 in. center to center. 

The structural steel in the dock conforms to American Railway 

J 1 


Approx/'mafe pas/ f ion When 

Half Section Over Bent. Half Section Between Bents. 

General View of Dock Construction. 

Slic'~.uii}g framing of bins, macltincry flalforms and galleries; also fositions of ore pocket door and spout. 

by eight l;'2-in. rods tied with I -in. spacing bars, and the re- 
mainder of the ties are reinforced by four rods placed near the 
corners of the section. 

The framework of the dock is structural steel, the bents being 
spaced 12 ft. apart and consisting of built-up H sections carrying 
72-in. longitudinal girders which directly support the weight of 
the bins. Each H section coUunn consists of one 18-in. 60-lb. I 
beam, two plates 24 in. x ".s in. and four angles 4 in. x 4 in. x 
13/16 in. The coluiuns are 28 ft. 1^4 '"• h'gh and rest on cast 
iron bases 1 ft. 6 in. high. The two columns in each bent are 
spaced 37 ft. center to center, as shown in the cross sections. The 
transverse bracing in the bent consists of built-up angle sections. 
The flooring of the bin is carried directly on the A-frames of the 
bents and on two 24-in. llS-lb. I beams, spaced 2 ft. 7% in. each 
side of the center line of the pocket. Longitudinal purlin angles 
V/i in. X 35^ in. x H i"- riveted to the bents and to these I beams 

Engineering .Association specifications for unit stresses and .Amer- 
ican Bridge Company specifications for workmanship. In making 
the design impact was added only for track stringers and vertical 
posts supporting these stringers. The live load on the track was 
calculated by the loading diagram illustrated in the sketch shown 

The slope of the Iiin floor which, as mentioned above, is 48 
deg. from the horizontal changes at a point 8 ft. 6 in. above the 
lower edge of the chutes to 45 deg. It has been customary 
in dock design to provide small chutes ZYz to 3 ft. wide allowing 
two, and sometimes three, openings from each pocket. By the 
use of an improved door design this dock was equipped with a 
single opening for each pocket 5 ft. wide, and 3 ft. high. The 
details of the chute and door are shown in one of the accompany- 
ing drawings. An ore pocket door has ordinarily been hinged at 
the upper end and it has been very difficult to shut it in the face 



Vol. 52, No. 1. 

of a stream of ore. In the design illustrated the door is counter- 
weighted. Its upper supporting point travels in a vertical groove 
and its lower edge is connected by a link to a rod moving in an 
inclined groove. The door is held closed by a dog, which pre- 
vents the movement of the rod in this inclined slot. When it is 
desired to open the door a lever connected with this dog and 
extending up to the operating platform is thrown over, removing 



(I) CD 





s-T-^ r-io'-^s'-7~ 
Loading Diagram Used in Design of D. & I. R. Dock. 





the dog from the path of the rod and allowing the rod to travel 
downward in the slot. The counterweight at the same time 
pulls the door upward removing it entirely from the spout open- 
ing. To close the door it is lowered by means of the counter- 
weight until the lever operating the holding dog can be thrown 
into the closed position. The arc described by the lower edge of 
the door has been so calculated that when the door is being 

Door for Controlling Flow of Ore. 

pushed into the ore stream the resultant pressure is practically 
normal to the floor of the pocket so that the minimum resistance 
to closing the door is encountered. The spout is of steel 34 ft. 
long, 2 ft. 6 in. high and 5 ft. wide. When in use it rests at an 
angle of about 45 deg., although it is possible to lower it until 
the slope is about 65 deg. from the horizontal. The spout is 
supported by a flat wire rope H in. by 5 in. attached at a point 

about 7 ft. from the end of the spout. The upper end of 
this rope is wound around a drum connected to an electric hoist 
located on the machinery platform at the top of the dock. These 
hoists are operated in groups from a line shaft, 10 drums being 
connected to each motor, which requires a total of 11 motors on 
each side of the dock. The hoisting drums and line shaft are 
connected by friction clutches controlled by operating levers on 
the machinery platforms. The motors are designed to lift one 
spout at a time and no counterweights are provided. The spouts 
are prevented from dropping suddenly by pawls so arranged that 
the spouts must be hoisted slightly before they are released. 

This dock was built under the direction of W. A. Clark, chief 
engineer of the Duluth & Iron Range. The American Bridge 
Company had the contract for fabricating and erecting the steel 
and the hoists were designed and built by the Whiting Foundry 
Equipment Company. 



Under private ownership the railways of the United States, 
built and operated for profit, have grown far beyond the measure 
of the growth in other countries, where, for the most part, rail- 
ways have been the care of the government. Our mileage per 
capita is five times that of Europe and ten times that of the 
world at large. Stocks and bonds outstanding per mile of line 
are a little over half the average amount per mile on the foreign 
railways, and the freight traffic per mile is three times as great. 
Rates per ton-mile are lowest in the United States, less than 
half of the average charged in other lands. Private enterprise, 
dominated by ambition, has fostered the growth of railways in 
this country not only in length and carrying capacity but in the 
direction of cheapness and efficiency. 

Even before the assumption of control over rates by the 
Interstate Commerce Commission and by the several state com- 
missions, the growth of our railways had become slower and 
of altered character. Fifteen years ago the progressive lower- 
ing of rates that characterized the preceding sixty-five years of 
our railway experience reached, at length, the point vv-here it 
limited both form and rapidity of growth. High rates, where 
railways are operated for profit, mean rapid construction, new 
competition and, in due sequence, reduction of the rates. Until the 
depression of 1893-1896 rates in this country, although they had 
been steadily reduced, were still high enough, in view of the 
growth of traffic and the cheapening of construction costs, to 
make it profitable to build. The characteristic of the whole rail- 
way era had been swift expansion. 

Then the time of low, limiting rates arrived. Railway growth, 
while not absolutely pausing in mileage, turned from the goal 
of new revenues so that of operating economies. Capital sought 
decreased costs, which were certain, instead of increased haul, 
which was now of dubious profit. Growth turned visibly from 
light traffic extensions and competing routes to improvements on- 
heavy traffic lines. In due sequence the absence of new' com- 
petition has made itself felt and the rates have become more 
steady. For these fifteen years they have been stationary. 

The record of the extension of lines (with the rates for w-hich 
they were extended) reads as follows by decades: 



Rate per 

Rate per 


of Line. 
















































•1880. tl883. 

Railways are generally built for their prospective earnings.' 
The influence of rates on construction is seen in the percentage- 

•From an article in the Yale Review for October, 1911. and reprintedl 
from it by permission. 

January 5, 1912. 



of increase more clearly than in the actual miles of new line. 
At the beginning this was a poor country and the cost of railway 
building, with hand labor and high prices for rails, was great. 
A mile then involved more effort than five miles now. Viewed 
in this light, the period ending with the Civil War was one of 
swift expansion. For the next thirty years construction was 
still at a rapid advance, averaging 8 per cent, per annum of the 
existing mileage. For the last twenty years the expansion has 
been only 2 per cent, a year, or less than the growth of popula- 
tion. The great prosperity of the past ten years has not mate- 
rially stimulated building, aUhough there is abundaiit room for 
new lines. Low rates have limited the growth of railways. 

Nearly all the construction done since the days of Iiigh rates 
passed has been under three heads: (a') Branches of existing 
lines which could obtain a long haul over their connecting rails ; 
(b) important through routes (usually in connection with exist- 
ing roads) ; (c) development lines to coal or lumber holdings, or 
other sources of heavy tonnage. Only in those sections of the 
country where rates are still high, as in the Far West and the 
South, is any considerable amount of new mileage of any class 
still undertaken. 

Instead of buildihg extensions the railways have turned, in the 
last fifteen years, to making improvements. The following table 
shows how their facilities have grown and the effect on the 
traffic capacity : 

2d, 3d, and 4th Freight 

Track and Sidings Cars in Ton-Miles 

Year. Owncd-Miles. Operation. Freight Carried. 

1894 54,825 1,205,169 80,335,104,702 

1899 63,070 1,295,510 123,667,257,153 

1904 84,830 1,692,194 174.522,089,577 

1909 106,949 2,073,606 218,802,986,929 

Per Cent. Increase Fifteen Years 

95% 12% 172% 

per Mile 
of Line. 


is by no means too early to review the situation and point out 
its tendencies. 

In so doing, to be fair, the immediate and most evident results 
of the decisions of the Interstate Commerce Commission in the 
Trunk Line,* and Western, rates cases, handed down last Feb- 
ruary, must be entirely disregarded. It is true that orders for 
equipment have practically ceased; that the rail orders are halting; 
that entrenchment is the watchword with maintenance as well as 
with improvements ; that extensions are in abeyance, and that 
there is no money to be had for new lines. But these are tem- 
porary effects, the result of shock, and will pass. In the end the 
purposes and practices of the Interstate Commerce Commission 
will be clearly understood and fully reckoned with. 

Railway growth is a matter of interest on money invested. 
The capital requirements for the next five years, according to 
the rate of development of the recent past, will be $500,000,000 a 
year. The incentive to growth which will cause this sum to be 
forthcoming lies wholly in increased net earnings. Contrary to 
the popular conception, the railways are not, and have not been 
even in these last few years of prosperity, operating on a basis 
of wide profits. Their margins have been narrow. If the new 
regulation exerts an appreciable effect on rates or on expenses it 
will have a great deal of effect on growth. 

The following table, based on operations and not on capitaliza- 
tion, shows what returns the railways get out of the business 
they actually do. It is compiled from the Interstate Commerce 
Commission reports, omitting duplications : 

This table reverses the story of the table showing extension of 
lines. Instead of slowing down, as in the case of new construc- 
tion, the railways have built more rapidly. They have added 
nearly as much to facilities in the last fifteen years as they had 
accumulated by 1894 during all their previous existence. Nor 
does the table tell the full story. The average capacity of freight 
cars was 28 tons in 1902, the first year reported. In 1909 it was 
35 tons. No doubt the average in 1894 was below 25 tons, and 
the increase since that date in total load-capacity, if not in cars, 
has been well over 100 per cent. And besides these items of 
tracks and cars, the reducing of grades, straightening curves, 
strengthening bridges, ballasting and putting down heavy rail, 
not shown in the table, have used up a sum of money running 
into hundreds of millions of dollars. As a consequence of their 
vast outlay for improvements, the railways are able to carry 
twice as much freight per mile of line as in 1894, or two and 
three-fourths times as much altogether. 

The railways were not only forced from extensive development 
by low rates. They were forced into intensive development ; 
because they had to cheapen their haul. The increased density 
of traffic that is a necessary consequence of accommodating a 
rapidly growing country to a slowly growing mileage finally 
resulted, as every one knows, in an unwonted prosperity for the 
existing lines. Railways are pre-eminently subject to the law of 
increasing return. They have accordingly, while not immoderate 
in their distribution, paid of late years a much larger aggregate 
of dividends than in the days of high rates. Out of their dis- 
tress they brought a measure of abundance. The passing, thus 
clearly marked, from the era of competitive building and high 
rates into an era of non-competitive rebuilding and low rates, has 
worked to the great advantage of established lines and settled 
communities and to the disadvantage of new roads and unsettled 
or thinly populated regions. 

During the last five years, and particularly since the amend- 
ment to the Interstate Commerce Act that went into effect a 
year ago, a new and powerful influence has been brought to bear 
upon the current of railway growth. It is too early to measure 
closely the effect of the downward control over rates and the 
upward control over expenses imposed by public authority. It 

Year end- Gross 

ingjune30. Earnings. 

♦1889 $964,816,129 

•1894 1,073,361,797 

1899 1,313,610,118 

1904 1,975,174,091 

Net Earnings % Net 
after Ta.xes. to Gross. 







$25,794,090 3 

20.855.071 2 

26,044,996 2 

49,380,970 2.5 

73,586,827 3 

•1889 and 1894 approximated. 







% to Surplus after 
Gross. Dividends. 







The average operating profits of the railways have been 30 
cents out of each dollar received for transportation. Out of this 
30 cents they paid 25 cents fifteen to twenty years ago for interest 
on borrowed money, and within the last few years have paid 15 
cents. In dividends they paid 7 cents in the earlier years, trench- 
ing on accrued surplus to do so, and have now increased the 
distribution to 10 cents. Since the crisis of the nineties a balance 
of 7 cents, out of the dollar charged the shipper and out of 
"other income," has been put back into the property or applied 
to deficits and general corporate needs. 

Any cut in rates would operate to reduce the margin available 
for improvements. A cut amounting to 5 cents on the dollar 
would impair dividends on all roads of lesser strength and 
threaten the dividends of the rest. A 10 cent reduction would 
directly injure many bonds and indirectly weaken the security 
of all bonds to an extent that would send quotations down and 
make new financing impossible. There is, therefore, no appre- 
ciable margin for reduction of rates without prejudice both to 
the properties themselves, to their owners and to their creditors. 

Some hold the opinion that bonds and stocks are so watered 
that the payment of the current interest and dividends is an 
injustice, and that rates should be reduced in spite of the injury 
to security holders. The equity and policy of this position may 
be doubted, but it would be idle to make direct answer. No 
appraisement has been made of railway property as a whole. 
The value, on any reasonable basis, is probably measurably near 
the total of stocks and bonds outstanding; but this value cannot 
be proved in the absence of an appraisal. However, even those 
who hold this opinion concede that rates should yield a fair 
return on the actual railway investment. The circuit court in 
Minnesota has recently affirmed the right of railways to a 7 per 



Vol. 52, No. 1. 

cent, return on values approximating, for the roads of that sec- 
tion, the actual issues of securities. As a hypothesis, a 6 per 
cent, return may be asumed to be both moderate and ample, and 
the following table can be constructed to show the theoretical 
capitalization upon which the railways are actually receiving 6 
per cent. : 

Year end- Miles of Miles of Effective Per Mile Per Mile 

ingjune30. Line. Track. Capitalization. of Line. of Track. 

1889 153.385 186,627 $4,983,909,767 $32,493 $26,708 

1894 175,691 229,796 6,026,460,650 34,301 26,225 

1899 189.295 252,364 5.717.236,300 30.203 22.655 

1904 212,243 297,073 7.996.961,383 37,678 26,919 

1909 235,402 342.351 10,414,900,733 44,243 30,422 

Average $35,784 $26,586 

The "effective capitalization" is the sum of t'he interest and 
dividends actually paid out divided by 6 per cent. It has no 
relation to the par value of railway securities outstanding. 
Watered stocks which pay no dividends can obviously have no 
bearing on rates, while stocks that pay 12 per cent, should, with 
equal obviousness, be conceded a weight of double their par 

The effective capitalization, or figure upon which a 6 per cent, 
return is received out of rates paid, is really very low, just as it 
stands, when measured per mile of line and per mile of track. 
It includes, however, several items which, in proper fairness to 
the railways, might well be segregated from the capitalization 
of the lines as such. In 1909 the outside investments of the rail- 
way companies, not connected with rail transportation, produced 
a clear income of $73,586,827. Capitalized at 6 per cent, these 
investments represent $1,226,447,117 out of the $10,414,900,733 
total. In 1909 also the railways, in consequence of the rapid in- 
crease in their quota of equipment, owned 57,212 locomotives, 
45,584 passenger-train cars and 2,172,696 freight and company 
cars. Prices for the heavy purchases of recent years have been 
higher, so that it is conservative to postulate an average cost 
of $12,000 per locomotive, $4,000 per passenger car, and $800 
per freight car : at which prices the value of the equipment 
becomes $2,607,036,800. The sum of these two items is $3,833,- 
483.917, which, being deducted from the $10,414,900,733 total, 
leaves $6,581,416,816 as the capitalization of the railway lines 
proper. This figure amounts to only $27,958 per mile of line, 
and $19,224 per mile of track for 1909, the best year of railway 
history for which detailed statistics ,are obtainable. For any 
previous year the figures would be still smaller. This net ef- 
fective capitalization is sufficiently low to show clearly that the 
railways are not distributing 6 per cent, on an inflated valua- 
tion. It is undoubtedly far below the costs of construction for 
the railways of the country as a whole. It is below the general 
valuation obtained in the partial investigations made by state 
railway commissions, w'hether based on original cost, reproduc- 
tion cost, depreciated cost, or cost including intangible assets 
such as traffic and location. 

In a sense there can be no average cost of building railways. 
Some lines have been laid down across flat prairie at $10,000 to 
$12,000 a mile. Others, like the Virginian, with heavy rails, 
ballast, steel bridges, tunnels, great cuts and fills, and excavations 
of rock, have cost over $100,000 a mile in cash. Aside from 
mere construction costs, the terminal real estate alone, in which 
each city calls for its own heavy investment, would eat up prob- 
ably half, at present prices, of the $6,581,480,816 net capitalization. 
Ties and rails and right of way do not make a railway. The 
general cost, which has never been completely measured, is al- 
most certainly above $40,000 a mile. 

The popular impression that railways are imposing exorbitant 
capital charges on their traffic arises from the fact that some 
conspicuous railways pay large dividends, and that the total of 
stocks and bonds issued on the railway properties, according to 
the Interstate Commerce Commission report, is $59,259 per mile 
of line. The point is lost sight of that the overcapitalizations of 
the dark ages of railway financing, 25 to 40 years ago, handed 
dov.-n to us in one form or another, have been as a general rule 
punished by inability to earn dividends. In 1909, 36 per cent, of 

stock and 10.5 per cent, of bonds paid nothing, although that 
was (with the possible exception of 1907) the most prosperous 
year the railways had ever had. The net capitalization, exclud- 
ing idle stocks and bonds is small, and the average of the divi- 
dends and interest paid is low. 

Still, though dividends and interest be moderate, the objection 
is heard that the railways are piling up large surpluses out of 
earnings beyond what they distribute to their owners, and that 
this in effect constitutes an unreasonable burden on rates. To 
this objection the Interstate Commerce Commission, both in the 
eastern and the western rate cases, has unfortunately lent the 
weight of its authority. 

In any sober consideraion of the matter it is nmch to the 
credit of our railway managements that they have, to a con- 
servative extent, foregone dividends in favor of improvements 
to their lines. The process does not add to the burden carried 
by the rates. In England stockholders take, as by right, the 
entire surplus earnings. So in that country capital account is 
necessarily added to, year by year, for improvements here pro- 
vided out of surplus. In twenty years' time the interest on the 
added capital under the English plan amounts to just as much as 
the annual appropriations of the American plan, and in the long 
run it comes to impose a direct burden on the traffic. As a 
matter of experience the capitalization of the English roads, 
now $274,964 per mile, has grown to unwieldy proportions, and 
the lessening of operating costs through improvements that 
would allow lower freight rates, lags far behind the American 
standard. Our practice should not be condemned. It is thor- 
oughly sound finance and lightens, rather than increases, the 
weight of the tariffs. 

Upon complete examination, therefore, of the earnings of rail- 
ways it is plain that rates are low enough and contain no undue 
charges whatever on account of capital invested. Those who 
use the railways could hardly ask a reduction in the price for 
the services rendered. From the standpoint of growth, which 
is that of public interest, the rates are too low. 

No case has yet been before the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission relating to the general reduction of rates. That body 
has, thus far, merely picked out individual rates here and there 
and decided cases involving one form or another of discrimina- 
tion. The only cases involving the general rate level were those 
decided against the railways last February on their application 
to increase their charges. 

These cases were disappointly barren of facts, but rich in indi- 
cations of policy bearing on the future of railway rates. The 
position both of the railways and of the Commission was futile, 
and the final result was that of a case not proven. In effect the 
argument of the railways was that they should have higher rates 
because they were oppressed by their expenses and needed the 
money. They were unwilling, or unable, to establish fixed cri- 
tria- of a reasonable return from transportation and rested on 
the assumption that their old rates, prior to late increases in 
wages, were fair and should now, therefore, be raised to match 
the cost of operation. 

The reply of the commission was that the former rates, while 
carrying a certain sanction from long usage, afforded no absolute 
standard of reasonableness. Figures — inaccurate and misleading 
because of the inclusion of duplicated dividends and duplicated 
capital, and because of the accrual in surplus both of premiums 
on stocks and bonds and of amounts that would, under the sys- 
tem of accounting devised two years ago by the Interstate Com- 
mission itself, now be written off for obsolescence — were ad- 
duced to show the great prosperity of the railways. To the 
plea of the railways that they were in need, the commission 
replied in effect that they had had plenty of money the year 
before ; and so were not entitled to higher rates this year. But, 
said the commission, if you ever come to dire want (referring 
beyond doubt to a time when the whole country should be in 
the throes of distress), come to us and we will raise your rates. 
The railways were looking ahead to a period of lean traffic and 
high expenses. The commission was looking back to full traffic 

January 5, 1912. 



and lower expenses. In fact it had so little appreciation of the 
actual situation as to prophesy that net earnings for 1911, now 
fallen off from 10 to 15 per cent, in the trunk line territory par- 
ticularly in view, would be substantially as high as they were in 
1910. It proved impossible to persuade the commission to take 
any but an academic view of the actual facts. 

As to principles, both sides were in error in thinking stress a 
proper excuse, or a period of depression a fit time, for the 
raising of rates. There could be no grosser favoritism than to 
levy on distressed industries a forced contribution for tlic benefit 
of distressed railways. It is altogether against fair play. The 
commission takes but an empty view of its own powers in 
dreaming that it can, by fiat, accomplish the saVvation of the rail- 
ways in an hour of crisis. What is nece.ssary is tliat rates shall 
be set so firmly on a basis of prosperity for the railways in time 
of prosperity that they can meet adversity out of their own 
accumulated strength. Otherwise rates are radically insufficient. 
This, in other words, is the opinion of Judge Sanborn in the 
Minnesota rate decisiop, handed down last April. 

As to results, the railways were net ruined, or pernianentiy 
damaged, by the refusal of the commission to grant the increases. 
The average annual increment to net earnings for the nine pros- 
perous years ending with 1907 was $50,000,000. The total of the 
rate increases asked for. East and West, would also have pro- 
duced about $50,000,000. Thus the roads were, in effect, peti- 
tioning to be set forward a year or two in tlie recovery from the 
present dull times. At the worst the decision deprived them of 
no more than two years' growth. 

After a time they may get part of the relief asked for, not 
along the lines of the specious argument of Mr. Brandeis, who 
accused them of wastefulness, but from the natural fall of costs 
and, perhaps, of wages. More they may look for from the ulti- 
mate return of traffic to its ordinary increment of volume. In the 
meantime their earnings are unsatisfactorj' and their growth is 
at a standstill, except for bare necessities. Rates are too low 
for the conditions and too low for sound and healthy progress. 

As to the future of rates, these cases were an inconclusive 
episode. For an increase, the burden of proof is, by the express 
terms of the Interstate Conmierce Act. placed on the carriers. It 
is always difficult to obtain an increase in charges from a super- 
visory body, constituted at once judge and public advocate, and 
it may be imagined that few increases will be granted under the 
new law. As to decreases, on the other hand, the burden of 
proof is, implicitly, upon the commission. Such decisions will 
be reviewed by the courts, which will hardly sanction a general 
return on railway investment below the existing scanty reward. 
The tendency of rates under regulation w-ill no doubt be down- 
ward, but it will also be. and more strongly, towards crystalliza- 

In two respects, otherwise than by direct influence on rates, 
the principles enunciated by the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion have an adverse bearing on the growth of railways. The 
commission does not recognize the costs of abandonment and 
reconstruction, or of non-income producing improvements, as 
capital outlay, but as charges to be defrayed out of income. At 
the same time it frowns upon tlie undue burdening of present 
rates with the cost of improvements designed to benefit the 
future. Thus, if the reasoning he carried into effect in subse- 
quent accounting regulations, such improvements must come out 
of the pockets of the stockholders, being payable neither out of 
capital nor out of surplus. Naturally the improvemen's would 
cease to be made. The intensive growth, the characteristic for- 
ward policy of the present era, must then come to a full stop 
except in those infrequent instances where it constitutes a ck\ir 
addition to the existing plant, without replacements. 

With respect to extensions, the commission states in explicit 
terms that the pioneering must be done at the risk of stockholders 
and not at the risk of shippers on the existing lines. That is to 
say, not only must each branch stand by itself fan object nat- 
urally in view in its construction) but the rates on the existinf; 
lines can carry no margin of surplus applicable to its deficits. 

As is well known, extensions are ordinarily unprofitable for the 
first three or four years. The customary method of building 
railways, the only safe way, and the one followed in the develop- 
ment of all our railway systems, is to make the old lines carry 
the new, and to throw forward the advance from time to tiine 
only as the established traffic can carry the new capital cost. 
New construction will generally cease if the commission con- 
trives, as it may, to put into effect its views on extensions. 

The order given against the general advance in rates has now 
been supplemented by the decision in the Spokane and Inter- 
mountain cases, handed down in July, as well as by a number 
of minor decisions leaning towards reduction of rates. The 
principle of the Spokane case was different from that involved 
in the question of rate advances. The issue was discrimination, 
the familiar discrimination in favor of competitive points that 
■s incorporated not only in the present rate system but in the 
currents of traffic, in the construction of lines and in the estab- 
lished commerce of cities. Although there may be justification 
for modifying the inter-mountain rates on the ground that dis- 
crimination here is excessive, the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion has gone further in principle, and by a rigid interpretation 
of the amended long-and-short-haul clause, has declared abruptly 
for an upsetting of most important and delicate rate fabrics else- 
where. The decision will cause the transcontinental lines an 
estimated loss of $6,000,000 in net earnings if it is sustained by 
the courts; and other roads must face, it is to be feared, similar, 
if smaller, encroachments on earning power. 

Ultra-radical decisions are perhaps not to be expected from 
the Interstate Commerce Commission, biased althougli it appears 
to be and jealous of its own powers. It is a broader minded 
body than most of the state railway and public service com- 
missions whose place and whose functions it must increasingly 
assume. Its decisions uill themselves be regulated and mode- 
rated by the courts. Nevertheless, of a certainty, retardation of 
growth is implied in any such general supervision and regulation 
of rates by governmental authority as is now entrusted to the 
commission. Hope of profit has built our railways and keeps 
them on the battle line of progress. But wherever there is an 
attempt to secure the public interest by direct coinpulsion (which 
is the essence of regulation) profit, beyond a mediocre com- 
pensation for the use of money, or the grudging allowance of 
reward to exceptional efficiency, stands in the by and large for 
an unreasonable exaction. 

There are many ways in which railways can cease to grow. 
"Economizing" in maintenance, now going on, is one of them. 
They can make the old cars, old rails and existing grades and 
facilities do. They can lay off men. They can cut down the 
passenger service, usually an expense in proportion to its direct 
return. They can cease to anticipate heavy traffic by buying a 
surplus of freight cars, and .so force the shipper to wait his 
turn when the press of business comes. They can hold back the 
building of branches, making the farmer haul his produce a 
longer distance or leave his new land untilled. Where they 
nmst still expand they can buy a cheaper grade of equipment, 
build inferior lines, scant their facilities and second tracking. 
In sliort, they can cease to cope with the advance in the com- 
munities they serve. They do not desire this. In fact, they 
regard it as a calamity that they are forced, temporarily and in a 
measure only, into this path. The mere enumeration of items 
indicates sufficiently well the state of inertia into which regula- 
tion tends to press the railways. 

If wisely guided, the Interstate Conunerce Comnn'ssion lias a 
field of usefulness in preventing discrimination in rates. In the 
regulation of the general rate level, moderate though it may 
attempt to be and little subversive of the existing order, its 
influence cannot help but be injurious. The living rate for the 
railway is one low enough to make the traffic grow, and high 
enough to make the railway grow. It regulates itself and has 
produced in this country an unexampled development both of 
railways and of traffic. The reasonable rate for the Interstate 
Commerce Commission or for any governmental commission is 



Vol. 52, No. 1. 

based on evidence of existing costs, existing traffic and existing 
investment. It is not a living but a dead rate unless imagination 
or speculation in the future enters into it. If the rate be artifi- 
cial it will not produce growth. A mould can only set the form. 

The regulatory system may confer, in the end, the boon of 
stability and heavy traffic upon the companies at which it is 
directed, with steady profits on capital already invested ; but it 
will surely visit with blight the companies yet unincorporated 
and the growth of railways yet to be made. 


On January 1 John C. Stubbs retired as director of traffic of 
the llarriraan system of railways. For several years it had been 
known to his more intimate friends that Mr. Stubbs intended to 
relinquish active service on reaching the age of 65, from a settled 
conviction that a man of that 
age holding a responsible posi- 
tion should sever his connec- 
tion with active affairs as a 
duty both to himself and to 
the institution he represents. 
Several months ago this pur- 
pose became publicly known 
and a few weeks ago, at the 
time of the general readjust- 
ment of the Harriman lines 
plan of reorganization, the 
date was fixed as January 1, 
although Mr. Stubbs' sixty- 
fifth birthday does not occur 
until May 31. 

With his entrance into 
private life, Mr. Stubbs has 
taken up his residence in his 
boyhood home town of Ash- 
land, Ohio, although he still 
retains his connection in an 
advisory capacity with the 
railway system he has served 
for over 40 years. That Mr. 
Stubbs does not, however, feel 
entirely ready as yet to give 
up all railway work is indi- 
cated by the recent announce- 
ment that he has been engaged 
to examine and report upon the 
condition and requirements of 
the property of the Wabash 
Railroad, now in the hands of 

On Thursday, December 28, 
Mr. Stubbs was tendered a 
farewell banquet in the crystal 
room of the Blackstone Hotel 
in Chicago, by many of the principal officers of the western rail- 
ways, including presidents, vice-presidents and legal and traffic 
officers. "Thirty," the telegraphic code for "that's all," was en- 
graved on the menus in commemoration of his retirement. 

Mr. Stubbs has spent practically all of his business life in the 
traffic department of the railways now comprising the Harriman 
system. In October, 1870, when in the second year of his rail- 
way service, he became chief clerk in the general freight office 
of the Central Pacific at Sacramento, Cal. For the past ten 
years, as director of traffic of the Harriman System, he has held 
an office unique in the railway world, with jurisdiction over the 
traffic department of 18,000 miles of road. 

By virtue not only of this powerful position, but also of his 
own personality and remarkable ability, Mr. Stubbs has for 
many years held a commanding position in the transportation 
world and has perhaps exerted a more potent influence on the 

John C. Stubbs. 

traffic destinies of the western half of the United States than 
any other one man.. He was very largely responsible for the 
development of many important industries of the Pacific coast 
tlirough his policy of making rates to foster a business that other- 
wise would be unable to compete in distant markets. For 
example, he is fond of telling the circumstances surrounding tha 
first important eastbound shipments of raisins from California. 
A Sacramento farmer who wanted to make the shipment came 
to him to find what the rates would be. The tariffs had named 
$3 per 100 lbs. The farmer thought the shipment would stand 
$1.75. "Then, that is the rate," said Mr. Stubbs, and the general 
office confirmed it. 

Mr. Stubbs was born May 31, 1847, at Ashland, Ohio. After 
a common school education his first railway experience was 
gained during his connection with the army in the Civil War, 
when he was assigned to transportation service and employed in 

checking government freight. In 
March, 1869, he entered the 
service of the Pittsburgh, Cin- 
cinnati & St. Louis as clerk in 
the general freight office at. 
Columbus, Ohio. In October, 

1870, he transferred his alle- 
giance to western railroading 
as chief clerk in the general 
freight office of the newly- 
opened Central Pacific at Sac- 
ramento, and on December 1, 

1871, he was promoted to the 
office of assistant general 
freight agent. From July 28, 
1873, to March 5, 1882, he was 
general freight agent, and 
from May, 1882, to October 1, 

1884, he was freight traffic 
manager of the same road. 
On October 1, 1884, he was 
appointed general traffic man- 
ager of the same road and 
leased lines. On February 27, 

1885, after the Southern 
Pacific had taken over the 
Central Pacific he was made 
general traffic manager of that 
company, and in December, 
1889, he was elected third vice- 
president of the Southern 
Pacific. After E. H. Harri- 
man had merged the Southern 
Pacific and the Union Pacific 
systems, he selected Mr. Stubbs 
and Julius Kruttschnitt as the 
keystones of his great operat- 
ing organization, with Mr. 
Kruttschnitt as director of 

maintenance and operation and Mr, Stubbs as director of traffic 
at Chicago. Mr. Stubbs held this position from July 9, 1901, until 
the date of his retirement. He was succeeded by Lewis J. Spence, 
who, for some time, had been his chief assistant at Chicago. 

On October 5 a line in China was completed, which is not very 
long but quite important, and extends from Canton to the 
British town Kow-loon, on the main land opposite Hong Kong, 
where a large part of the commerce of China is transacted. It 
is 106 miles long, extending along the coast, about 19 miles be- 
ing in English territory, this part having been built by an Eng- 
lish company. The work was begun nearly four years ago. It 
has to compete with steamers for the through traffic. There is 
one express train, with but one stop between Canton and Kow- 
loon, which makes the 106 miles in five hours. 

LVNUARV 5, 1912. 




Indirect liglning, wliich has been used extensively in hotels and 
•other public places because of the even light and soft tones, has 
recently had two applications to railway passenger equipment. 
The dining cars on the Santa Fe Train de Luxe, which were 
illustrated in the Railway Age Gazette of December 15, 1911, 
page 1207, were lighted in this way ; also the dining and observa- 
tion rooms in the private car for B. F. Yoakum, chairman of the 
board of directors of the Frisco lines, which has just been com- 
pleted. Although the Santa Fe cars were the first ones to be 
actually placed in service with this system of lighting, the possi- 
bility of using it was first considered in connection with Mr. 

The center lighting fixture in the observation room is similar 
to the one in the dining room, except that the glass bowl is leaded 
with a combination of frosted, white granite and amber glass ; 
the latter is used sparingly — just a spot here and there for design 
and to relieve the monotony of the frosted and granite glass. 
The ceiling of the room is finished in a cream white and the side 
walls are of mahogany. 

Two small electric lamps, of the direct lighting type, are located 
under the lower deck in both the dining and observation rooms. 
Both the center fixtures are large, compared with those usually 
found in cars. The effect when lighted and also in the daylight 
is pleasing ; this is due to the severe interior treatment of the 
rooms. The mahogany finish is very plain, with simple molding 

Arrangement of Indirect Lighting Fixture in B. F. Yoakum's Private Car. 

Yoakum's car, wiiich, however, was a little slower in building 
than the Santa Fe cars. 

The lighting fixture in the dining room is placed in the center 
of the room and is supported by four cast bronze chains. The 
bronze or metal portion is finished in verde antique, and the 
bowl is made of leaded glass, which is of sufficient density to 
give a soft color when lighted by the lamps inside of the bowl. 
No useful light for illuminating the room passes through the 
bowl. Underneath the twelve 25-watt tungsten lamps is placed a 
metal reflector, which redirects the downward rays of light to 
the ceiling of the room, allowing just enough light to pass the 
reflector to light the colors in the glass bowl. The ceiling of the 
dining room is finished in a dull ivory white, while the side walls 
are finished in. mahogany; the carpets are green. 

and plain panels. Tlie large lighting fixtures are, therefore, the 
only decorative spots in the rooms and these lend themselves 
to the carrying out of the color scheme as well as to the 

That the illumination from these central fixtures is exceedingly 
good in both the rooms may be seen from a study of the read- 
ings at various points, which were obtained with a Sharp Miller 
illuminometer. The readings were taken 3 ft. above the floor, 
and their value may be more readily understood by reference to 
the table showing the requirements in foot candles, for various 
services, as compiled by Barrows. The location of the points at 
which the readings were made is shown on the accompanying 
diagrams. The direct electric lights were not in use when these 
readings were taken. 



VoT. 52, Xo. 1. 

Lighting Requirements in Foot Candles for N'arious Services as 
Compiled by Barrows. 

Assembly rooms, corridors, public spaces 5 lo 1.5 

.Audiloriums, theaters 1 to 3 

Cieneral illuniination of residences 1 to 2. 

[Good clear print 1 to 1.5 

Reading \ Newspaper print 2 to 2.5 

I. Postal service 2- to 4 

Churches -' '" ■* 

T -1. 1 General illumination 1 to 2 

Library ( R^ajing tables 3 to 4 

Ball rooms - to 3 

Desk lighting 2 to 5 

General illumination of stores. 2 lo 5 

Bookkeeping ard clerical wcrk 3 to 5 

Clothirg itorcs 4 to 7 

Display of dark goods 5 to 10 

Drafting, engraving 5 'o'O 

Street lighting bv gas 0.05 to 0.25 

Street lighting by electricity 05 to 0.60 

Light from full moon O.OJS to 0.03 

Plan of Observation Room Showing Where Illumination 
Readings Were Taken. 

Ilu'mination in Dining Room, Using Twelve 15-Watt Tungsten 
Station. Foot Candles. Station. Foot Candles. 

.... 1.60 6 1.82 

9 0' 7 2.50 

5 ■> n'fj K 2.20 

4 \' .'. 2.20 •) 2.50 

5 1.68 10 2.55 

Average, 2.06 foot candles. 


Station. I'oot Candles. Station. Foot Candles, 

3 3.60 8 6.40 

4 3.40 9 4.62 

5 1.96 10 2.70 

.\verage, 3.28 foot cantlles. 

Indirect lighting will probably be used extensively on private 
cars, dining cars and possibly parlor cars. The effect of the 
light is most pleasing, but a considerably larger amount of power 
is required than for ordinary lighting. The fixtures in Mr. 
Yoakum's car were supplied by the Safety Car Heating & Light- 
ing Company. Pintsch gas is used as an auxiliary. The car was 
built at the St. Charles, .Mn., plant of the .American Car & 
I'oundry Company. 

Plan of Dining Room Showing Where Illumination Readings 
Were Taken. 

Illumination in Dining Roo.m, Using Twelve 25-VVatt Tungsten 


Foot Cai 
1 81 




Foot Candles 














.\verage. 2.48 foot candles. 

Illumination in Observation Room, Losing Twelve 15-Watt Tungsten 



Foot Candles. 
. 2.26 
. 3.20 

6 . . 

Foot Candles. 
. ... 2.43 


I lie principal part of the 25th annual report of tin- Interstate 
Conmierce Commission, sent to Congress, December 20, was 
abstracted in the Raihimy Age Gazette, December 22, page 1282. 
In addition to the subjects there dealt with, the report has chap 
ters on the work of the statistical division, on railway accidents, 
on safety appliances and other matters connected with the physi- 
cal operations of railways and on a number of minor matters. 
The chapter relating to decisions of the commission and of the 
courts contains a list of 62 indictments which have been returned 
in the federal courts during the past year, and another list of 
42 prosecutions which have been concluded during the year. 
The four cases which have been decided by the Supreme Court 
of the United States during the year are the following: Against 
the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, sustaining the order of 
tlie commission forbidding the combining of shipments to make 
carloads ; the Galveston Terminal case, forbidding discrimination 
by giving exclusive privileges on a wharf ; the Willamette Valley 
case, dealing with shipments of lumber from Oregon to San 
Francisco, in which the commission ordered a reduction in the 
rates, although it was admitted that the former lower rates, 
which were ordered restored, had been unreasonably low ; and 
the Elevation case, dealing with' the grain elevators at Council 
Bluffs, which was noticed in the Railway Age Gazette of Decem- 
ber 22. page 1294. The principal cases which have come before 
the commerce court are described at some length. 

The Division of Carriers' Accounts during tlie past year has 
made extended investigations in the offices of the larger trunk 
lines and of the 13 large express companies; and the accounts 
of industrial railways have been investigated. Switching and 
terminal railways are now being investigated. The commission 
believes this work to be highly useful. 

There is a chapter on shippers" claims, setting forth, in some 
detail, how some railways do injustice by slow and unbusiness- 
like methods and also how unlawful advantages are given to 
shippers by the allowance of claims unjustly large. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1910, the railways of 
the country paid out in settlement of claims for loss of or dam- 
age to freight the sum of $21,941,232. For the year before that 
the sum was $25,000,000. and the year before that $27,500,000. 
The 1910 sum mentioned amounted to 1.1 per cent of the total 
freight revenues. Thus, while the percentage appears to be 
diminishing, the commission thinks there ought to be a further 
reducticn. It is hoped that in co-operation with the Freight 
Claim .Association an improvement can be effected. Discussing 
undercharges and other loose practices, the commission suggests 
that Congress make it compulsory for the carrier to collect full 
charges, say within 90 days, and, if not collected within that 
time, it shall be deemed guilty of giving a rebate to the shipper. 
It appears that cases have arisen where the shipper was called 
(ipon more than two years after the delivery of goods to pay an 
amount in addition to that paid at the time of delivery. 

The compilation of the annual reports of the railway ccnipa- 
nies for the year ending June 30. 1910, is now in the hands of 
the printer. .A preliminary report for the year ending 12 months 

January 5, 1912. 



later (June 30, 1911) for companies having gross annual reve- 
nues of $10,000,000 will soon be issued. This report gives many 
classes of items which have not been heretofore shown in any 
of the commission's publications. The number of companies in- 
cluded in this abstract is 62 and they operate 171,745 miles of 

A table is given classifying the mileage covered by the opera- 
tions of the 13 principal express companies — whether rail, boat 
or stage; another table giving the income of the express com- 
panies as a whole; and a third giving the revenues and expenses 
of the Pullman Company from July 1, 1911, to October 31. This 
department has secured annual reports from electrical interurban 
railways for four years, and the number of companies reporting 
is increasing year by year ; but as this information is not com- 
plete it has been deemed inadvisable to include it in the annual 
published report. The Division of Statistics has also secured 
information from pipe-line companies. The commission says 
that the decision, last October, of the Commerce Court, holding 
that the commission could not demand from a steamboat com- 
pany statistics of traffic not subject to the interstate commerce 
law, will make it impossible to compile useful information from 
such steamboat companies and will necessitate additional legisla- 
tion if the commission is to continue the work of developing 
operating statistics. It expects, however, that the railways will 
not take advantage of the present situation to interrupt a prom- 
ising line of statistical work. The railways have made reports 
to the commission for over twenty years, covering both inter- 
state and intrastate traffic, and they will not take advantage of 
this court decision allowing them to cut out the intrastate sta- 

The report contains a short chapter on railway accidents, giving 
the statistics to the end of the last fiscal year, June 30, 1911. 
These figures were given in the Railway Age Gazette, November 
10, page 957, in connection with the last accident bulletin. Refer- 
ence is made to the investigations which have been made of 
train accidents, but the reports of these accidents are not printed, 
and nothing is said as to whether they will be. The investiga- 
tions have generally been conducted by the inspectors of safety 
appliances "by reason of their special training and peculiar 
fitness for the work." It is declared that "the construction of 
cars and locomotives is tending toward an ever-increasing stand- 
ard of dimensions without a proportionate betterment of track 
conditions." Statistics are given of derailments during the past 
ten years which were caused by defects of roadway. The com- 
mission recommends legislation looking to the establishment of 
uniform train rules throughout the country and repeats certain 
recommendations made by Mr. Belnap in one of his reports of 
an accident investigation. 

Under the head of safety appliances the report says that many 
of the railways have inefficient inspectors. A review is given 
of the courts' decisions relating to the safety appliance laws. 
The commission is gratified to find that the railways are equip- 
ping existing cars and engines in accordance with the order of 
March 13 last, fixing standards of ladders, running boards, brakes, 
etc., in accordance with the law of April 14, 1910. One com- 
pany had 4.000 cars equipped within three months from the date 
on which the law went into effect. During the year suits have 
been begun to prosecute railways for 23 violations of the loco- 
motive ashpan law, and penalties amounting to $1,600 have 
already been collected. The hours-of-service law having been 
sustained by the Supreme Court of the United States, 153 roads 
formerly refusing to make reports have signified their readiness 
to comply with the law. There is a gratifying decrease in the 
service of men beyond the hours named in the law, but the 
railways present unreasonable excuses for delays, such as hot 
boxes, poor coal and couplers pulled out. Sixty-three prosecu- 
tions have been begun under this law, and penalties amounting 
to $7,526 have been collected. Judge Trieber, in a suit against 
the Kansas City Southern, has rendered a decision which, if 
sustained, will do away with these unreasonable excuses. Judge 

Willard has held that it is not excusable to detain an engineman 
or fireman after sixteen hours "to watch the engine" ; but, on 
the other hand, he holds that where a crew remained at a sta- 
tion and neglected to call the telegrapher from his house the 
company is excusable. As these and other decisions bring out 
conflicting views, the commission again suggests that Congress 
make the law more definite and clear. 

Referring to the work of the Block Signal and Train Control 
Board, which has now been in existence four and a half years, the 
commission says : 

"The Board renews the recommendation contained in all of 
its preceding reports for the compulsory use of the block system 
on all passenger railways. It concludes that automatic train 
stops, if properly installed and maintained, will materially con- 
tribute to the safety of railway travel. It further concludes 
that in many situations the use of automatic train stops is urgently 
demanded. The board is convinced that the principles of design 
and application of automatic train stops are such that the rail- 
ways, if required to use them, would find little difficulty in secur- 
ing appliances of this kind which would meet their operating 
conditions. The board believes that the railways have been de- 
cidedly lax in developing devices of this character. As a conse- 
quence of this laxity there has been so Httle actual experience 
with such devices on steam surface railroads that the board 
expresses doubt whether at this time a legislative requirement 
for the use of automatic stops would be wise. It believes, how- 
ever, that such action should be taken if due diligence is not 
exercised by the railways in developing this highly important 
means of safeguarding railway travel. 

"The time has come when something more than mere investi- 
gation is necessary, and there should exist some central authority 
with power adequately to deal with the question of safety upon 
railways in all its phases. Existing safety legislation does not 
produce results at all commensurate with their cost. Many mat- 
ters that have a vitally important bearing upon safety in railway 
operation are entirely neglected because no adequate means exist 
for dealing with them. Any future legislation on this subject, 
to be effective, should deal as comprehensively with the whole 
subject of the physical operation of railways as existing legisla- 
tion now deals with the subjects of railway rates and accounts. 

"The opinion is expressed that the time has come in this 
country to inaugurate a system of control over the physical 
operation of interstate railways similar in character to that now 
administered through the British Board of Trade. This opinion 
is not unanimous, however, as one of the board members, Mr. 
Adams, believes that the establishment of such a governmental 
agency would be an experiment in an untried field, and holds that 
action along this line should be deferred until after experts 
appointed by the government, with power only to investigate and 
report, have had an opportunity to study the general subject of 
railway operation." 

Following this summary of the views of the board, the com- 
mission renews its recommendation of legislation for the com- 
pulsory use of the block system, but beyond this makes no recom- 
mendations. The views of the board, however, are "entitled to 
careful consideration." Believing that a temporary board with 
the limited means available cannot profitably continue the inves- 
tigations on which it has been engaged, the commission does not 
ask for an appropriation to continue it beyond the present fiscal 

The commission on October 3 adopted regulations for the 
transportation of dangerous articles. These regulations have 
just been issued (Raihvay Age Gazette, December 29, page 1347). 
The inspection of locomotive boilers under the law of last Febru- 
ary has been begun, and 47 district inspectors have been ap- 
pointed and assigned to their districts. In the three months fol- 
lowing July 1 last, 6 persons were killed and 32 injured by boiler 
accidents ; whereas in the three months immediately preceding 
that date 12 persons were killed and 260 injured. 

Mention is made of the investigation of the derailment on the 



Vol. 52, No. 1. 

Lehigh Valley at Manchester, N. Y., August 25 (the report o£ 
which has not yet been issued), and the attention of Congress is 
called to the need of investigating the causes of rail breakages ; 
but the commission does not desire to make the investigation ; 
there are, doubtless, it says, other bureaus under other depart- 
ments of the government that are competent to do such work with 
competent men. The commission thinks that possibly it is de- 
sirable to require from the railways comprehensive reports of 
wheel failures ; and that the manufacture of wheels as well as 
of rails ought to be investigated. The commission repeats the 
recommendation made to Congress on February 22 last, in re- 
sponse to a resolution of the Senate, that the use of steel cars 
in passenger trains be made compulsory after a suitable interval, 
say ten years. 
The commission summarizes its recommendations as follows : 

1. That section 6 of the act be amended to require telephone, 
telegraph and cable companies to publish, file and post tariflfs, and 
to empower the commission to reject and refuse to file any 
schedule tendered for filing which has the effect of exceeding the 
number of supplements or the volume of supplemental matter 
permitted under the commission's tariff regulations. 

2. To make the Elkins act applicable to telephone, telegraph 
and cable companies. 

3. That the stimulus of requirement be applied to the long- 
delayed progress toward the adoption of a uniform classification. 

4. To provide additional safeguards in railway transportation 
for employees and the public: (o) By standardization of operat- 
ing rules of all interstate carriers; (6) by requiring the adoption 
of steel cars, postal, baggage and passenger; (c) by amending 
the hours-of-service law, making clear the proviso in section 3 

of the act; (rf) by legislation requiring the use of the block 
signal system. 

5. That the commission be relieved of the jurisdiction of the 
physical operation of street railways in the District of Columbia. 

6. To provide for the regulation and control of capitalization 
and suitable provisions for the valuation of railway property. 

7. The construction of an adequate and suitable office building 
for the use of the commission. 


The new general office building of the Union Pacific, lo- 
cated at Fifteenth and Dodge streets, Omaha, is completed 
except for some interior finishing and other minor details which 
are expected to be finished by January 15. The general officers 
with their entire office forces have already moved in and the 
building has been occupied since October 25. 

This building consists of twelve stories and basement, hav- 
ing a frontage of 1>)9 feet on Dodge street and 146 feet on 
Fifteenth street, with a court 50 by 90 feet. It is of the latest 
type of construction, and is provided with every modern con- 

The building is of modern fireproof skeleton steel and tile 
construction, with Maine granite for the base, the first three 
stories being in Bedford cut stone, and the upper stories gray 
pressed brick with terra cotta trimming. All floors are of 
six-inch reinforced concrete, which when tested with loads 
of 250 lbs. per square foot showed deflections of less than 
7-32 in. The foundation is of concrete, 3,100 cubic yards of 

First Floor Plan; Union Pacific Office Building. 

January 5, 1912. 



which were used in its construction, and is supported on 

This building contains an average of 21,000 sq. ft. of floor 
space per floor, of which 17,000 sq. ft. will be used for office 
space and 4,000 sq. ft. for hallways, elevator, stair space, etc. 
The building is lighted by over 1,000 windows. The accom- 
panying plan of the first floor shows the general arrange- 
ment. There was used in construction of the headquarters, ex- 
clusive of the foundation, 500 bbls. of cement, 27,000 tons of 
structural steel, 1,600,000 common brick and 800,000 face brick. 

The lower halls are of Colorado polished white marble; the 
upper halls have tile floors, and all casings, counters and 
wardrobes are finished in mission oak. 

The building is heated with a modern steam heating plant. 



I 7-r ^-"^ <5 f\ <■■■■ - . """^-. 
Jj 35 yy • -^^ p 

3J S 13 ]3 n^t ,.. 

New Union Pacific General Office Building. 

three 250-horsepower boilers with patent automatic stokers 
being used for this purpose. 

A modern ventilating system has been installed with power 
fans operated in the basement of the building, and an im- 
proved refrigeration system will be used for cooling all drink- 
ing water used. 

No expense has been spared by the management to provide 
pleasant and comfortable offices for its employees, and to give 
them every modern convenience. The building is equipped 
with a vacuum cleanmg plant. • A pneumatic tube system for 
the transmission of papers, letters and telegrams from one 
department to another has also been installed, and a package 
of papers up to two and one-half inches in diameter and ten 
inches long can be transmitted by way of a central station at 
the rate of about 90 ft. per second. This is the Universal 
pneumatic system, and operates entirely by vacuum. 

On March 31, 1911, 2,761 miles of railway were open for traffic 
in New Zealand, as against 2,717 miles the previous year. The 
net earnings per average mile on lines open in 1911 were $2,114, 
as compared with $1,944 the previous year. The net earnings 
per train mile for the past year were 70 cents, as compared with 
66 cents the previous year. In addition to $486,000 to be ex- 
pended during the next four years on grade-reduction work alone 
on government railways, other contemplated large expenditures 
are covered in the loan bill which has passed the New Zealand 
parliament providing authority for raising $2,430,000 for railway 
construction and $1,458,000 for additional rolling stock. 

Professor of Economics, Harvard University. 
The most striking feature of all funded indebtedness, as con- 
trasted with capital stock, its high degree of localization. A 
raihvay company's share capital represents the equity — that is 
to say, the surplus value over and above its debts — of all its 
property as a unit. There is no differentiation of real estate 
from wharves or bridges, rolling stock or marine equipment. 
The capital stock comprehends the whole within its range. 
Bonds, on the other hand, are evidences of borrowing upon the 
security of particular possessions. Any specified stretch of mile- 
age, any bridge, ferry or machine shop, even franchises or traffic 
agreements may be separately mortgaged. And such property, 
thus covered by a loan, remains the sole security for the payment 
of interest or discharge of principal at maturity. This is a fea- 
ture of great importance to investors, seldom appreciated until 
liankruptcy throws it into strong relief. Such multiplicity of dis- 
tinct loans, each secured by a separate piece of property, tends 
to become more and more accentuated with the age of the road, 
especially in the case of companies with a checkered and pre- 
carious past. The funded indebtedness of the Reading company 
affords a good illustration of such financial complexity carried 
to its extreme limits. Not alone the financing of its coal prop- 
erties in addition to its railway lines ; but repeated bankruptcy 
and reorganization over a long period, have contributed to this 
result. Tlie best illustrations of the financial intricacy of such 
railway bonded indebtedness is afforded by the excellent series 
of maps in White & Kemble's Atlas of Railway Mortgages. Map 
19 in this volume, for example, shows that on the main line of 
the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad between Philadelphia and 
Mount Carbon there are no fewer than ten distinct bond issues. 
1 hese are secured in every conceivable way. They cover dif- 
ferent stretches of road, ranging from 54 to 116 miles in length. 
Some are convertible ; some are consolidated ; some are improve- 
ment bonds. Some are confined to the main line, others spread 
out over the many branches of the road. They overlap and 
interlock in the most complicated fashion. They vary in rates 
of interest, in term, in provisions as to trusteeship and fore- 
closure. Detailed examination of such a map demonstrates more 
clearly than in any other way this leading financial principle, 
that mortgage indebtedness of a railway is a matter not of cor- 
porate unity, but of particularity to the last depree. 

The American practice of financing by means of mortgages 
of specific property has had important results, especially with 
rapidly growing systems. For even in normal cases, the path of 
localized borrowing once entered upon, must be pursued to the 
end. Thus a mortgage upon a hundred mile operating division 
or upon a given bridge immediately stands in the way of any 
general lien upon the property of the company as a whole. These 
local liens, by taking precedence over any subsequent ones, render 
their security Tess sound. Such prior liens must first be extin- 
guished, or else, for that property thus already embarrassed, the 
succeeding loan becomes a "second mortgage." And yet such 
practice is inevitable in any expanding system. Any general 
mortgage upon the entire property immediately becomes a partial 
or localized one after new construction or consolidation with 
other properties has taken place. Simple financing is possible 
only in these rare instances where all increments of capital for 
extension or improvement are obtained from new stock issues 
or from surplus income, reserved from dividends for the pur- 
pose. In all other instances, companies are hampered in con- 
tracting fresh loans. Previous borrowings may be far less than 
the value of the property, yet specific first mortgage security for 
any but particular bits of possession may be hard to find. The 
cost of such piecemeal finance is surely greatly enhanced as a 

As an extreme instance of the highly specialized character of 
a bond issue, an experiment upon the St. Louis & San Fran- 



Vol, 52, No. 1. 

cisco Railroad in 1904 may be cited. This company had acquired 
a large part of the capital stock of the Chicago & Eastern Illinois 
in order to obtain an entrance into Chicago. Funds for this 
purpose were borrowed upon the stock deposited as collateral, 
with an agreement to pay 10 per cent, dividends upon it, until 
finally redeemed at $250 in 1942. Meantime the "Frisco" was 
sadly in need of funds to meet costs of improvement and ex- 
tension. No tangible property remained unmortgaged. The ex- 
pedient was therefore adopted of making a traffic contract be- 
tween two subsidiary roads, the St. Louis, Memphis & South 
Eastern, and the Chicago & Eastern Illinois, on terms peculiarly 
favorable to the former road, and then to base a mortgage upon 
this profitable contract. In other words, by this arrangement 
one controlled road was given an advantage over another; and 
the profits from this agreement to the former were promised 
as interest upon a $16,000,000 bond issue by this company. Fixed 
charges of nearly a million dollars were thus created, which of 
course had to be raised at the expense of the other party to the 
contract, the Chicago & Eastern Illinois. Such charges became a 
prior lien upon earnings ahead of the guaranteed dividends upon 
the capital stock. The legality of this arrangement was called 
in question in court proceedings. Aside from its legality, how- 
ever, the case is significant as illustrating the possibilities of 
highly specialized borrowing in case of need. 

A mode of simplifying an already very complex scheme of 
borrowing has been to put forth new consolidating, unifying or 
general bonds. These are supposed to represent the aggregate 
equity over and above all previous borrowing. Such an issue 
would necessarily provide funds for retiring all prior liens as they 
fall due. Theoretically this plan would in time substitute one 
"blanket" loan for a multiplicity of localized ones. And where 
they are issued by a system, which, by reason of consolidation of 
separate properties, has greatly enhanced revenue power, they 
would seem to be warranted. But unfortunately in practice 
many old bondholders may decline to exchange their prior liens; 
so that the net result is merely the addition of another "junior" 
security to the long list. 

All authorities upon railway finance have emphasized the 
fallacy of the view that a mortgage is really secured by any 
specific piece of property. In ordinary real estate or commercial 
practice this is indeed true. But the theory is entirely inappli- 
cable to a railway. Few of its separate possessions are in and of 
themselves of a worth equal to the face of the loans based upon 
them. It seldom happens even that the entire property can be 
sold for enough to satisfy the face of its outstanding obligations. 
The separate units to a far higher degree have no value except 
as part of a going concern. No matter how much a bridge or a 
terminal may have cost, its value depends upon use. And rail- 
ways are peculiarly economic units from an operating point of 
view. The right of way is not even fit for farming land when 
trains cease to run. Rails become scrap iron. Rolling stock 
and movables alone can be auctioned ofif piecemeal fashion. The 
real lien of a railway mortgage, therefore, is not? upon property 
as such, but upon earning power. And earning power is depend- 
ent upon such efficient operation as can alone take place when 
each separate possession can be treated as an integral part of the 
whole. The inherent weakness in the prevailing theory is re- 
vealed whenever the test of bankruptcy is applied. 

The main purpose served by the right of foreclosure in funded 
indebtedness is that it may compel a financial reorganization of 
the company. This is an operation of the utmost delicacy in 
view of the conflicting interests involved ; and the number of 
these is often very great. In the Union Pacific reorganization 
of 1895, there were no less than fifteen separate official com- 
mittees, each representing many separate issues of securities. 
The Atchison in 1889 had to readjust the interests of 41 dis- 
tinct groups of bondholders. Only a few of the senior issues 
could be satisfied by an outright foreclosure sale. All the rest 
would have their equities extinguished by such drastic procedure. 
Their safety lay in continued operation of the property as a 

whole, with such postponement or proportional reductions of 
their claims as could be agreed upon among themselves. The 
former of these two courses is the one usually adopted. New 
securities, with interest returns, not fixed as before but con- 
tingent upon earnings as they appear in future, are commonly 
exchanged for the old ones on which default has occurred. And 
it is an odd circumstance, shown by long experience, that the 
company, having failed because of its overload of capitalization, 
usually emerges from its reorganization with a larger volume 
of securities than ever. This is due to the fact that dissenting 
bondholders can be tempted to acquiesce in the new plan, only 
through offers of larger par values than before, as an offset for 
the postponement of their claims on current earnings. As Dag- 
gett, the prime authority upon reorganization, aptly observes : 
"There is a magic in the par value stamped upon a certificate 
which affords a certain consolation to those from whom sac- 
rifices in interest are demanded. An unimpaired (usually in- 
creased) principal, moreover, constitutes a real advantage when 
the date of maturity arrives." 

There are many other practical details as to the issue of bonds 
which may be merely mentioned in passing. - It goes without 
saying that the price at which such securities may be sold de- 
pends upon two factors : first, the amount issued in relation to 
the property upon which it is based; and secondly, the interest 
promised in relation to the prevailing market rate. The best 
test of normality is that the bonds shall be salable at par at 
the going interest rate. If a higher rate than this is necessary 
to hold them at their face value, it is an evidence of weakness. 
And, of course, the issue of bonds at a discount is an expensive 
and wasteful proceeding, even at best. For all such securities at 
maturity must be paid off at par, and any larger principal sum 
to be paid at that time than was realized at the date of issue 
is a positive loss. Sometimes this may be offset by a saving in 
the current rate of interest paid. Issuance at a discount may 
at times be necessary in order to strengthen the appeal to in- 
vestors, who commonly prefer to buy at what seems to offer 
somewhat of a bargain. But by and large there can be no doubt 
that the soundest financing is characterized by such adjustment 
of principal and interest as shall enable emission at somewhere 
near par value. It should also be understood that the value of a 
bond depends in a measure upon the length of its life. 
This follows directly from the fact that the premium or discount 
at its issue has to be pro-rated over the ensuing period of years. 
The preference of investors for long term bonds, which offer some 
opportunity of a rise in price because of the expected fall in the 
general rate of interest, is another factor to be reckoned with. 
It commonly leads to somewhat higher quotations relatively to 
their interest rate, for long-term securities. Such details, how- 
ever, appertain to private finance rather than to the public as- 
pects of the question. They are fully described in the standard 
hand books on the subject. 

The actual differentiation of funded indebtedness of American 
railways into various classes of securities is shown by the fol- 
lowing table from the official Statistics of Railways for 1909: 

Mortgage bonds $6,942,000,000 

Collateral trust bonds , 1,147,000.000 

Income bonds 284,000,000 

Debentures, notes, etc 803,000,000 

Miscellaneous 316.000,000 

Equipment trust bonds 308,000,000 

Total $9,801,000,000 

It may next be in order to describe the essential features of 
some of these types of indebtedness. 

The income or preference bond is a form of security devised 
largely in connection with the widespread reorganizations of 
1893-7. Disappointed bondholders were induced to accept them 
in exchange for their old securities, the companies meantime be- 
ing relieved from the burden of fixed charges by the promise to 
pay interest only on condition that it was earned. It seeks to 
combine the lien of a mortgage with the contingency of interest 
payment if earned. It differs thus from preferred stock, in the 

January S, 1912. 



addition of a prior claim upon assets in case of bankruptcy. At- 
taining a considerable volume ten years ago, the amount of such 
issues has not greatly increased in recent years. As has been 
observed, the income bond "is an attempt to combine two contra- 
dictory commercial principles. . . . Security for both interest 
and principal is the essence of the creditor's position, while con- 
tingency depending upon success is the essence of the stock- 
holder's position." The two interests are incompatible and con- 
flicting. Experience has proved this to be the case. Stockhold- 
ers, controlling management, have it in their power to devote all 
surplus earnings to maintenance and improvement, rather than to 
pay interest upon the bonds. The property is thus built up until 
both stock and bonds may be able to participate in earnings 
alike. Meantime, however, the income bondholders have been 
deprived of revenue. Nor can they ever recoup these losses of 
interest, as might happen in the case of cumulative preferred 
stock. Interest lost for one year is gone forever. The notable 
suits of the Central of Georgia income bondholders under the 
Harriman regime, settled in 1910, clearly demonstrate the nature 
of the difficulty inherent in this class of security. One party 
wished to upbuild the property by devoting large sums to main- 
tenance, even concealing revenue from its subsidiary company, 
the Ocean Steamship Company, and otherwise juggling its ac- 
counts. The bondholders demanded proper consideration of 
their rights and eventually secured it.* If, on the other hand, 
as in the Reading reorganization, this contingency is guarded 
against, the trust agreements may be so rigid as to embarrass 
the management in securing further loans needed for develop- 
ment. Nor has the conferring of voting power upon income 
bondholders solved the problem satisfactorily. As a matter of 
fact, such securities are scarcely distinguishable from preferred 
stock ; and recent financing has tended frankly to recognize that 

The close similarity between income bonds and preferred stock 
is exemplified by a recent contest between shareholders on the 
St. Joseph & Grand Island.t The Union Pacific practically con- 
trols this small company, through ownership mainly of its com- 
mon stock. It is in position to make good use of its property 
as a short line between important points. Net earnings of the 
road have in the past been substantial, sufficient, in fact, to pay 
the full dividend upon the first preferred shares. And during 
eight years of control by the Union Pacific, approximately four 
million dollars of such earnings have apparently been put back 
into the property in the form of improvements. Inasmuch as the 
preferred stock is non-cumulative as to dividends, this entire di- 
version of earnings into betterments entails an irreparable loss 
to the holders of this class of stock. On the other hand it im- 
mediately inures to the benefit of the Union Pacific, by hastening 
the time when the common stock, by reason of enhanced earning 
power may be placed upon a dividend basis. Meantime, it is al- 
leged, the Union Pacific is quietly picking up the preferred shares 
at low prices conditioned by the cessation of dividends. What- 
ever the actual merits of the case, the issue raised as to the 
differentiation between income and capital, or improvement, ac- 
count is precisely analagous to that raised by the Central of 
Georgia income bondholders, referred to in a preceding para- 

A special variety of bond, more common in England than in 
the United States, is known as a debenture. This is practically 
a bond without a specific mortgage lien, and hence without fore- 
closure power. In other words, it is merely a promise to pay, 
depending for security upon the general credit of the road. In 
one respect the debenture resembles an income bond, in that 
interest is contingent upon earning power. Being thus, in form 
at least, somewhat less secure than an ordinary mortgage bond, 
some other attractive feature, such as convertibility into stock, 
or a higher rate of interest, is necessary in order to insure its 

•Described in detail in Quarterly Journal of Economics, XXV, 1911, 
p. 396 et seq. 

tThe U. S. Investor for January 21, 1911, p. US, reprints the statement 
of the aggrieved preferred shareholders. 

successful flotation. On the part of the company, the advantage 
is clear, inasmuch as debentures may be issued irrespective of the 
amount or nature of the prior liens already outstanding. Some 
strong companies like the New York Central & Hudson River 
and New York, New Haven & Hartford, have largely relied 
upon debentures in recent years. But in the case of weaker 
companies, like the Wabash, large issues of such securities have 
been at once a source of disappointment to investors, and an em- 
barrassment to the future financing of the road itself.J 

Short time borrowing by railways may be for several purposes, 
quite different in character and significance. Notes may be is- 
sued merely in order to anticipate assured income, as cities or 
towns frequently do, in order to cover current expenses until 
receipts from taxes suflSce. Such financing is purely normal and 
requires no comment. Or notes may be emitted under financial 
stress by companies struggling on the verge of bankruptcy. In 
this case the episode is abnormal, and usually merely postpones 
the evil day of reckoning. A third cause of short-time borrowing 
has within recent years assumed such proportions as to demand 
careful examination. Such borrowing for short periods of time 
threatens to disturb the general money market as well as the 
supply of long term bonds. It is commonly associated with 
periods of financial disturbance, arising naturally of course in 
a tight money market when ordinary bonds are unsalable at 
any fair price. Every crisis since 1878, with the exception of the 
distinctively railway panic of 1884 has witnessed this phenomenon. 
But it has steadily assumed larger and larger proportions; and 
seems to be less critically regarded than heretofore. This is 
probably due to the fact that it is now resorted to by the 
strongest and most conservative railways ; whereas it was for- 
merly only a device for staving off impending bankruptcy of 
railways of the weaker sort. 

As a device for merely postponing trouble, note issues are in 
bad repute. The Jay Cooke flotation of Northern Pacific notes 
just prior to financial collapse in 1872 was almost identically re- 
peated twenty years later on the eve of the panic of 1893. The 
floating debts of important railways ran up by $124,000,000 at this 
time. The most prominent examples were the Union Pacific 
collateral trust notes of 1891-4, and those of the Northern Pa- 
cific and the Atchison. In all three cases, the notes falling due 
in a panic period precipitated bankruptcy. But the subsequent re- 
sort to note issues at the two periods of financial distress of 
1903 and 1907 have been due to entirely different causes. They 
represent forced borrowing, of course, for it is inconceivable that 
any company should pay high rates of interest for short loans, 
if regular bonds could be sold. But the significant feature is 
that they now represent true development work, rather than im- 
pending bankruptcy. Note financing has assumed a positive 
rather than a merely negative character. Nor is the amount of 
such borrowing inconsiderable. It has been estimated that in 
1903-4 not less than $200,000,000 of short time notes were issued; 
while within the first five months of 1907, the aggregate loans of 
this kind were $285,000,000. During the latter period regular 
bonds amounting to less than $200,000,000 were sold by railways. 
In other words the half year's financing was predominantly- of 
this temporary sort. The average rate of interest has also risen. 
In 1903-4 it averaged about 4.5 to 5 per cent. Three years later 
it was between 5 and 6 per cent. 

The particular causes of these later note issues were the im- 
perative need of improved facilities for handling the enormous 
growth of traffic ; and also to some degree the exhaustion of the 
regular supply of loanable capital for financing stock market 
operations incident to the spread of consolidation. The freight 
blockade of 1899 was mainly due to insufficiency of equipment to 
handle the business offered. The trouble in 1903 was inadequacy 
of terminals. Many large companies, notably the Pennsylvania, 
had in consequence committed themselves to large projects of 
terminal development. These commonly proved more costly than 
was anticipated ; and moreover the panic of 1903 interrupted 
^Succeeding articles will treat of collateral trust and convertible bonds. 



Vol. 52, No. 1. 

them midway in construction. The wort: could not be interrupted 
without loss upon all the investment already made. It was im- 
perative to go on at all cost. Bonds could not be floated. Notes 
were a last resource. It must be added, however, that other 
causes were also contributory. While the Pennsylvania was 
making extensive terminal improvements in 1903 at New York, 
it was also, with the Lake Shore road, engaged in buying up 
the stock of the Philadelphia & Reading in order to steady both 
the trunk line and hard coal situations. This latter factor was 
less in evidence in 1906. 

As for the outcome of these stupendous note issues, it is un- 
fortunate perhaps that in the main it was successful. In other 
words, the notes were mainly paid off by means of the pro- 
ceeds of regular bond issues, after the lapse of from one to three 
years. The issues of 1907 in fact were in some cases actually 
bought up by the companies themselves in advance of maturity. 
Surplus funds drawing only 2 per cent, interest., could profitably 
be devoted to this purpose. The leading exception was the 
Erie, which was barely saved from default and another bank- 
ruptcy by the intervention of Mr. Harriman, when its notes fell 
due in 1908. The fact, however, that in most cases these notes 
happened to fall due at times when the needs of the companies 
could be permanently cared for, does not detract from the pos- 
sible danger lurking in their use. If they chance to mature at 
an inconvenient time, the situation may easily become desperate, 
and the cost of such hand-to-mouth finance is always bound to be 

From a wider point of view the seriousness of this tendency to 
resort to short term financing is that it withdraws from trade 
the floating supply of capital. This in turn leads to drafts upon 
the available long-time investment funds of the community for 
the daily needs of business. In other words extensive note issues 
discourage, if they do not preclude, ordinary borrowing by means 
of long-time bonds. The appeal is usually to the large sources of 
ready capital. Until the reform of the New York life insurance 
companies, they invested heavily in such notes. They are com- 
monly in large denominations for the convenience^of such lend- 
ers. The notes used more commonly to be secured by deposit 
of collateral, ordinarily free holdings of stocks or bonds of sub- 
sidiary companies. But many in recent years are issued upon the 
mere credit of the company, being otherwise unsecured. Many 
are thus rendered semi-speculative in character. This naturally 
leads to wide fluctuations in value. It is sometimes difficult to 
separate such liabilities from the ordinary funded debt. They 
should always of course be regarded as current liabilities, of the 
nature of floating debt. But in 1910, leading companies like the 
Erie and the Baltimore & Ohio, failed to so designate them. 
This is a most deceptive practice. On the whole, viewing the 
developments of the last decade, one is almost tempted to hope 
that a sharp lesson or two may serve to remind railway financiers 
of the risks incident to the growth of this short-note habit. 


The comments on the supply department of "D. A. D." in 
one of his "Letters of an Old Railway Official to His Son, 
a General Manager," recently published in the Railway Age 
Gazette, continues to call forth discussion from the supply 
department. The following letter from "K. I. D.", who in 
real life is the general storekeeper of a large railway, has 
been received under the title, "A Heretofore Unpublished 
Letter from a General Manager to His Father, a Retired 
Railway Official."' 

On Line, August 3, 1911. 
My dear D. a. D. : 

Your letter of July 22 from Salt Lake City was received 
in due time, but I have not had a good opportunity to reply 
to same on account of being so very busy. I have also de- 
ferred answering as I hesitated to say to my fond old pater just 

what I wanted to say, and thought possibly by putting it oft 
I might decide not to write it, but I still feel the same, and 
must get it out of my system. 

Now you know, D. A. D., that I have the greatest respect 
for you and your opinions, and I owe everything to you. I 
certainly miss seeing you, and I read all your letters from all 
over the country with great interest, and I derive much ben- 
efit from them, though sometimes I differ in opinion from you, 
and do not follow your advice. (By the way, D. A. D., now 
that you've retired and are well fixed, why don't you settle 
down and give mother a little more benefit of your society? 
If you don't you soon must be a tired "retired railway official.") 
But I can't bring myself to agree with you on the stores de- 
partment proposition. You have been out of the active serv- 
ice now for some time, and I believe have not kept fully 
posted as to the progressiveness of this branch of the service. 
You know, D. A. D., that it has been pretty hard for some 
of the old fellows to give up the old practices, and a few of 
them never will until they're "born again." I say all this 
with due respect to you, and I hope you won't get miffed 
at what I say, and take a trip to the coast to settle your 

It's a poor father who does not make his son show up an 
improvement over him, and each successive generation should 
be better. That this is so is the highest encomium on our 
ancestors. Grandfather always wore boots. You discarded 
them after a hard struggle, and the only ones I ever wore 
were the red top ones I wore when a boy. Now, you know, 
D. A. D., you can run faster in light shoes than you can in 
boots. The railways are metaphorically shedding their boots, 
and newer methods are in vogue and younger men are at the 
helm. Why, at my age (and I mention this only as an ex- 
ample in point, and not egotistically) you were still general 
foreman at the Glendale shops. You didn't have an elec- 
trically driven machine in the shop, never heard of a super- 
heater, and if a Mallet engine had run into the shop (which 
would have been impossible on the 40-!b. rail, and on ac- 
count the size of the roundhouse), you would have been scared 
to death. 

But these things all came, and with each one of them there 
were calamity howlers, and it was hard to give up the boots. 
The same way with operating practices. After you became 
superintendent of the old road, which you- know was only 
two hundred miles long, you made the purchases of ma- 
terial. When the road was absorbed by, and made a grand 
division of, the trunk line, you were made general superin- 
tendent, but were relieved of the buying, and this was done 
by the purchasing agent. I remember well your howls at 
this innovation, and I note even yet, in your letter, you say 
"the purchasing for a large railway may warrant a purchas- 
ing agent," implying that you are still unconverted on this 
point. But is there any big road without a purchasing agenti* 
And now the stores department looms up as a bugaboo. 
It is young yet, but it is not a helpless infant. It has gotten 
out of long clothes and is making great headway, and in 
my opinion is bound to be the prime factor in the proper 
handling of the supply question on all railways. This has 
already been demonstrated on many systems, and is being 
worked out satisfactorily on the majority of the lines. But 
right here I want to say that the management should not 
inaugurate a stores department, appoint a general store- 
keeper, tie his hands and feet, throw him in, and tell him to 
swim. I am not going into the matter of organization, but 
I do say that the stores department should be given the 
proper recognition by the management, the general store- 
keeper vested with the necessary authority, and given pay 
roll allotment adequate to enable him to employ men of suit- 
able caliber to successfully operate his department. 

The storekeepers are making good showings for their com- 
panies, and it is not done by reducing their stocks to a work- 
ing basis so low as to be unsafe and uneconomical. 

January 5, 1912. 



fact, however, that the criterion of the ability of a storekeeper 
is the percentage of his issues of material to his stock on hand, 
provided always that he carries sufficient stock to meet 
promptly all reasonable demands upon him for supplies. 

I cannot imagine a case of a superintendent having to beg 
a storekeeper for any material. Regardless of the system in 
operation, the superintendent and storekeeper should work 
together for the railway, and with us I know they do. If in 
any case they do not, it is not the fault of the system, but an 
evidence that the storekeeper or the superintendent or both 
should be removed. 

The storekeeper can be an invaluable aid to the superm- 
tendent or higher official in keeping check of the materials 
both before and after issue, and he is in a better position to 
do this than the superintendent is. A bona-fide order is nec- 
essary now to get mateiial from the storehouse, and the 
storekeeper is supposed to account properly for all material 
used. This was not exactly the case at Glendale, when the 
general foreman had the stock. Don't you remember, 
D. A. D., when you persuaded the superintendent of motive 
power to let you rebuild the 627? You gave an estimated 
cost of $7,000, and when completed our charges ran up to 
$8,700. Don't you remember when you told Wilson, the so- 
called storekeeper (who, by the way, got $45 a month), to 
shave the charges to the 627 down to $6,930.78, and charge 
the difference to repairs of freight cars, as that account 
would stand it? Don't you remember when they had the big 
political celebration in Glendale, and you loaned the commit- 
tee two hundred lanterns, and gave them a barrel of carbon 
oil? We got back part of the lanterns and no oil, and the 
shortage you had charged to "O. T. & W. for locomotives." 
(I hesitate to mention the mahogany sideboard which mother 
still has.) I could enumerate lots more, but you know them. 
This would be harder to work under the stores department 
system, and that's one reason why some of the old fellows 

You refer to two prominent roads which do not have the 
stores department system and two others which do have it. 
Before I inaugurated the system on our lines, I personally 
visited all of these roads and made careful investigation, and 
I want to say it was principally due to my investigation of 
these particular lines that I started our department, and I 
have not had cause to regret it. When the hard times 
struck us all a few years ago, one of the roads without a 
stores department, which you mention, had such a heavy stock 
on hand that it practically made no purchases for about a 
year. During the period of depression and low-priced ma- 
terial it was using up its high-priced stock accumulated during 
the fat years. The other road, with a stores department op- 
erated on a good basis, continued to purchase material month- 
ly as needed, at lo7u figures. This is a eulogy on the stystem. 

But I am drawing this out too long, I fear, and will close 
after relating a coincidence, or you might say "two." Aunt 
Mary has been visiting us for the past week, and you know 
some of her ideas are as strenuous as yours, although along 
different lines. Whenever she is with us on Sunday, I always 
brush up and go to church with her, just like it was my regu- 
lar habit. I went twice last Sunday. Now, don't laugh yet. 
In the morning the minister's text was Deut. xxxii, IS, "But 
Jeshurun waxed fat, and kicked." He took as his theme the 
fellow who couldn't stand prosperity, and incidentally took 
a few knocks at the fellow who had everything his own way, 
and then kicked when finally he was compelled to give some- 
thing up. On the way home. Aunt Mary said, "I wish your 
father could have heard that sermon." 

In the evening the minister had a composite text from 
Zech. IV. 10, "For who hath despised the day of small things," 
and Ps. cxvm, 22, "The stone which the builders refused 
has become the head stone of the corner." When he con- 

cluded I couldn't help thinking, with apologies to the old 

nursery rhyme, 

Hush, little Storekeeper, don't you cry. 
You'll be somebody by and by; 

and mentally I joined with the pastor when he said "Let us 

Now, take this all kindly, my dear old D. A. D., and believe 
me to be your affectionate son. k. i. d. 


In the description of the Santa Fe "Train de Luxe" in the 
Railway Age Gazette of December 15, reference was made to a 
recently invented air-cooling and air-washing device, which is 
intended to be used when the trains are passing through the hot, 
desert portion of the line. This device was made by the Duntley 


Air Washer and Cooler for Passenger Equipment. 

Manufacturing Company, Chicago, and a section of the appa- 
ratus is here illustrated. It consists of an inner case or tank 
surrounded by a 3-in. ice space, which in turn is insulated by an 
outer case, leaving a space 1 in. wide, which is filled with granu- 

Application of Air Washer and Cooler to Baggage End of 
Buffet Car. 



Vol. 52, No. 1. 

lated cork. A Burke electric motor is suspended in the sheet 
iron drum with the fan below. It is specially wound so as to 
operate on a 30-volt, direct current and consumes 242 watts when 
running at full speed at 1,200 revolutions per minute. The fan 
is 16 in. in diameter and consists of a horizontal ring 2^ in. 
wide and a solid disc below, on both of which are riveted curved 

Below the fan and fastened to the motor shaft is a conical 
tube which projects into the water; its rapid revolution causes 
the water to rise in the tube, and it passes out through a narrow 
slot in a fine spray near the top of the fan. Outside air is ad- 
mitted through the central portion surrounding the motor and 
passes to the fan, where it is cooled, moistened and washed by 
the cold water spray, and then passes out through ducts in the 
lower deck of the car. It is admitted to the body of the car 
through ornamental registers, about 8 in. in diameter, placed in 
the headlining of this deck. The air washer is located in a small 
closet at the end of the dining and sleeping cars, and its general 
.appearance, as fitted in the baggage end of the buffet car, is 
■shown in the photograph. When operating at full speed each 
.air washer supplies about 90,000 cu. ft. of air per hour to each 
car, which insures ample ventilation. It should add greatly to 
the comfort of passengers passing through a hot, dusty region, 
as the air supplied to the cars will be free from dust, cinders and 
other impurities, and will be cooled through the medium of the 
water spray aided by the ice jacket. 


A description of the Street mechanical stoker was published in 
the Railway Age Gazette of May 26, 1911, page 1197. Since that 
time an improvement has been effected in the design and con- 
struction of the conveyor used for moving the coal from the 
tender to the elevator hopper beneath the frame of the locomo- 
tive. The natural construction of such a conveyor is to use the 
screw type, but so long as the stoker was expected to feed every- 
thing from run-of-mine to slack, such a machine was inapplicable 
to the work. Something not apt to jam was needed. But if 

prepared — that is, crushed — coal is used, then the screw conveyor 
can be employed. 

Mr. Street has always insisted that the coal used in his stoker 
be crushed before delivery to the distributing nozzles, and, to that 
end, put a crusher on the tender, not that he approved of it, but 
because railway officials were not educated to the point of pre- 
paring coal for stoker use. With the crusher, the fireman has to 
rake down all the coal to the stoker jaws, from which it drops 
into a chute delivering into the deep hopper below the con- 
veyor. This crusher is driven by an engine of its own located 
on the tender and taking steam from the locomotive. This 
arrangement was made to meet requirements and will be aban- 
doned as soon as officials are educated to the point of recog- 
nizing the advantages of using one crusher at the coaling station 
instead of one on each of the locomotives. 

In the previous article the four-fold screen in the elevator pipe 
was described, which, by turning, can throw any one of four 
grades of crushed coal down at the back head. It was not illus- 
trated at the time and is, therefore, shown here. 

With crushed coal furnished to the tender, a screw conveyor 
is used to carry it to the elevator hopper. Its general arrange- 
ment is shown in the accompanying engravings. The second 
engine, that was located on the tender, has been dispensed with, 
and the screw conveyor is driven by a sprocket wheel mounted 
in the lower hopper, and in turn driven by the elevator chain. 

The screw runs back from the hopper beneath the floor of the 
tender, as shown in the illustration. It lies in a heavy sheet iron 
trough, which is pivoted on a strong pin to the hopper. The 
back end of the trough rests on a wrought iron support bolted 
to the floor of the tank. A double toggle joint is provided for 
driving the screw, and this together with the pivot connection 
for the trough makes ample provision for passing around curves 
and over uneven track. 

A screen having 2-in. square meshes and made of ^-in. wire 
is placed directly above the screw conveyor and in the floor of 
the tank. This screen is covered with sliding plates, which plates 
are arranged so an opening 10 in. by 12 in. is the maximum which 
can be obtained, and this opening is always in front of the coal, 
and therefore at a point where it can be seen by the fireman. 



, 111..-:::::::::::! 


- 1 




\ '^ 




General Arrangement of Screw Conveyor Type Street Locomotive Stoker. 

January S, 1912. 



The screen has a sliding support in the tank and is provided 
with an agitator which keeps it in constant motion while the loco- 
motive is running, and prevents the coal from bridging and clog- 
ging over it. When taking coal these plates are placed in a 
position which covers the entire screw, and prevents any coal 
from being fed to it until such time as the fireman is ready for 
this to be done. He then moves the front plate ahead, uncover- 
ing the opening beneath it, and allowing the coal to flow down 
upon and through the screen until the slope will deliver no more. 
The second plate is then drawn out against the first, thus moving 
the opening to the rear. The other plates are afterwards moved 
in succession to meet the demands of the fire until the last plate 
has been drawn out and the tender has been emptied. 

With the stoker and crusher combination as described in the 
former article, the lower hopper was very deep so as to obtain a 
sufficient steepness of slope for the chute to cause the coal to 
flow under all circumstances. With the screw conveyor the 
lower hopper is located between the floor of the cab and the 
deck casting. A section of the cab floor is made removable, and 
by lifting it access is obtained to all parts of the lower hopper. 
This hopper is provided with movable slides to facilitate cleaning 
it out, and is also fitted with a steam jet for blowing in steam to 
thaw it out in case of freezing. When the screw conveyor is 


Discharge Pipe Screen. 

used it is possible to construct the tank of such a form that all 
of the coal can be taken from the tank and fed into the firebox 
without being handled by the fireman. Under the most unfavor- 
able construction of the tank the only handling of the coal re- 
quired on the part of the fireman is that of scraping it out of the 
sides of the tank on top of the screen when the coal supply is 
low or nearly exhausted. The agitator prevents bridging, and 
the only attention the screw must receive from the fireman is that 
of occasionally drawing out one of the plates which cover the 
screen, bringing the opening further back. With this type of 
stoker the amount of coal fed to the firebox is governed by the 
speed of the screw conveyor, which is regulated from the fire- 
man's seat. 

The elevator engine and elevator run at a constant speed, and 
a gear changing box is provided, by means of which three differ- 
ent speeds can be given to the screw conveyor. The operating 
handle for this gear changing box is located at one side of the 
fireman's seat, to enable him to change the speed of the screw, 
and therefore the amount of coal fed to the firebox without leav- 
ing his seat. The gear changing box is mounted directly on the 
shaft of the driving sprocket, and motion is transmitted from the 
box to the screw through the medium of a link chain and a pair 
of sprocket wheels. The balance of the stoker remains as it is 
used in connection with the crusher, and as described in the pre- 
vious article. 

The chamber of deputies of Bolivia has passed a bill author- 
izing the government to ask for tenders for the construction 
of a railway from Quiaca, Argentina, to Tarija, Bolivia, a dis- 
tance of about 104 miles. There will be a guarantee of S per 

The M. C. B. committee on brine drippings from refrigerator 
cars recommended, at the 1910 convention, that all salt water 
from melting ice should be retained in the ice tanks and drained 
only at icing stations, because the sprinkling of the salt water 
over the road was a serious cause of the corrosion of steel road 
structures and rails; also that the mechanism for operating the 
draining valves should be simple and positive. Many of the 
packing companies have equipped large numbers of refrigerator 

^ .24'. , 

Top Plan. 

Section of Cenfer. 

Drain Valve for Ice Tanks. 

cars with drain valves, in accordance with these recommendations, 
which are opened only at ice stations. The illustrations show 
the general arrangement and detail of a drain valve as designed 
and patented by the Haskell & Barker Car Company, Michigan 
City, Ind. 

The brine tanks are arranged in pairs, and the valve with a 
flange connection made tight with rubber gaskets is placed 
between each pair. The connecting piece is 1^ in. inside diam- 
eter, and the plug valve body is cast solid with it, providing a 
clear opening 2 1/16 in. in diameter. The entire fixture is made 
of brass ; the plug is ground in to fit and is operated by a rod 
extending to the handle at the top of the car. The overflow 

Valve Open. 

Valye Chsed. 

Refrigerator Car Ice Tanks Equipped With Draining Valves. 

brine passes down to the floor drip pan, and is delivered to track 
through the usual traps. Morris & Company have used these 
valves in their refrigerator cars for a year, and report them to 
be uniformly successful. They have had no trouble with them 
freezing, and they stop the dripping of brine on the track. All 
the brine is carried in the tanks atid is emptied only at icing 
stations. The overflow pipe in the tank is placed so high that 
even when all the ice is melted the opening is still above the 
water level. 

Cll^n^ral N^m^ ^^<rtion» 

The Missouri Pacific has ordered a reduction in force and 
working time in the shops at Sedalia, Mo. 

Telephone train despatching circuits are being installed on the 
Chicago Great Western, between Kansas City, Mo., and Des 
Moines, la. 

Suit has been started in the federal court at Salt Lake City 
against the Oregon Short Line for five violations of the hours- 
of-service law. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern was fined $300 in two 
cases in the federal court at Cincinnati on December 28 for 
unduly detaining live stock in cars in violation of law. 

The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe has abolished the use of 
flags as markers for the rear ends of passenger trains, and the 
lamps (unlighted) will serve as markers during the day. 

By agreement between R. T. Railey, general attorney of the 
Missouri Pacific, and Attorney-General Major of Missouri, the 
cases against the Missouri Pacific and the Missouri, Kansas & 
Texas, involving the validity of the state law requiring railways 
to pay employees twice a month, have been advanced on the 
docket of the Missouri supreme court for hearing at the January 

A statement compiled at the War Department in Washington 
shows that from sales of scrap iron and other unused material 
which was left on the Isthmus of Panama by the Frenchmen 
who did work on the canal fifteen years ago, the government 
has already realized the sum of $2,112,000. Over 29,000 tons 
of metals from these abandoned plants have been shipped to 
the United States, and there is much work yet to be done. Some 
of the abandoned machinery hqs been put in order and is be- 
ing used. 

The Illinois Central has offered a reward of $1,000 for the 
arrest and conviction of the persons responsible for attempts to 
wreck four suburban passenger trains in the vicinity of Grand 
Crossing and Parkside, Chicago, on the night of December 26. 
Three of the trains were derailed, but no one was injured. Sus- 
picion has rested on men involved in the recent strike of shop 
employees of the company, but no clew has yet been developed. 
An investigation showed that the switches had been tampered 
with. Fourteen sticks of dynamite were also found under the 
approaches of the railway bridge across the Mississippi river, 
used by the Illinois Central and other lines, at Thebes, 111. 

The railroad commissioners of Nevada, H. F. Bartine, J. F. 
Shaughnessy and W. H. Simmons, have addressed to the sena- 
tors and representatives of congress from that state, a petition 
for the abolition of the commerce court and for the enactment 
of a law to carry all disputed decisions of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission direct to the supreme court of the United 
States. The honorable commissioners have printed their pe- 
tition in a pamphlet of 8 pages, and they evince no disposition 
to mince words. The commerce court is nothing more nor 
less than a second commission. Important cases are sure to 
be appealed. If the court holds invalid an order of the com- 
mission, in the great majority of cases "it is morally certain 
that the court will be wrong and the commission right." The 
Interstate Commerce Commission is experienced and compe- 
tent and it is absurd in all cases and a rank injustice in many 
to require its action to run the gauntlet of two courts. The 
inferior courts are slow and much injustice is done by delays. 
The procedure in many cases is "both strange and objectionable 
in the highest degree." Many courts "refer cases to irrespon- 
sible but ambitious masters in chancery." The master sets up 
his opinion against that of the railway commission, federal or 
state, and the court then adopts the presumption that the mas- 
ter is right, both in his findings of fact and conclusions of 
law. This is productive of untold evil. The petition goes on 
to cite cases illustrating this and other points. 

The Uruguay Great Eastern Railway has been authorized to 
open to public service its completed extension from La Sierra 
to Maldonado, and the government has approved the plans of the 

Central Uruguayan Railway Company for its new station at 
San Jose. The company will commence the construction of 
this station at once. 

Rules for B. & O. Claim Agents. 

General Claim Agent Egan, of the Baltimore & Ohio, has 
formulated a code of business ethics, and has forwarded a copy 
of it to each claim agent. Following are extracts : 

"Be polite and kind to the poor. . . . 

"Do not be deceitful. Tell the truth and take your medicine; 
it is better for your conscience, the company and your fellow 

"Be honest. Because a claimant is poor, do not take advan- 
tage of him nor his condition. 

"Be frank in all things. If a claimant asks your advice, give 
it openly and freely. If your advice is not taken, your duty has 
been done. 

"Be courteous. Do not endeavor to create the impression that 
you own the road. 

"Be ever patient. If a claimant vilifies you and says all man- 
ner of things against you, treat him with all the politeness and 
kindness you possess, and ere the day has passed he will be- 
moan the fact that he made an ass of himself." 

Illinois Central Pensions. 

Figures compiled by the pension department of the Illinois 
Central show that during the period of 10 years — July 1, 1901, 
to June 30, 1911 — 534 employees were pensioned, exclusive of 
a number of men to whom special allowances were granted in 
lieu of pensions on account of their not being technically eligible 
to a pension under the rules. The names of 364 men were on 
the pension roll on June 30, and the pension roll as of that 
date was at the rate of $95,429 per year. During the 10 years' 
operation the company paid out $511,664 in pensions, not includ- 
ing special allowances. 

An examination of the pension records show many interesting 
features. An agent at a comparatively small station, 53 years 
continuously in the service in the same capacity, receives a pen- 
sion of $47.57 a month for the rest of his life. A tinsmith, S3 
years continuously in the service, receives $40.32. A laborer, 
52 years continuously in the service and whose wages were al- 
ways necessarily below the wages of men of skilled trades, 
receives a pension of $32.08. An engineman is receiving a pen- 
sion of $80.13 a month ; another engineman has been paid 
$5,932.80 during the 10 years he has been carried on the pen- 
sion roll. The figures do not include the Yazoo & Mississippi 

Bureau of Safety Organized on Chicago Great Western. 

H. J. Slifer, general manager of the Chicago Great Western, 
has issued a circular announcing the establishment of a bureau of 
safety along lines similar to the safety committees on the Chicago 
& North Western, Frisco and other roads, for the purpose of 
studying methods of minimizing the risk of accidents to em- 
ployees and the public. An executive safety committee has been 
appointed consisting of: Hiram J. Slifer, general manager; J. G. 
Neuffer, superintendent of motive power; L. C. Fritch, chief 
engineer ; G. O. Perkins, superintendent of telegraph ; Dr. G. N. 
Wassoni, company surgeon; J. H. Ambruster, chairman educa- 
tional committee, which will have full jurisdiction over the 
operations of the bureau. Division safety committees will be 
appointed on each operating division to be composed of the 
division superintendent, engineer maintenance of way, master 
mechanic, trainmaster and chief despatcher. The chairman of 
each division committee will render a monthly report to the 
executive committee. Similar committees will be appointed by 
the executive committee for general office headquarters at Chi- 
cago. Transportation safety committees will be appointed by 
division safety committees and will consist of five members each, 
representing enginemen and trainmen. Mechanical safety com- 

January S, 1912. 



mittees will be appointed by division safety committees and will 
consist of five members each, representing roundhouse men, coal- 
ing station men, cinder pit employees. 

Locomotives on the Erie with Two Whistles. 

The Erie Railroad has equipped about 100 of its locomotives, 
running in suburban passenger service at the New York end of 
the road, with 2-in. single-bell chime whistles, in addition to the 
ordinary whistle, and has instructed the enginemen to use this 
smaller and less noisy whistle on all occasions except where the 
louder one is required as a measure of safety. All of the engines 
in the New York suburban service, about 175, will soon be 
equipped. The whistle valve is controlled by a flexible wire 
which extends from the front to the back of the cab, within easy 
reach of the engineman and in close proximity to the pull which 
actuates the larger whistle and which is of a different form. 
Some of these smaller whistles have been in use for several 
months, and officers of the road find them satisfactory in every 

As a local report well says, those suburban residents who 
have been disturbed and annoyed by the "wild shriek" of the 
5 a. m. train may now be expected to become fast friends of the 
Erie. This is a good way of making friends, or at least of mak- 
ing things tend in that direction. 

Government Control of Interstate Mercantile Affairs. 

Charles Nagel, Secretary of Commerce and Labor, in his 
annual report recommends direct supervision by the federal 
government of all mercantile and manufacturing enterprises 
whose business is subject, or legally can be made subject, to the 
United States government. He says : 

"A certain degree of combination of capital is admittedly 
essential to the carrying on of our great business enterprises. 
To control properly such necessary combinations we must have 
some administrative federal office or commission which shall 
make this work its business. We must have a permanent author- 
ity which shall by steady and continuous supervision and pub- 
licity safeguard the public interests and at the same time allow 
full scope for necessary and proper business efficiency and de- 

"The decisions of the Supreme Court in the Standard Oil and 
American Tobacco Company cases have brought forcibly to the 
public attention a fact repeatedly presented in the reports of this 
department — the imperative need for the positive administrative 
regulation of great industrial corporations. 

"The recent decisions, and the reorganizations which followed, 
have made it clear that another imperative step remains to be 
taken, and that this is the establishment, by appropriate legisla- 
tion, of a broad system of supervision and publicity for all those 
industrial and commercial organizations engaged in interstate 
and international business. 

"Whether this shall be done by means of federal incorpora- 
tion or by a federal office or commission exercising powers of 
regulation and supervision may be a secondary question. The 
first consideration appears to be the establishment of permanent 
administrative publicity, regulation and supervision. The time 
is peculiarly ripe for such action. Public opinion and the views 
of many corporation managers are as one." 

Railway Storekeepers' Association. 

The ninth annual meeting of the Railway Storekeepers' Asso- 
ciation will be held at Bufifalo, N. Y., May 20-22. The standing 
committees are as follows : 

Committee on Recommended Practices — One year, H. C. 
Pearce (Sou. Pac), H. C. Stevens (Nat. Rys. of Mex.), T. W. 
Flanagan (M. St. P. & S. S. M.) ; two years, C. C. Dibble (L. S. 
& M. S.), E. J. McVeigh (Grand Trunk), J. W. Foyle (M. K. & 
T.) ; three years, J. H. Waterman (C. B. & Q.), George Holmes 
(Mich. Cent), W. L. Cooper (M. & O.). 

Committee on Piece Work— D. C. Curtis (C. B. & Q.), J. W. 
Gerber (Sou. Ry.), B. W. Griffith (L. S. & M. S.). 

Committee on Scrap Classification — D. Kavanagh (R. I. Lines), 
£. J. Roth (C. B. & Q.), C. C. Dibble (L. S. & M. S.), H. A. 
Anderson (Penna.), W. F. Girten, Scranton, Pa. 

Committee on Accounting — D. A. Williams (B. & O.), E. L. 

Fries (Harriman Lines), F. R. Brown (C. B. & Q.), W. H. 
Grassman (N. Y. C. & H. R.), E. E. McCracken (B. & L. E.). 

Committee on Uniform Grading and Inspection of Lumber — 
J. H. Waterman (C. B. & Q.), J. R. Mulroy (St. L. & S. F.), 
W. F. Jones (N. Y. C. & H. R.), N. M Rice (A. T. & S. F.). 

Committee on Standard Grain Door — D. Kavanagh (R. L 
Lines), E. J. Roth (C. B. & Q.). W. A. Summerhays (111. Cent.). 

Committee on Membership— N. M. Rice (A. T. & S. F.), E. E. 
McCracken (B. & L. E.), J. H. Callaghan (Can. Pac), H. S. 
Burr (Erie). 

Committee on Stationery — H. E. Rouse (C. G. W.), N. A. 
Waldron (St. L. S. W.), E. E. Herold (B. & O.). 

Committee on Standardization of Tinware — J. R. Mulroy (St. 
L. & S. F.), H. C. Pearce (Sou. Pac), J. H. Waterman (C. B. 
& Q.), F. D. Reed (C. R. L & P.), H. A. Anderson (Penna.), 
W. F. Jones (N. Y. C. & H. R.). 

American Supply and Machinery Manufacturers' Association. 

The next joint convention of the American Supply and 
Machinery Manufacturers' Association, the National Supply 
and Machinery Dealers' Association and the Southern Supply 
and Machinery Dealers' Association will be held at the Monti- 
cello hotel, Norfolk, Va., May 13-15, 1912. F. D. Mitchell is sec- 
retary and may be addressed at 309 Broadway, New York. 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers will hold a 
meeting of members resident in New York on January 9, to con- 
sider the work of the society. 

American Association of Demurrage Officers. 

The annual meeting of the American Association of Demur- 
rage Officers will be held at San Francisco, Cal., May 10-11, 1912. 


The following list gives names of secretaries, dates of next or regular 
meetings, and places of meeting. 

AiK Brake Association. — F. M. Nellis, 53 State St., Boston, Mass.; annual. 
May 7-10, Richmond, Va. 

American Association of Demurrage Officers. — A. G. Thomason, Boston, 

American Association of General Passenger and Ticket Agents. — W. C. 
Hope, New York; next convention, Seattle, Wash. 

American Association of Freight Agents. — k. O. Wells, East St. Louis, 
111.; annual, June 18-21, Chicago. 

American Association of Railroad Superintendents. — O. G. Fetter, 
Carew building. Cincinnati, Ohio; 3d Friday of March and Septem- 
ber; annual, March 17, Chicago. 

American Electric Railway Association. — H. C. Donecker, 29 W. 39th 
St., New York. 

American Electric Railway Manufacturers' Assoc. — George Keegan, 165 
Broadway, New York. Meetings with Am. Elec. Ry. Assoc. 

American Railway Association. — W. F. Allen, 75 Church St., New York. 

American Railway Bridge and Building Association. — C. .'\. Lichty. C. & 

N. W., Chicago. Convention, 3d week in Oct., Baltimore, Md. ' 
American Railway Engineering Association. — E. H. Fritch, Monadnock 

Block, Chicago; annual convention, March 19-21, 1912, Chicago. 

American Railway Master Mechanics' Assoc. — J. W. Taylor, Old Colony 
building, Chicago. Convention, June 17-19, Atlantic City, N. J. 

American Railway Tool Foremen's Association.^ — M. H. Bray N Y., 
N. H. & H., New Haven, Conn. 

American Society for Testing Materials. — Prof. E. Marburg, University 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

American Society of Civil Engineers. — C. W. Hunt, 220 W. 57th St., 
New York; 1st and 3d Wed., except June and August, New York. 

American Society of Engineering Contractors. — J. R. Wemlinser, 13 
Park Row, New York; 2d Tuesday of each month, New York. 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers. — Calvin W. Rice, 29 W, 
39th St., New York.. 

Association of .American Railway Accounting Officers. — C. G. Phil- 
lips, 143 Dearborn St., Chicago; annual, June 26, 1912, Quebec, Que. 

Association of Railway Claim Agents. — J. R. McSherry. C. & E. I., Chi- 
cago; annual convention, May 22, 1912, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Association of Railway Electrical Engineers. — Jos. A. Andreucetti, C. & 
N. W. Ry., Chicago. 

Association of Railway Telegraph Superintendents. — P. W. Drew, 135 
Adams St., Chicago: annual, June 24, 1912, New York. 

Association of Transportation and Car Accounting Officers. — G. P. 
Conrad, 75 Church St., New York. 



Vol. 52, No. 1. 

Canadian Railway Club. — James Powell, Grand Trunk Ry., Montreal, 
Que.; 2d Tuesday in month, except June, July and Aug., Montreal. 

Canadian Society of Civil Engineess. — Clement H. McLeod, 413 Dor- 
chester St., Montreal, Que.; Thursdays, Montreal. 

Car Foremen's Association of Chicago. — Aaron Kline, 841 North 50th 
Court, Chicago; 2d Monday in month, Chicago. 

Central Railway Club. — H. D. Vought, 95 Liberty St., New York; 2d 
Thurs. in Jan. and 2d Fri. in March, May, Sept., Nov., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Civil Engineers' Society of St. Paul. — D. F. Jurgensen, 116 Winter St., 
St. Paul, Minn.; 2d Monday, except June, July and Aug., St. Paul. 

Engineers Society of Pennsylvania. — E. R. Dasher, Box 704, Harris- 
burg, Pa.; 1st Monday after 2d Saturday, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania. — E. K. Hiles, 803 Fulton 
building, Pittsburgh; 1st and 3d Tuesday, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Freight Claim Association. — Warren P. Taylor, Richmond, Va.; annual, 

May 15, Buffalo, N. Y. 
General Superintendents' Association of Chicago. — E. S. KoUer, 226 

W. Adams St., Chicago; Wed. preceding 3d Thurs., Chicago. 
International Railway Congress. — Executive Committee, rue de Louvain, 

11 Brussels; 1915, Berlin. 
International Railway Fuel Association. — D. B. Sebastian, La Salle 

St. Station, Chicago. 
International Railway General Foremen's Association. — L. H. Bryan, 

Brown Marx building, Birmingham, Ala. Convention, July 23-26. 
International Railroad Master Blacksmiths' Association. — A. L. Wood- 
worth, Lima, Ohio. Convention, August IS, Cliicago. 
Iowa Railway Clue. — W. B. Harrison, Union Station, Des Moines, la.; 

2d Friday in month, except July and August, Des Moines. 
Master Boiler Makers' Association. — Harry D. Vought, 95 Liberty St., 

New York; annual convention, May 14-17, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Master Car Builders' Association. — J. W. Taylor, Old Colony building, 

Chicago. Annual convention, June 12-14, Atlantic City, N. J. 
Master Car and Locomotive Painters' Assoc, of U. S. and Canada. — A. P. 

Dane, B. & M., Reading, Mass. Convention, 2d week m September. 
National Railway Appliances .^ssoc. — Bruce V. Crandall, 537 So. Dear- 
born St., Chicago. Meetings with Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc. 
New England Railroad Club. — G. H. Frazier, 10 Oliver St., Boston, Mass.; 

2d Tuesday in month, except June, July, Aug. and Sept., Boston. 
New York Railroad Club.— H. D. Vought, 95 Liberty St., New York; 3d 

Friday in month, except June, July and August, New York. 
Northern Railway Club.— C. L. Kennedy, C, M. & St. P., Duluth, Minn.; 

4th Saturday, Duluth. 
Omaha Railway Club. — H. H. Maulick, Barker Block, Omaha, Neb.; 

second Wednesday. 
Railroad Club of Kansas City. — C. Manlove, 1008 Walnut St., Kansas 

City, Mo.; 3d Friday in month, Kansas City. 
Railway Business Association. — Frank W. Noxon, 2 Rector St., New 

Railway Club of Pittsburgh. — J. B. Anderson, Penna. R. R., Pittsburgh, 

Pa.; 4th Friday in month, except June, July and August, Pittsburgh. 
Railway Electrical Supply Manufacturers' Assoc. — J. Scribner, 1021 

Monadnock Block, Chicago. Meetings with Assoc. Ry. Elec. Engrs. 
Railway Industrial Association. — G. L. Stewart, St. L. S. W. Ry., St. 

Louis, Mo.; annual. May 12, 1912, Kansas City, Mo. 
Railway Signal Association. — C. C. Rosenberg, Bethlehem, Pa. 
Railway Storekeepers' Association. — J. P. Murphy, Box C, Collinwood, 

Ohio. Convention, May 20-22, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Railway Supply Manufacturers' Assoc. — J. D. Conway, 2135 Oliver Bldg., 

Pittsburgh, Pa. Meetings with M. M. and M. C. B. assocs. 
Railway Tel. & Tel. .Appliance Assoc. — W. E. Harkness, 284 Pearl St., 

New York. Meetings with Assoc, of Ry. Teleg. Sups. 
Richmond Railroad Clue. — F. O. Robinson, Richmond, Va. ; 2d Monday, 

except June, July and August. 


N. W., Sterling; September, 1912, Buffalo, N. Y. 

St. Louis Railway Club. — B. W. Fraumenthal, Union Station, St. Louis, 
Mo.; 2d Friday in month, except June, July and Aug., St. Louis. 

Signal Appliance Association. — F. W. Edmonds, 3868 Park Ave., New 
York. Meetings with annual convention Railway Signal Association. 

Society of Railway Financial Officers. — C. Nyquist, La Salle St. Sta- 
tion, Chicago. 

Southern Association of Car Service Officers. — E. W. Sandwich, A. & 
W. P. Ry., Montgomery, Ala. 

Southern & Southwestern Railway Club. — A. J. Merrill, Grant bldg., 
Atlanta, Ga. ; 3d Thurs., Jan., March, May, July, Sept., Nov., Atlanta. 

Toledo Transportation Club. — J. G. Macomber, Woolson Spice Co., To- 
ledo, Ohio; 1st Saturday, Toledo. 

Traffic Club of Chicago. — Guy S. McCabe, La Salle Hotel, Chicago; 
meetings monthly, Chicago. 

Traffic Club of New York. — C. A. Swope, 290 Broadway, New York; last 
Tuesday in month, except June, July and August, New York. 

Traffic Club of Pittsburgh. — D. L. Wells, Erie, Pittsburgh, Pa.; meetings 
monthly, Pittsburgh. 

Train Despatchers' Association of America. — J. F. Mackie, 7042 Stewart 
Ave., Chicago; annual, June 18, 1912, Louisville, Ky. 

Transportation Club of Buffalo. — J. M. Sells, Buffalo; first Saturday 
after first Wednesday. 

Transportation Club of Detroit. — W. R. Hurley, L. S. & M. S., Dertoit, 
Mich.; meetings monthly. 

Tkaveling Engineers' Association. — W. O. Thompson, N. Y. C. & H. R., 
East Buffalo, N. Y.; August, 1912. 

Western Canada Railway Club. — W. H. Rosevear, P. O. Box 1707, Win- 
nipeg, Man.; 2d Monday, except June, July and August, Winnipeg. 

Western Railway Club. — J. W. Taylor, Old Colony building, Chicago; 3d 
•Tnesdav of each month, except June, July and August. 

Western Society of Engineers. — J. H. Warder, 1735 Monadnock Block, 
Chicago; Ist Wednesday in month except July and August, Chicago. 

Wood Preservers' Association. — F. J. Angier, B. & O., Baltimore, Md.; 
annual, January 16-18, Chicago. 

©rafftr K^tt)«. 

The Southern Demurrage and Storage Bureau, with head- 
quarters at New Orleans, La., was dissolved on January 1. 

The Chesapeake & Ohio and the Toledo, St. Louis & Western 
have arranged to take freight through between Cincinnati and St. 
Louis, the junction being at Marion, Ind. The train schedules 
provide for second morning delivery of freight at both cities. 

The Missouri, Kansas & Texas has granted the Oklahoma City 
jobbers and manufacturers storage and transit rate privileges on 
car load shipments from factories to points in Oklahoma on farm 
implements, gasolene engines and harvesting and threshing 

A special meeting of the Central Passenger Association was 
held in Chicago, December 27, for the purpose of considering a 
plan of abolishing as far as possible all special certificate plan 
and convention rates below 2 cents a mile, with the exception of 
Niagara Falls excursions and similar rates which have become 
established. Further consideration will be given to the plan 
at a meeting on January 10. 

The Atlantic Express Company is the name of a corporation 
which has been formed to conduct an express and baggage trans- 
fer business in Boston and other New England cities, and also 
in New York. The name of William Loeb, Jr., collector of the 
port of New York, is given as one of the directors of the com- 
pany; and F. B. White of Boston, is general manager. The new 
company will buy the Hoyt-Tarbox Express Company, of 

During the week preceding Christmas, the Chicago & North 
Western "entertained" at its new passenger terminal at Chicago 
318,000 people ; that is to say, that number passed through its 
doors ; the number of pieces of baggage handled was 24,190, 
and 12,370 persons were served in the lunch and dining room. 
This is an increase in passengers and baggage of 20 per cent, 
over the corresponding week of 1910 at the old Wells street 

At a meeting of a joint committee representing eight busi- 
ness men's organizations of Cincinnati, held on December 27, 
a resolution was passed attacking the present rates of the Cincin- 
nati Southern for the transportation of certain manufactured 
articles from southern points to Cincinnati as being unfair and 
discriminatory. A copy of the resolutions was mailed to each 
of the trustees of the Cincinnati Southern, demanding a read- 
justment of the rates. 

Exporters in New York City report that to many destinations 
they are now obliged to pay for ocean transportation fully double 
the rates demanded last summer ; this in consequence not only 
of a general heavy movement of freight from America to Europe, 
but also because of heavy movements in other parts of the world. 
Freight from Europe to America has not increased so largely, 
but the steamships have announced that the rates will be in- 
creased in the near future. 

T. O. Plunkett, the head of the cotton culture department of 
the Southern Railway, now has thirteen men traveling among the 
cotton planters of Alabama, Mississippi and other states tra- 
versed by the Southern Railway and its affiliated lines, instructing 
and assisting the farmers in corhbating the cotton boll weevil. 
The Southern Railway proposes not only to do what it can in 
exterminating the weevil, but also to give suitable information to 
the farmers in those regions where it has not yet been found, 
with a view to preventing its spread. 

L. L. Fellows, commercial agent of the Lake Erie & Western 
at Indianapolis, was elected president of the Indianapolis Trans- 
portation Club at the annual business meeting of the club. Other 
officers were elected as follows : First vice-president, H. C. Shep- 
ard, division freight agent, Pennsylvania Lines; second vide- 
president, S. S. Shambaugh, assistant treasurer Kokomo Wire & 
Steel Company; third vice-president, E. C. Merritt, traffic man- 
ager Indianapolis Abattoir Company; secretary-treasurer, L. E. 
Stone, agent Central States Despatch. 

Frank Foster, commissioner appointed by the supreme court of 
Kansas in the mandamus action brought by the attorney-general 

January 3, 1912. 



of Kansas against eight railways entering Kansas City, Kan., 
and six elevator companies, has filed a report holding that the 
grain inspection law passed by the Kansas legislature is constitu- 
tional ; that all grain consigned to and stored in public ware- 
houses at that point is subject to inspection, and that the inspec- 
tion fees prescribed by the law will not yield a revenue in excess 
of the necessary expenses of maintaining the department ; but 
that grain entering the terminals and not consigned or stored in 
the elevators is not subject to inspection. 

A revised Western Freight Classification, No. 51, was issued 
on January 1 to become effective February IS. This latest is- 
sue of the classification contains 437 pages as compared with 
264 in the last issue, the additional pages having been necessi- 
tated mainly by the adoption of the recommendations of the 
Uniform Classification Committee, published prior to Septem- 
ber 1, including reports 1 and 2. The classification has been 
elaborated in many ways and its rules are made more specific ; 
for example, the old term "not otherwise specified" now reads 
"not otherwise indexed by name." This is also the first issue 
of the classification embodying the requirement of the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission that all advances or reductions 
be indicated. 

The Baltimore & Ohio will run an agricultural educational 
train over its lines in Maryland on five days next week, the lec- 
tures being given by professors and teachers from the Maryland 
Agricultural College, under the direction of Dr. Richard S. Hill, 
state director of farmers' institutes. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad will next week start its fourth 
annual farmers' educational train in New Jersey, leaving Cam- 
den Monday morning and visiting 30 towns. A new feature of 
the train will be an exhibit car in which the work of the state 
experiment station at New Brunswick will be shown in the shape 
of fruit packed for shipment, corn, alfalfa, methods of managing 
poultry and shipping eggs, and a display of charts. Secretary 
Dye of the State Board of Agriculture will have with him on the 
train IS lecturers and other assistants. 

The much regulated Texas railways have recently discovered 
that even justices of the peace may regulate freight rates in that 
state, to the extent of overruling rates fixed by the Texas railway 
commission. In the case of Young vs. Houston & Texas Cen- 
tral the plaintiff secured from a justice of the peace at Hemp- 
stead a judgment of $14 on the complaint that the defendant's 
rate on a shipment of melons was exorbitant, in spite of the fact 
that the rate was one promulgated by the state commission. A 
temporary injunction was secured in the district court, but later 
dissolved. An appeal was taken to the court of civil appeals at 
Galveston, which declined to overrule the justice of the peace. 
Then the supreme court refused to allow a writ of error on the 
ground that the justices of the peace have authority to pass on 
cases involving less than $20. 

The Pennsylvania's Agricultural Instruction. 

To answer the question, What profit? an officer of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad has compiled the following information con- 
cerning the work of the lecturers which the company has car- 
ried over the road during the past three years in its "agricul- 
tural specials" ; and the results are found to be more definite, 
and are manifested in a greater number of places, than any one 
had expected. The pamphlets issued by the company, and its 
other missionary work, are also found to have been popular and 

The members of the Chester Valley Farmers Co-Operative As- 
sociation declare that that organization is a result of the rail- 
way's agricultural work. One of the first undertakings of the 
association was cow testing, for which a trained man from Penn- 
sylvania State College was secured. There are 450 cows in the 
herds owned by members of the association. 

At Price, Md., there has been organized a "Progressive 
Farmers' Club." The charter members numbered 35, and they 
have started a creamery. The object of the club is to study 
farming industries, improve farm land, and instruct farmers in 
the placing of their crops on the markets in better shape. 

Reports from various points in Pennsylvania show that as a 
result of the educational work which is being done by the road 

many apple and peach orchards have been established. There 
were received at one station an increase of 1,000 fruit trees in 
one year over the previous year. Reports from another station 
show that in 1911 there was an increase of 50 per cent, in car- 
load apple shipments. At another station the receipt of nursery 
stock has doubled in the last year, while from another the re- 
port states that five times as much nursery stock has been re- 
ceived this year as in any previous year. 

A general report from one section of Pennsylvania states that 
"a large number of old orchards have been renovated, new ones 
have been planted, and on every hand there is evidence of re- 
newed interest and activity in all lines of farm work upon a 
more intelligent and scientific basis." 

The number of fruit trees in -one county in Maryland in- 
creased 140,000 in the last few years. 

The Fruit Tree Special, operated by the Pennsylvania was in 
charge of Professor H. A. Surface. There can be no doubt that 
it actually reached those interested for it was the practice, when 
this train arrived at a scheduled stop, to take the spraying ap- 
paratus, pruning hooks, pots for mixing spraying solutions, and 
all other paraphernalia at once to an orchard in the vicinity. 
There the lecturers put on their working clothes and after se- 
lecting a good specimen of a tree, pruned and sprayed it them- 
selves in the presence of the owner of the orchard and other 
farmers. This was done after the spraying solution had been 
mixed and prepared on the ground by the lecturers. 

Indicative of the extent to which the "Soil Fertility" lectures 
have been effective are the following reports regarding the use 
of lime and commercial fertilizers : 

During the past season 25 carloads of lime have been received 
at a station where no lime was ever received before. Two sta- 
tions report an increase of -SO per cent, in receipts of lime. One 
station reports an increase of 201 carloads of lime in the first 
eight months of 1911 over the same period of 1910. 

Where farmers burn their own lime, all reports show an in- 
crease in the receipt of coal used in burning the lime stone. 
Several lime-burning companies were unable to fill orders this 
j'ear, whereas in previous years their kilns were shut down 
part of the time. At one station during the present season 33 
persons attended the lectures, each of whom represented a dif- 
ferent farm in the vicinity. 

As a result of the operation of the educational trains over 
the Pope's Creek Branch of the Philadelphia, Baltimore & Wash- 
ington in central Maryland, two dairy farms have been estab- 

One farmer of central Maryland crossed the Chesapeake bay 
to the eastern shore in order to attend the lectures given on 
the train. This same farmer drove 20 miles one morning to 
the first stopping place of the Special, and remained with it all 
day in order to hear all of the lectures several times. 

Throughout the country districts of Pennsylvania the prin- 
ciples of agriculture form a part of the course of study in the 
schools. Beginning this year a special coach was added to the 
trains and at each stopping place the high school class and 
teacher were given a lecture on home and market gardening. 
In the final examinations of the year this subject will be given 
consideration. The Pennsylvania State College authorities 
state that the enrollment in the school of agriculture has greatly 
increased in the last few years, and they have no doubt that 
the educational trains have contributed to the increase. 

The company's literature on farming subjects is in active de- 
mand among responsible farmers. As many as twenty-five re- 
quests for the books have been received at Broad street station 
alone in one day's mail. The following statemeat shows the 
number of the various pamphlets distributed : 

Orchard Primer 25,000 

Potato Culture 35,000 

Seed Grain Suggestions 40,000 

Use of Lime on Land 10,000 

Essentials of Soil Fertility 20,000 

Alfalfa 25,000 

Farming Possibilities of Delaware-Maryland- Virginia 

Peninsula 3,000 

Increase of Crop per Acre — Use of Dynamite on the 

Farm 26,500 

Good Roads at Low Cost 35,500 

One division freight agent reports : 

"A merchant of Lancaster County, who is an intelligent and 
observing tnan, has voluntarily stated to one of our agents 



Vol. 52, No. 1. 

that a marked awakening among the farmers in that vicinity 
ha.s been so noticeable of late that he felt impelled to inquire 
among the farmers individually as to the cause of their activity 
and the noticeable changes in their methods for the better ; 
and in every instance it was traced directly to the information 
they had gained from the pamphlets issued by the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad Company. 

"The apparently stolid indifference vv'ith which these pam- 
phlets were at first received by many of these people was only 
temporary. For instance, the pamphlet on the use of dynamite 
on the farm when first distributed, was the subject of much 
levity and adverse criticism, but those who scoffed have re- 
mained to pray, and everywhere stones, stumps and other ob- 
stacles, which have long obstructed and marred the farm are 
being rapidly eliminated by the intelligent use of dynamite, while 
sub-soiling is being largely resorted to by the same means." 

Good Roiids. — Township supervisors located on the Pennsyl- 
vania east of Pittsburgh and Erie are using the split-log 
drag. They all report good results. The railway company built 
log drags and placed them at several stations for the use of the 
farmers and others. At no point has the drag been left un- 
used, and requests for more drags are being received. One 
township supervisor stated recently that in his estimation "no 
township can be fully equipped for road making without a log 
drag." This same supervisor was one of the hardest to con- 
vert to the use of the drag. 

Following a visit of the good roads train, a farmer who 
heard the lectures made and began to use a log drag on a 
short stretch of road from his farm to the state road. He was 
stopped in this work by the township authorities, but he per- 
sisted in his efforts, using the drag after dark. After a few 
nights' work, the effects of his labor were seen and he was then 
allowed to use the drag. Since that he has had numerous re- 
quests for the loan of his drag, and others have been built. 

A number of farmers living in the neighborhood of one of 
the points at which the good roads train stopped built drags 
and used them on the roads in front of their farms. In this 
way an excellent road was built for a distance of nine miles 
into one of the principal towns of the county. During the 
tour of the good roads train more than 75,000 people heard the 
lectures and viewed the exhibits. 


An investigation by the Interstate Commerce Commission of 
the subject of allowances paid by railways to industrial railways 
serving steel plants, is to be opened at a hearing in Chicago on 
January 27 before Commissioner Harlan. 

The "Greater Des Moines" committee of Des Moines, la., has 
petitioned the Interstate Commerce Commission for a reduction 
in class rates between Des Moines and points in Colorado, Utah 
and Wyoming, alleging discrimination as compared with the 
rates between Chicago and those points. 

The Brunswick-Balke-Collender Company has petitioned the 
Interstate Commerce Commission to cancel the rule of the West- 
ern Classification Committee, under which an extra rate is ap- 
plied to articles too large to be loaded through the side door of 
a 36-foot car, or too long to be loaded through the end window. 

The Louisiana railway commission has filed a complaint with 
the Interstate Commerce Commission asking a suspension of 
tariffs advancing the freight rates on potatoes from points in 
Louisiana to points in Texas from a range between 31^ and 40 
cents to a range between 44 and 49 cents, effective February 12. 
The state commission alleges that the rates will work an unjust 
discrimination against Louisiana potato growers on account of 
lower rates from Texas points to Louisiana. 

Discrimination Against Sioux City. 

Traffic Bureau of the Sioux City Commercial Club z'. Chicago 
& North Western et al. Opinion by Commissioner McChord: 

Class rates from Sioux City, Iowa, to southwestern Minnesota 
found unreasonable to the extent that they exceed the rates 
from St. Paul and Minneapolis to equidistant points in the same 
territory. (22 I. C. C, 110.) 

Complaints Dismissed. 

/. P. Wadell Show Case & Cabinet Co. v. Michigan Central 
ct al. Opinion by the commission: 

Complainant's shipments were properly rated as "in crates" 
under western classification. (22 I. C. C, 106.) 

Gamble-Robinson Commission Co. et al. v. St. Louis, Iron 
Mountain & Southern. Opinion by the commission: 

Rates on watermelons from southeastern Missouri to Minne- 
apolis, Minn., and St. Paul are not found unreasonable. (22 
L C. C, 138.) 

Bewsher Co. v. Union Pacific. Opinion by the commission: 
A rule r.equiring those doing business with the Union Pacific 
to sign a voucher on receipt of money, showing their relationship 
to the corporation or firm for which they take the money, is not 
found to be unreasonable. (22 I. C. C, 146.) 

Georgetown Railway & Light Co. v. Norfolk & Western et al. 
Opinion by the commission: 

Differences in transportation conditions justify a different rate 
on Pocahontas coal from West Virginia to Georgetown, S. C, 
from the rate on the same coal to Charleston, S. C. (22 
I. C. C, 144.) 

Carload Rate Established. 

Red Path-Vawter Ch-autauqua System v. Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe et al. Opinion by the commission: 

At present the complainant is charged L. C. L. rate on its 
tents, poles, camp chairs, etc., for Chautauqua entertainments. 
The commission holds that Chautauqua outfits should be given a 
C. L. rate with a minimum weight of 20,000 lbs. (22 I. C. C, 

Live Stock Rates Reduced. 

In re alleged unreasonable rates and practices in the transpor- 
tation of live stock, packinghouse products, and fresh meats fromi 
various Southwestern points to packing houses, and from thence 
to various destinations. Opinion by Commissioner Prouiy: 

The defendants' present rates upon live stock from points in 
New Mexico, Texas, and Oklahoma to Fort Worth, Tex., Okla- 
homa City, Okla., and Wichita, Kans., are unreasonable and are 
hereby reduced. The defendants' present rates on fresh meats 
and packing-house products from Fort Worth, Oklahoma City, 
and Wichita to various points are unreasonable and are reduced. 

As the record contains nothing which indicates clearly the 
points to which the rates on tankage are desired, nor the nature 
of the complaint against the rates now in effect, no opinion on 
that point is at this time expressed. For reasons expressed in the 
report, no opinion is given on the rates on hides involved in this 
case. The defendants' present rate on salt from the Kansas field 
to Oklahoma City is unreasonable to the extent that it exceeds 
the rate prescribed in this report. (22 I. C. C, 161.) 

Reparation Awarded. 

Sunderland Brothers Co. v. Missouri Pacific et al. Opinion by 
the commission: 

Carload rates on brick from the Kansas gas belt to points in 
Iowa found unreasonable to the extent that they exceed rates 
from the same points to Mississippi river territory. (22 I. C. C, 

Under the present ruling of the commission, if, of two com- 
peting through carriers, one has a- combination of intermediate 
rates less than the through rate, such carrier may reduce the 
through ra'te, and if such carrier happens to be the short line, 
the competing carrier or carriers may reduce their through rates 
without an application to the commission ; but if such carrier 
does not happen to be the short line, the other roads have to 
make a Special application to the commission to reduce their 
rates. The commission believes that railways now competing 
under equal rates should be allowed to continue their competi- 
tion until special cases can be passed on by the commission, and 
therefore has ordered that where the through rate has been re- 
duced, roads maintaining through rates via other routes between 
the same points may meet the reduction, although discrimination 

January 5, 1912. 



against intermediate points is thereby increased. When the Com- 
mission, however, specifically passes on any application for per- 
mission to charge less for the long haul, the order will auto- 
matically cancel the permission now granted in general. 

The commission has extended from January 1 to May 1, 1912, 
the date at which its orders ruling that the tariffs which show a 
higher rate to intermediate points simply because the intermedi- 
ate points are not either consuming or producing points, shall 
be corrected so as to show the same rate to intermediate points. 
The extension of time was granted because of the amount of 
labor involved in correcting the tariffs. 

Rate on Lemons Again Reduced to $1. 

Arlington Heights Fruit Exchange et al. v. Southern Pacific 
et al. Opinion by Commissioner Prouty: 

The defendants in 1904 made a blanket rate of $1 per hundred 
pounds for lemons from southern California to all territory 
east of the Rocky Mountains, and advanced this rate in No- 
vember, 1909, to $1.15. The commission in 19 I. C. 'C, 148, 
while holding that a rate of $1.15 on oranges was liberal, reduced 
the rate on lemons to $1. The Commerce Court granted an 
injunction against the enforcement of this order of the com- 
mission on the ground that the commission was attempting to 
protect California lemon growers against Sicilian competition, 
regardless of the reasonableness of the rate itself. The Com- 
merce Court, in its opinion, pointed out that the commission had 
apparently attempted to overcome tariff insufficiencies by lower- 
ing the transcontinental freight rate. The commission did not 
attempt to do this. Had the commission understood that the 
Commerce Court would attempt to look into the mind of the 
commission for the purpose of ascertaining the reasons on which 
its order was based, that the mere statement of the claims of 
the parties was to be taken as evidence of the assent of the com- 
mission to those claims, and that the number of lines used in 
stating the issue was to indicate the weight attached by us to 
that particular consideration, we should have been more careful 
in the phrasing of our opinion. In the main, the transportation 
conditions for oranges and lemons from southern California to 
eastern markets are the same, and it is pointed out that for the 
better part of eight years the defendants had, of their own free 
will, maintained a rate on lemons at first 25 cents and later 
15 cents lower than the rate on oranges. The fact that a much 
larger per cent, of oranges move under refrigeration than of 
lemons would justify a somewhat lower rate on lemons than on 
oranges. If the lemon rate is to be measured by the orange 
rate, then the commission thinks the orange rate should be re- 
duced in determining a fair relationship, not that the lemon 
rate should be advanced. The commission is of the opinion that 
the rate of $1.15 on lemons is unjust and unreasonable, and 
should not exceed $1. This decision is not based on any con- 
sideration that the American producer should be protected 
against foreign competition. The commission points out that 
since lemons can move simply under ventilation, and that about 
5,500 cars have collapsible bunkers, into which bunkers fruit 
moving under ventilation can be loaded, the car loading on 
lemons is potentially larger than on oranges, and railways should 
be allowed to require the shipper to load the collapsible bunker 
cars to their capacity. 

One ground of attack of the former order of the commission 
was that it was without authority to establish a blanket rate 
extending from the Rocky mountains and covering the whole 
East. The question presented to the commission was not what 
would be a reasonable rate if the commission were for the first 
time establishing such rates, but, rathar, is $1.15 or $1, or some 
other figure, reasonable as a blanket rate. The commission did 
not wish to fight this contention, and in the supplemental hear- 
ings the commission asked both the defendant and the com- 
plainant whether they wished a blanket rate established or 
graded rates, and both joined in asking a blanket rate. The 
question of damages is reserved for a further hearing. 

Commissioner Lane concurring: 

We are called on in this case to pass on the reasonableness 
of a rate on lemons that is the same from Los Angeles to Den- 
ver as from Los Angeles to Boston. Manifestly, if there is any 
direct relation between the cost of service and the rate charged, 
such method of making rates is in conflict with the law. These 
great blankets, however, are made as a matter of policy. They 

are instituted by the carriers for their own benefit to develop 
the industry and to extend and simplify the marketing of fruit. 
This case, when broadly reported, involves a question of the 
highest national importance. The whole continent for a zone of 
2,000 miles is made to serve the Pacific coast terminal cities at 
uniform rates, while the states between the mountains are not 
given such advantage. At the same time, the lumber of the far 
Northwest is not so treated, nor the wool or hides of the interior. 
Primarily it is a matter of national concern and not of railway 
policy as to what system of rate making shall obtain, so long 
as the carriers receive a raesonable return on the value of their 
property. The railway, by its rates, may make each portion of 
the country largely independent of the remainder, or it may 
make of the nation one economic and industrial unit, each portion 
thereof doing best, that which nature has fitted it to do best. 
This is fundamentally the difference in philosophy which under- 
lies the two methods of making rates which have been given 
consideration in this case. There is no doubt in my mind but 
that the commission could not itself prescribe this blanket rate 
which the commission approves, because neither the carriers nor 
the shippers wish it destroyed. Commissioner Meyer concurs 
w'ith Commissioner Lane. 

Commissioner Clark concurring in part: 

It seems to me clear that it would be greatly to the advantage 
of citrus fruit growers and shippers if the blanket rate were 
broken up. I am unable to discover any substantial transporta- 
tion difference between the movement of oranges and of lemons 
except that the lemons stand transportation better than the 
oranges do. The enforcement of a minimum weight on cars 
carrying lemons under ventilation higher than that on lemons 
moving under refrigeration is agreed to. (22 I. C. C, 149.) 


The Massachusetts Commission has authorized the Boston 
Elevated Railway Company to act as a common carrier of bag- 
gage and freight in the city of Boston. The order contemplates 
the doing of an express business only. 

The Railroad Commission of Louisiana, in answer to a com- 
plaint of the Shreveport Chamber of Commerce, has said that 
while it recognizes the necessity for the correction of erroneous 
demurrage assessments at this time, there has been no practical 
way suggested or any remedy shown to the commission that will 
improve present demurrage rules. 

The Railroad Commission of Louisiana, in a case where com- 
plaint was made against the condition of the roadbed and track 
of the New Orleans Great Northern between St. Tammay sta- 
tion and Pearl river, employed an expert to make an examina- 
tion, and from his report the commission comes to the conclu- 
sion that the roadbed and track complained of is in an unsafe 
condition. "While trains may be run over this road at a very 
slow speed with utmost caution without greatly endangering the 
lives of passengers, its condition is such that adequate and suit- 
able freight and passenger service cannot be rendered to the 
public." The commission, therefore, orders the track to be put 
in such condition by April 1, 1912, as will render it safe for 
trains going 25 miles an hour. 


In a local court at Wabash, Ind., a trainmaster of the Cleve- 
land, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis has been fined $5 for 
refusing to issue a "letter of service" to an employee who 
resigned. The last legislature of Indiana passed a law making 
the giving of such letters compulsory. The case will be ap- 

In the case of Oliver HufF, a brakeman of the New York, 
New Haven & Hartford, who sued the road for damages on ac- 
count of injuries sustained in a collision, basing his suit on the 
federal laws as they now stand (with the fellow-servant pro- 
vision abolished), and in which the plaintiff secured a verdict 
for $22,500, the court has acted favorably on the motion of the 
defense, asking for a new trial ; but mainly because the ver- 
dict is regarded as excessive. If Huff will accept $10,0(X), the 
motion for a new trial will be denied. 



Vol. 52, No. 1. 

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January 5, 1912. 



BaUu^at) (Bdicer^* 


Executive, Financial and Legal Officers. 

James E. Baldwin has been appointed assistant auditor of the 
New York, Chicago & St. Louis, with office at Cleveland, Ohio. 

W. S. McCaull, claims attorney of the Quincy, Omaha & Kan- 
sas City, with office at Kansas City, Mo., has resigned to engage 
in the private practice of law. 

Byron Clark, attorney for the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
at Lincoln, Neb., has been appointed general solicitor of the 
lines west of the Missouri river, with office at Omaha, Neb., 
succeeding James E. Kelby, resigned to engage in private prac- 

T. E. Clarke, general superintendent of the Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna & Western, at Scranton, Pa., has been appointed assistant 
to the president, with office at Scranton, and with such duties 
to perfo -m as shall be assigned to him from time to time by the 

A. E. Miller, assistant to the general attorney of the Duluth, 
South Shore & Atlantic and the Mineral Range Railroad at Mar- 
quette, Mich,, has been appointed general attorney, with office at 
Marquette, succeeding A. B. Eldredge, elected president and gen- 
eral counsel. 

L. Emery Katzenbach, whose appointment as secretary and 
assistant treasurer of the Great Northern, with office at 
St. Paul, Minn., has been announced in these columns, was 
born February 23, 1880. at New York City and graduated 
from. Princeton University in the class of 1901. He began 
railway work on June IS, 1901, in the accounting department 
of the New York Central & Hudson River and remained with 
that company and New York Central Lines until April, 1906, 
when he entered the service of the Colorado & Southern in 
the office of the secretary and treasurer at New York, and 
was appointed assistant treasurer in 1907. He remained in 
the service of that company until it came under the control 
of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, in June, 1909, when 
he was elected assistant secretary and assistant treasurer of 
the Colorado & Southern and affiliated companies in charge 
of the New York office. He has held these positions since 
that time, and in addition was elected assistant secretary of 
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy on November 17, 1910. 

Operating Officers. 

H. W. Joslyn has been appointed assistant superintendent on 
the Idaho division of the Oregon Short Line, with headquarters 
at Glcnns Ferry, Idaho. 

\V. J. Houlihan has been appointed trainmaster of tlie Great 
Northern, with office at Great Falls, Mont., succeeding C. C. 
Reynolds, assigned to other duties. 

G. W. Clark, assistant superintendent of the Central New 
England at Hartford, Conn., has been appointed superintendent, 
succeeding to the duties of O. M. Laing, general superintendent, 

R. W. Edwards, superintendent of the Kansas City terminals 
of the Kansas City Southern, has been appointed superintendent 
of all terminals of the Pittsburgh & Lake .Erie, with headquarters 
at Youngstown, Ohio. 

C. O. Dambach, trainmaster and superintendent of telegraph 
of the Wabash Pittsburg Terminal and the West Side Belt at 
Pittsburgh, Pa., has been appointed superintendent of these com- 
panies, and the office of trainmaster has been abolished. 

J. W. Higgins, assistant general manager of the Missouri 
Pacific, and the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern, at St. 
Louis, Mo., who has been acting general manager since Septem- 
ber, has been appointed general manager, succeeding A. W. Sulli- 
van, resigned. 

M. J. Sullivan, formerly superintendent of the Northern divi- 
sion of the Kansas City Southern at Pittsburg, Kan., has been 
appointed superintendent of terminals, with office at Kansas City, 

Mo., succeeding R. W. Edwards, resigned to accept service with 
another company. 

F. G. Archer has been appointed general yardmaster of the 
Baltimore & New York and the Staten Island Rapid Transit, 
with jurisdiction over all yard work at Cranford Junction, Ar- 
lington and St. George, including docking of floats at St. George, 
Staten Island, N. Y. 

E. M. Rine, asssitant general superintendent of the Delaware, 
Lackawanna & Western, at Scranton, Pa., has been appointed 
general superintendent, in charge of the transportation depart- 
ment and his former position has been abolished, succeeding 
T. E. Clarke, promoted. See Executive, Financial and Legal 

W. B. Wood, formerly superintendent of the Akron division 
at Akron, Ohio, of the Pennsylvania Lines West, has been ap- 
pointed superintendent of the Cleveland and Pittsburgh di- 
vision, succeeding T. B. Hamilton, promoted. Nettleton NefF, 
superintendent of the Richmond division, at Richmond, Ind., suc- 
ceeds Mr. Wood. J. C. McCulIough, superintendent of the Mari- 
etta division, at Cambridge, Ohio, has been appointed super- 
intendent of the Richmond division, and H. K. Brady, trainmaster 
of the eastern division, has been promoted to superintendent of 
the Marietta division. 

W. S. Kirby, superintendent of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy at Aurora, 111., has been appointed special inspector on 
the staff of the general manager, with office at Chicago. Robert 
Rice, superintendent at St. Joseph, Mo., succeeds Mr. Kirby, 
and B. B. Greer, superintendent of the Hannibal division at Han- 
nibal, Mo., succeeds Mr. Rice. W. C. Welch, superintendent at 
Brookfield, Mo., succeeds Mr. Greer. W. A. Chittenden, assist- 
ant superintendent at Aurora, 111., succeeds Mr. Welch. F. Cone, 
assistant superintendent at Ottumwa, Iowa, succeeds Mr. Chit- 
tenden. N. C. Allen, trainmaster of the Ottumwa division at 
Burlington, Iowa, has been transferred to Ottumwa, and T. C. 
Dougherty succeeds Mr. Allen. 

Thomas B. Hamilton, who has been appointed general su- 
perintendent of the Central system of the Pennsylvania Lines 
West of Pittsburgh, with office at Toledo, Ohio, as has been 

announced in these col- 
umns, was born August , 
7, 186S, at Columbus 
Ohio. He graduated 
from Princeton Univer- 
sity in 1888, and began 
railway work in No- 
vember of the same 
year as rodnian on the 
Jefferson, Madison & 
Indianapolis, now part 
of the Pittsburgh, Cin- 
cinnati, Chicago & St. 
Louis. On January 27, 
1890, he became con- 
nected with the engi- 
neering corps of the 
Pittsburgh division of 
the latter road, and six 
years later was made 
assistant engineer on 
the same division. lie 
was engineer of main- 
tenance of way from 
May, 1897, to June, 
1901, having been consecutively on the Toledo division of 
the Pennsylvania Company, on the Cincinnati district of the 
P. C. C. & St. L. and on the Cleveland & Pittsburgh division 
of the Pennsylvania Company. He was then appointed super- 
intendent of the Erie & Ashtabula division, and on December 
21, 1903, was made superintendent of the Cleveland & Pitts- 
burgh division, which position he was holding at the time 
of his recent promotion to general superintendent. 

J. W. Small, whose appointment as superintendent of motive 
power of the Southern Pacific line in Texas, with office at 
Houston, Tex., has been announced in these columns, has been 
given the title of assistant general manager of the Galveston, 
Harrisburg & San Antonio, the Houston & Texas Central, the 

T. B. Hamilton. 



Vol. 52, No. 1. 

Houston, East & West Tex.-is, the Houston & Slireveport and tlie 
Texas & New Orleans, and the title of superintendent of motive 
power will be retained by him to such extent only as may be 
necessary for compliance with laws and existing contracts. (See 
item under Engineering and Rolling Stock Officers.) George Mc- 
Cormick has been appointed assistant superintendent of the 
Galveston, Harrisburg & San Antonio, with office at El Paso, 
Tex., succeeding D. W. Fitzgerald, granted leave of absence on 
account of illness. 

Traffic Officers. 

O. H. Taylor has been appointed passenger traffic manager of 
the Eastern Steamship Corporation, with office at New York City. 

W. C. Saunders has been appointed assistant general passenger 
agent of the Norfolk & Western, with headquarters at 
Roanoke, Va. 

Albert Thompson, manager of the advertising bureau of the 
Cliicago & .Alton, with office at Chicago, has resigned to engage 
in other business. 

F. A. Brown has been appointed traveling passenger agent of 
the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha, with headquarters 
at Kansas City, Mo. 

James S. Patterson, chief clerk to the general freiglit agent of 
the Chesapeake & Ohio, has been appointed also commerce agent 
with office at Richmond, Va. 

H. M. Runyon has been appointed general eastern freight 
agent of the Seaboard Air Line, with office at New York City, 
succeeding C. L, Smith, resigned. 

C. F. Schmidt, chief clerk to the general freight and passenger 
agent of the Louisiana & Arkansas, at Texarkana, Ark., has been 
appointed general agent, with office at Texarkana. 

W. R. Sheldon, general agent of the Minneapolis, St. Paul & 
Sault Ste. Marie at Helena, Mont., has been appointed division 
freight and passenger agent, with office at Calgary, Alberta, 

W. W. Trimble, traveling freight agent of the Missouri Pa- 
cific, at Memphis, Tenn., has been appointed a contracting 
freight agent. W. D. Arens, chief clerk, succeeds Mr. Trimble, 
and E. P. Costello succeeds Mr. Arens. 

William D. Corfield has been appointed division freight 
agent of the Philadelphia & Reading, the Perkiomen Railroad 
and the Stony Creek Railroad, with office at Philadelphia. Pa., 
succeeding J. J. Bergen, deceased. 

George R. Chesbrough has been appointed eastern passenger 
agent of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas, with office in New 
York. Herbert Comins, traveling freight agent in New York, 
has been appointed traveling passenger agent at the same place. 

J. E. Williams, assistant general freight agent of the Pere 
Marquette at Detroit, Alich., has been appointed a member of the 
Committee on Uniform Classification, succeeding Robert N. 
Collyer, resigned to become chairman' of the Official Classification 

O. F. Scudder has been appointed assistant real estate and 
industrial commissioner of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy for 
the lines east of the Missouri river, with office at Chicago. R. W. 
Foster, assistant general agent at Portland, Ore., has been ap- 
pointed commercial agent, with office at Portland. 

E. M. Elliott has been appointed agent of the Star Union Line 
of the Pennsylvania Lines West and tlie Pennsylvania Railroad, 
with headquarters at Indianapolis, Ind., succeeding H. H. Gray, 
promoted. Wallace M. Crozier has been appointed freight so- 
licitor in connection with the office of the export agent at Chi- 

E. H. Bryant, traveling freight agent of the Baltimore & Ohio 
at Kansas City, Mo., has been transferred to Minneapolis, Minn. 
C. K. Minor, soliciting freight agent at Kansas City, succeeds 
Mr. Bryant, and W. S. Fuhrman succeeds Mr. Minor. N. D. 
Harding has been appointed commercial agent at Davenport. 

George L. Alley, general baggage agent of the Oregon Short 
Line at Salt Lake City, Utah, has been appointed general bag- 

gage agent of the Union Pacific, with office at Omaha, Neb., 
succeeding Andrew Traynor, retired under the pension rules of 
the company on January 1, after a service of more than 43 years 
witli the road. 

The following officers of the Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget 
Sound, the Tacoma Eastern and the Gallatin Valley have had 
their jurisdiction extended over the Big Blackfoot Railway: 
R. M. Calkins, traffic manager ; F. D. Burroughs, general freight 
agent ; G. W. Hibbard, general passenger agent, and J. M. Allen, 
freight claim agent, all at Seattle, Wash. ; W. D. Carrick, general 
baggage agent at Milwaukee, Wis., and A, J. Hillman, division 
freight and passenger agent at Butte, Mont. 

J. M. Harris, traveling passenger agent of the Pennsylvania 
Lines at Atlanta, Ga., has been appointed district passenger agent 
of the lines west of Pittsburgh, with office at Toledo, Ohio, suc- 
ceeding G. L. A. Thomson, transferred to Chicago. P. J. Wick- 
ham, traveling passenger agent at Spokane, Wash., has been 
appointed traveling passenger agent, with headquarters at Seattle, 
Wash., succeeding C. L. Harbaugh, transferred, and W. F. 
Chase, passenger agent at Milwaukee, Wis., succeeds Mr. Wick- 
ham. J. M. Neafus succeeds 'Mr. Chase. 

Incidental to the merger of the Minneapolis & St. Louis and 
the Iowa Central, a number of changes in the personnel of the 
traffic department have been made, effective January 1 : W. L. 
Ros.s, vice-president in charge of traffic ; R. J. McKay, gen- 
eral passenger agent ; B. C. Stevenson, assistant freight traffic 
manager ; J. W. Graham, assistant general freight agent in 
charge of tariffs, and H. G. Thompson, commercial agent, all 
at Chicago ; E. C. Coffey, assistant general freight agent at 
Peoria, 111.; A. K. Handy, general Eastern freight agent at 
New York ; R. M. Baumgardner, New England freight agent 
at Boston, Mass. ; and C. F. Vigor, general agent in the freight 
department at Buffalo ; all of whom have been in charge of 
the Chicago & Alton, the Toledo, St. Louis & Western, the 
Minneapolis & St. Louis and the Iowa Central, have had their 
jurisdiction withdrawn from the two latter roads. S. G. Lutz, 
traffic manager, and A. B. Cutts, assistant traffic manager, both 
at Minneapolis. Minn., have had their jurisdiction extended to 
include matters formerly in charge of the vice-president in 
charge of traffic, the general passenger agent and the assist- 
ant freight manager at Chicago. H. T. Boyd, commercial 
agent of the Minneapolis & St. Louis at Des Moines, Iowa, 
has been appointed general agent in the freight department 
at Peoria, and J. T. Redmond, contracting freight agent at 
Peoria, has been appointed commercial agent at that place. 
C. A. Werlich has been appointed chief of the tariff bureau, 
with office at Minneapolis, succeeding to the duties of Mr. 
Graham, and E. H. Spence has been appointed general Eastern 
agent, with office at New York, succeeding Mr. Handy. E. L. 
Dalton !ias been appointed commercial agent at Chicago, and 
J. R. Shannon has been appointed traveling freight agent at 
the same place. W. M. Hardin, commercial agent at Kansas 
City, Mo., has been appointed commercial agent at Minneapolis, 
succeeding H. C. Yutzy, and J. A. Lucey, traveling freight 
agent at Minneapolis, succeeds Mr. Hardin. H. C. Yutzy suc- 
ceeds Mr. Lucey. J. B. Hclwig has been appointed a contract- 
ing frei,ght agent, with headquarters at Cincinnati, Ohio, and 
L. C. Rains has been appointed grain and flour agent, with 
office at JMinneapolis. G. C. Honk, traveling freight agent at 
Fort Dodge. Iowa, has been appointed commercial agent, with 
office at Des Moines, succeeding H. T. Boyd, promoted, and 
E. C. Davis succeeds Mr. Honk. 

Engineering and Rolling Stock Officers. 

H. R. Gibson has been appointed division engineer maintenance 
of way of the Baltimore & Ohio, with office at Flora, III., suc- 
ceeding T. H. Brown, resigned. 

Bayard Wright has been appointed engineer maintenance of 
way of the Newburgh & South Shore, with office at Newburgh. 
Ohio, succeeding A. H. Stewart, resigned. 

Frank A. Howard, assistant engineer of bridges and buildings 
of the Erie Railroad at New York, has been appointed engineer 
of bridges and buildings, with office at New York. 

R. J. Turnbull, assistant superintendent of machinery of the 
Missouri Pacific at St. Louis, Mo., has been appointed acting 

January 5, 1912. 



superintendent of machinery, with office at St. Louis, succeeding 
J. \V. Small, resigned to accept service with another company. 

C. E. Knickerbocker having resigned as chief engineer of the 
New York, Ontario & Western, as has already been announced in 
these colnnms, J. H. Nuelle, principal assistant engineer at Middle- 
town, N. Y., has been appointed engineer of maintenance of way. 

F. K. Murphy, supervisor of air brakes of the Cleveland, Cin- 
cinnati, Chicago & St. Louis, has been appointed master mechanic, 
with office at Brightvvood, Ind., succeeding F. M. Lavvler, re- 
tired on a pension, after a service of 41 years with the road. 
J. A. Gibson, master mechanic of the Peoria & Eastern division 
at LIrbana, 111., has resigned. 

George Woods, roadmaster of the Chicago, Rock Island & 
Pacific at El Dorado, Ark,, has been appointed roadmaster at 
El Reno, Okla. H. Berend, roadmaster at Sibley, Iowa, has been 
transferred to the Missouri division, with office at Washington, 
Iowa, and F. E. Allen, general foreman of shops at Valley Junc- 
tion, Iowa, succeeds Mr. Berend. 

J. W. Small, whose appointment as superintendent of motive 
power of the Southern Pacific Lines in Texas, with office at 
Houston, Tex., has been announced in these columns, has been 
appointed also superintendent of motive power of the Louisiana 
Western, and of Morgan's Louisiana & Texas Railroad & Steam- 
ship Company. (See item under Operating Officers.) 

G. T. Hartman, assistant superintendent of the Copper Range, 
at Houghton, Mich., will have jurisdiction over the mechanical 
and supply departments, and the present heads of these depart- 
ments will report to him. Mr. Hartman is to continue to report 
to the general superintendent, and will devote his entire time to 
the above departments, relincjuishing his present duties in train 
and station matters, etc. 

P. F. Smith, Jr., master mechanic of the Pennsylvania Lines 
West at Columbus, Ohio, has been appointed superintendent of 
niotiv« power of the new grand division to be known as the 
Central system. This _is composed of the Cleveland, Akron & 
Columbus Railway, with its two divisions, the Akron and the 
Zanesville, heretofore operated by its own separate organization ; 
and the Toledo, Columbus & Ohio River with its two divisions, 
the Toledo and the Marietta, formerly in the Northwest system. 
G. B. Fravel, master mechanic at Dennison, Ohio, succeeds Mr. 
Smith, and J. J. Walsh, master mechanic of the Logansport (Ind.) 
shops, succeeds Mr. Fravel. H. H. Hilberry, master mechanic 
at Toledo, Ohio, has been transferred to Mahoningtown, Pa.; 
and J. W. Hopkins, general foreman at Richmond, Ind., has been 
appointed master mcclianic at Toledo, Ohio. 

Purchasing Officers. 

C. H. Kenzel, assistant purchasing agent of the Elgin, Joliet 
& Eastern at Chicago, has been promoted to purchasing agent, 
and his former position has been abolished. 

W. C. Blake has been appointed division storekeeper of the 
J. & O. district of the Mobile & Ohio, with office at Jackson, 
Tenn., succeeding E. T. Bracken, transferred. 

John H. Guess, assistant general purchasing agent of the Grand 
Trunk at Montreal, Que., has been appointed general purchasing 
agent, succeeding A. Butze, retired under the provisions of the 
pension fund, and R. Johnson succeeds Mr. Guess, both with 
offices at Montreal. 


L. L. Korn, traveling freight agent of the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe, with headquarters at Cincinnati, Ohio, died at that 
place on December 28. 

Alonzo C. Goodrich, formerly manager of the Centerville divi- 
sion of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, with office at Keokuk, 
Iowa, died at his home in Chicago on January 1. Mr. Goodrich 
was born September 30, 1852, at Pittsfield, Rutland county, Ver- 
mont, and began railway work in April, 1872, as a rodman on 
the engineering corps of the Chicago & North Western. From 
December, 1886, to July, 1904, he was general manager of the 
Keokuk & Western and manager of the Centerville division of 
the Burlington, which absorbed the Keokuk & Western. 

^fjtttpm^ttt anh §^txpiji>ltt^. 


The Chicago^ Rock Island & Pacific is figuring on 45 Mi- 
kado locomotives. 

The New York, New Haven & Hartford has ordered three 
electric locomotives from the Westinghouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Company. 

The Sydney & Louisburg has ordered 1 consolidation loco- 
motive from the Montreal Locomotive Works. The dimensions 
of the cylinders will be 21 in. x 26 in., the diameter of the driv- 
ing wheels will be 50 in., and the total weight in working order 
will be 177,000 lbs. 

The Paulista Railway, Brazil, has ordered 4 ten-wheel loco- 
motives from the American Locomotive Company. The dimen- 
sions of the cylinders will be 17 in. x 20 in., the diameter of the 
driving wheels will be 48 in., and the total weight in working 
order will be 96,000 lbs. 


The Delaware, Lackawann.\ & Western has ordered 200 re- 
frigerator cars from the Standard Steel Car Company. 

The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific has ordered 15 caboose 
cars from the Mt. Vernon Car Manufacturing Company and is 
said to have ordered 2,5(X3 box cars and 5(X) furniture cars from 
the Pullman Company. The latter two orders have not been con- 


The Lehigh Valley is figuring on 2 dining cars. 

The Canadian Pacific has ordered 42,000 tons of rails from 
the Inland Steel Company. 

The Minnesota, Dakota & Western has ordered 2,0(X) tons 
of rails from the Illinois Steel Company. 

The National Railw.\ys of Mexico have ordered 4,5(X) tons 
of rails from the Maryland Steel Company. 

The Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh has ordered 1,300 
tons of bridge material from the American. 

The Southern Railway has ordered 21,000 tons of rails from 
the Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad Company. 

The Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie has ordered 
18,0(X) tons of rails from the Illinois Steel Company. 

The Transcontinental will receive tenders until January 10 
for 14,468 tons of 80-lb. rails, and the necessary rail fastenings. 

The P>ai.tim(.re & Ohio has ordered 500 tons of bridge steel 
from the McClintic-Marshall Construction Company for use in 

General Conditions in Steel. — The holiday period has been 
a busy one for the steel mills. Increasing rush orders have 
forced the manufacturers to keep their mills operating at about 
80 per cent, of their capacity even on January 1. This period is 
usually devoted to overhauling the plants, but that was not the 
case this year. The rolling mills have enough orders on their 
books to insure capacity operations for about four months, and 
a large volume of orders is still pending. The forces will be 
increased immediately, and it is expected that operations will 
average between 80 and 85 per cent, of capacity for the month. 
No immediate increase in prices is anticipated. 

Tlie Usambara Railway Company's line near the northern 
border of German East Africa, whose ocean terminus is Tanga, 
about 1(X) miles south of the Uganda Railway terminus, and 125 
miles north of Dar-es-Salaam. It has lately been extended to 
Moschi, just south of the famous mountain Kilimanjaro. 



Vol. 52, No. 1. 

Dwight P. Robinson and John W. Hallowell have been made 
members of the firm of Stone & Webster, Boston, Mass. 

The Standard Steel Works Company, Philadelphia, Pa., has 
opened a branch office in the First National Bank building, 
Denver, Col. 

The Railway & Mill Equipment Company, New Orleans, La., 
has been established to sell railway supplies. Seely Dunn and 
J. Otho Elmer are officers. 

F. H. Jones, assistant resident manager of the General Rail- 
way Signal Company, Rochester, N. Y., with office at Cliicago, 
has been made resident manager at San Francisco, Cal., C. O. 
Poor, general superintendent of the Rochester works of the com- 
pany, succeeds Mr. Jones at Chicago. 

The Simplex Railway Appliance Company, Hammond, Ind., 
has been incorporated in Delaware with $1,000,000 capital stock, 
to make interurban, street and steam railway cars, trucks, wheels, 
etc. Harry H. Philips is president, and Paul A. Neuffer, sec- 

The United Car Company, with offices in the Commercial Na- 
tional Bank building, Chicago, which has recently been organized 
with C. H. Thomas, F. A. Hecht and E. R. Davis as directors, 
has purchased the entire plant and equipment of the American 
Car & Equipment Company, Chicago Heights, 111., including a 
large erecting shop, blacksmith shop, offices, etc. It will build 
and rebuild cars and handle railway supplies in general, making 
a specialty of steel underframes and tank cars. Mr. Thomas is 
president of the company; Mr. Hecht, vice-president; and N. B. 
Hall, secretary. 

F. C. Lavarack, signal engineer at New York for the Federal 
Signal Company, Albany, N. Y., has resigned to "become general 
sales manager of the Signal Accessories Company, with offices 
recently established at 140 Nassau street. New York. The Sig- 
nal Accessories Company has been incorporated to manufacture 
signal materials, and in addition to handle the sales of the United 
Electric Apparatus Company, Boston, Mass.; the W. F. Bossert 
Manufacturing Company, Utica, N. Y. ; the American Conduit 
Company, East Chicago, Ind. ; and various other companies. Mr. 
Lavarack has spent his entire business life in the railway signal 
field, having been with the Standard Signal Company ; the Pneu- 
matic Signal Company; the New York Central & Hudson River; 
the School of Railway Signaling; and later with the Federal 
Signal Company. 

On December 28, 1911, Judge Christian C. Kohlsaat, of the 
United States Circuit Court, decided the case of the Railroad 
Supply Company, Cliicago, against the Hart Steel Company, 
Elyria, Ohio, and Guilford S. Wood, Chicago, pending in the 
United States Circuit Court for the northern district of Illinois, 
and dismissed the bill for want of equity, holding that, while 
the three Wolhaupter patents, upon which the suit was instituted, 
were valid under the state of the art shown by the record, the 
claims must be limited to the devices described in the specifica- 
tions, and that when so construed the device sold by the defend- 
ants did not infringe. An appeal was at once prayed and allowed 
to the United States Circuit Court of Appeals for the seventh 
circuit, and will be heard at the April session of that court in 
Chicago. The companion suit against the Elyria Iron & Steel 
Company, Elyria, will be heard before Judge Day in the federal 
court at Cleveland in January, 1912. 


Refrigeration and Ventilation. — Burton W. Mudge & Com- 
pany, Chicago, have published an illustrated booklet on the Gar- 
land system of ventilation, heating and refrigeration applied to 
refrigerator cars. 

Chains. — The Morse Chain Company, Ithaca, N. Y., has pub- 
lished bulletin No. 11 on the Morse Silent chain. This chain 
is described in detail and illustrated by photographs and dia- 
grams. An interesting comparison between rope drive and chain 
drive is included. On the last page of the bulletin data is given 
to be used in the design of the Morse Silent chain drive. 

Balltttitti (Bon&lvuciion, 

New. Incorporations, Surveys, Etc. 

Camino, Placerville & Lake Tahoe. — Incorporated in Cali- 
fornia with $100,000 capital, and headquarters at San Francisco. 
The plans call for building from Camino. Cal, to Placerville, 6 
miles, and later to Lake Tahoe, about SO miles. The incorpo- 
rators include B. C. Dabaher, C. F. Wood and B. Sair, all of San 

Canadian Northern. — The improvements to be carried out at 
Montreal, according to local reports include a tunnel to be about 
three miles long, under the mountain, to the heart of the city 
of Montreal. A large station is to be built at the end of the 
tunnel on the corner of St. Monique and Dorchester streets to 
Lagauchetiere street. There is also to be a large hotel built, 
and all the lines are to be electrified from Back river to the city. 
.'\n overhead line is to be constructed from Lagauchetiere street 
station to the river front, connecting with the harbor commis- 
sioner's line, and a spur is to be built from Moreau street sta- 
tion to the harbor lines in the east, providing a continuous line 
from the tunnel's mouth to Moreau street. New freight sheds 
are to be put up near the corner of William and Nazareth 
streets. It is understood that the tunnel will be ready for opera- 
tion in about two years, and that the entire cost of the improve- 
ments will be $25,000,000. The work is to be started early in 
the spring. T. Turnbull, assistant chief engineer, Winnipeg, Man. 

Central Pacific. — See Southern Pacific. 

Clarksburg Northern. — This company is said to be at work 
on a line from New Martinsville, W. Va., south to Middlebourne. 
The line is eventually to be extended either to Salem or Clarks- 
burg, or to both of these places. T. M. Jackson, president, Clarks- 

Delaware & Hudson. — The general revision of grades between 
Nineveh, N. Y., and Oneonta, 37 miles, has been completed. The 
work included raising or lowering 10 miles of track and cost 

Duluth & Northern Minnesota. — An officer writes that this 
company has projected an extension from mile post 68, through 
Minnesota to the Minnesota Canadian boundary. John Milieu, 
president and general manager, Duluth, Minn. 

Illinois Central. — Two additional tracks have been laid by 
the Illinois Central between Homewood, 111., and Matteson, five 
miles. The extension of suburban service to Matteson will be 
undertaken next spring. Double track improvements have been 
completed from Hawthorne, 111., to Parkway on the Freeport 
division, and the New Orleans double tracking when finished 
will cover 50 miles. 

Kansas City, Mexico & Orient. — An officer is quoted as say- 
ing that work will be finished on the branch from San Angelo, 
Tex., to Del Rio within the next twelve months, and it is under- 
stood that the money recently secured is to be used to pay for 
this work and to build from Wichita, Kan., either to Emporia, 
or to Osage City. W. W. Colpitts, chief engineer, Kansas 
City, Mo. 

Kirkland-Redmond Railway, Light & Power Company. — 
Incorporated in the state of Washington, with $200,000 capital 
and headquarters at Seattle. The plans call for building an elec- 
tric line from Kirkland, Wash., to Redmond, about 6 miles, and 
to other points in King county. E. A. Eaton, B. F. Gordon and 
W. D. Gillis are incorporators. 

Mexican Roads. — The government department of communica- 
tions has received bids for building a line, it is said, from 
Balsas, the present terminus of the Cuernavaca division of the 
National Railways of Mexico, to the port of Zehuatanejo on the 
Pacific coast in the state of Guerrero. A branch line will also 
be constructed to Uruapan in the state of Michoacan, where it 
will make another connection with the National Railways of 
Mexico. The lines will be constructed by the government, and 
on completion will be taken over and operated as part of the 
National Railways of Mexico. The proposed work involves the 
construction of about 350 miles of track. The bids have not 
been made public. 

January S, 1912. 



The Mexican government has granted to a syndicate of Seattle, 
Wash., a concession to build 300 miles of railway which will 
connect Acapulco with the City of Mexico. The syndicate has 
under construction 120 miles, and the line to the capital will be 
an extension of the road now being built. JMoritz Thompson is 
back of the project. The grant calls for completion of the work 
in six years. 

Missouri, Arkansas & Gulf. — This company was incorporated 
in April, 1911, with $2,000,000 capital, to build from Rollo, Mo., 
south to Bakersfield, 125 miles; grading is said to be under 
way from Rollo to Willow Springs ; surveys have not been 
made south of Willow Springs. G. Lay, president, St. Clair ; 
W. E. Finke, secretary. W. B. Payne, engineer, Rolla. (Au- 
gust 18, p. 356.) 

National Railways of Mexico. — See Mexican Roads. 

New York, Westchester & Boston. — An officer writes that 
work is now under way on 1.3 miles, between New York City 
and Mount Vernon, on 1.6 miles, between Mount Vernon and 
New Rochelle, and on 3.4 miles, between Mount Vernon and 
White Plains. The contractors are the O'Brien Construction 
Company and Henry Steers, Inc., both of New York City ; 
Lathrop & Shea, Mount Vernon, and Merritt & Gilbert, New 
Rochelle. The projected work includes 9.7 miles between New 
Rochelle and Port Chester, and 6.4 miles from New York to 
Throgg's Neck. The company during the past year completed 
12 miles of the four-track line between New York City and 
Mount Vernon, and between that place and New Rochelle and 
White Plains. J. L. Crider, chief engineer, New York. (June 
23, page 1674.) 

Oregon Eastern. — See Southern Pacific. 

Panhandle Pecos & Gulf of Texas. — M. J. Healey, president 
of this company, is said to have entered into a contract with 
residents of Pecos, Texas, to build from Pecos, via Knowles, 
N. Mex., to Dawson Fields, Colo., about 350 miles. The first sec- 
tion to Knowles is to be finished in about eighteen months. The 
plans call for putting up shops, roundhouses, and a general office 
building in Pecos. Financial arrangements are said to have been 
made, and it is understood that gradin^work will be started soon. 

San Antonio, Rockport & Mexican. — According to press re- 
ports, this company will build from San Antonio, Tex., south 
via Crowther, to a point on the Rio Grande near Mission, with 
a branch from Crowther southeast to Rockport and Harbor 
Island, about 370 miles, at the latter place large docks are to be 
built. It is understood that .the plans call for building an ex- 
tension from San Antonio west to San Angelo, and lines in 
Mexico. Financial arrangements are said to have been made, 
and it is expected that the work will be started soon. R. Russell, 
president; A. L. Matlock, vice-president; J. H. Haile, treasurer, 
and V. L. Knight, secretary, with headquarters at San Antonio. 

San Jose & Almaden (Electric). — This company, which was 
recently incorporated, has started work on a line from San Jose, 
Cal., to Hacienda, about 11 miles. C. A. Nones, president. 

St. Louis, Arkansas & Pacific. — This is the new name of the 
Harrison mineral Belt which has increased its capital from $80,- 
000 to $2,080,000. The main line is to be built from Harrison, 
Ark., southwest to Fallsville in Newton County, with a branch 
from 'Jasper northeast to Pontiac, Mo., in all about 100 miles. 
J. H. Kuder, secretary, Harrison. 

St. Louis, Brownsville & Mexico. — An officer writes that con- 
tracts have been let and work is now under way on a branch from 
Bloomington, Tex., to Victoria, 14 miles. All material has been 
bought, and it is expected that the line will be in operation about 
March 1. F. G. Jonah, chief engineer, St. Louis, Mo. 

Savannah Southern. — An officer writes that this company is 
making surveys for an extension from Spurs, Ga., to Clyde, 6 
miles. G. T. Tuten, secretary and treasurer, Letford, Ga. 

Southern Pacific. — The Oregon Eastern, which is building 
the Southern Pacific's line from Natron, Ore., south to Klamath 
Falls, 142.6 miles, has increased its capital from $1,000,000 to 
$6,000,000, and plans have been made to build branch lines to 
various points in Oregon. It is understood that the line from 
Natron, in Lane county, east to Ontario in Malheur county on 
the Oregon Short Line is to be built, the latter company is re- 

ported to have recently let a contract for an extension from 
Vale, Ore., west to Dog mountain, 135 miles. A branch is pro- 
jected from a point on the Klamath Falls line, at or near that 
place to connect with the Central Pacific, and another branch is 
contemplated from the Ontario-Natron line south to Lakeview, 
which is eventually to be extended south to a point near the east 
shore of Goose lake, at the Oregon-California state line. 


Allentown, Pa.— The Lehigh Valley Transit Company will 
build a large bridge at Allentown. The work is to be carried 
out by the Allentown & South Allentown Bridge Company, and 
it is understood that the structure will be built of concrete, and 
is to have a total length of about 2,000 ft., with 1,800 ft. between 

Barstow, Cal.— The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Coast Line 
has given a contract to C. A. Fellows at about $65,000, it is said, 
for putting up a reinforced concrete 2S-stall roundhouse at Bar- 
stow. (August 11, p. 305.) 

Centrally, Wash.— The contract recently let for building the 
new union station at Centralia for the Northern Pacific, the 
Great Northern and the Oregon-Washington Railway & Navi- 
gation Company has been given to the Rounds-Hurson Company, 
Seattle. It is understood that the contract price is about $50,000. 
(December 22, p. 1301.) 

Cincinnati, O. — The city council has passed an ordinance 
granting a franchise to the Cincinnati Depot & Terminal Com- 
pany for a union passenger terminal for all the steam and electric 
railways entering the city, and requiring its completion within 
five years. The plans include a large terminal office building, a 
new four-track entrance to the city, reducing the mileage and 
grades and an elevated approach. There is to be a meeting of 
railway officers on January 9 to consider plans for a building. 

Denver, Colo. — The six railways entering the city of Denver 
have decided to build a new union passenger terminal to cost 
about $6,000,000 subject to approval by the various boards of 
directors of some details of plans. 

Laredo, Tex. — Work has been started on a new joint pas- 
senger station for the International & Great Northern and the 

Latham, Ore. — The Southern Pacific is planning to put up 
a new passenger station, it is said, at Latham. 

Mason City, Ia.— The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific and 
the Chicago & Great Western will jointly build a union passen- 
ger station at Mason City. The estimated cost of the station 
is $500,000. 

Milneburg, La. — The Railroad Commission of Louisiana has 
ordered the Pontchartrain Railroad, which is a subsidiary of 
the Louisiana & Nashville, to build a combined passenger and 
freight station at Milneburg within ninety days. 

Montreal, Que. — See Canadian Northern under Railway Con- 

Richmond, Cal.— The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Coast 
Lines is having plans made for a reinforced concrete passenger 

The chief feature of the railway policy in New Zealand is to 
connect up some isolated railway lines which extend only short 
distances inland from various small seacoast towns. When such 
detached lines are connected with the main lines, it will be pos- 
sible for almost every town of importance to be reached by rail- 
way from the main centers of population and heavy through 
traffic with districts now reached only by coasting boats will be 
provided. It is also intended by construction already planned 
or under way to shorten the mileage and time for transportation 
between some leading towns. For instance. New Plymouth, 
about midway on the west coast, and Napier, about midway on 
the east coast, which now have good connection with Wellington 
and the southern part of the North island, will also be con- 
nected with the main trunk railway line between Wellington and 
Auckland at points much more northerly, giving access to Auck- 
land without the present inconvenient roundabout routes. 



Vol. 52, No. 1. 

UlaUttYati Wttxancicd NemiS. 

Atchison, Topek.\ & Santa Fe. — See Soutlicrn Pacific. 

Boston & Maine. — This company sold to William & Read & Co., 
New York, $1,200,000 Fitchburg Railroad 4 per cent, currency 
bonds of 1912-1932 at 102.89. The bonds are being offered to 
the public by the bankers at 104, Of the proceeds of the sale, 
$100,000 was used for refunding purposes and the remainder 
for additions and betterments made to the Fitchburg under 
its lease to the B. & M. 

Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh. — This company has sold to 
Procter & Borden, New York, $1,000,000 equipment trust cer- 
tificates, series G, 1909-1929. The total authorized series G 
bonds amounts to $3,000,000, and, including the bonds now 
sold, there are outstanding $1,754,000, less $44,000 retired 
through the sinking fund. 

Central New England. — This company has asked the New 
York Public Service Commission, Second District, for its 
approval of a supplemental mortgage to secure $25,000,000 
bonds, the bonds secured by the mortgage to be used to refund 
bonds of the Dutchess County Railway. 

Chicago & North Western. — Stockholders of the Des Plains 
Valley Railway, a subsidiary of the North Western, has voted 
to authorize a mortgage securing $2,500,000 bonds. 

Cleveland & Pittsburgh. — The New York Stock Exchange has 
listed $1,073,950 special betterment stock. Tlie stock was is- 
sued to pay for additions and betterments. 

Cleveland, Cincinn.\ti, Chicago & St. Louis. — The New York 
Stock Exchange has listed $1,106,000 general mortgage 4 per 
cent, bonds, due 1993. Of these bonds, $106,000 were issued 
for refunding purposes and $1,000,000 for additions and better- 

Des Plains Valley Railway. — See Chicago & North Western. 

Detroit, Toledo & Ironton. — The much postponed sale of this 
property has been again postponed from January 9 to April 9. 

Fitchburg Railroad. — See Boston & Maine. 

Florida Railway. — A suit was recently filed by the Knicker- 
bocker Trust Company, New York, against the Florida Rail- 
way for an accounting and compensation as trustee of the rail- 
way company's bonds. The railway company has now filed a 
counter claim for $2,000,000 damages said to have been in- 
curred through the unlawful refusal of the trust company to 
deliver bonds which it had certified to purchasers in Paris. 
"It is claimed that as a result of this refusal the company has 
been without funds since August to continue extension work 
and that materials on hand are now worthless. 

Grand Trunk Pacific. — Moleson Macpherson has been elected 
a director of the Grand Trunk Pacific. 

Kansas City, Mexico & ORiENT.^It is said that arrangements 
have been made for the sale of an additional block of $4,000,000 

Maine Centr.\l. — ^That part of the St. Johnsbury & Lake Cham- 
plain running from the Connecticut river in Vermont to the 
village of St. Johnsbury, including the Victor branch, has been 
leased to the Maine Central, and will be operated as part of its 

New York Central & Hudson River. — The New Y-.yrk Public 
Service Commission has authorized the New York Central & 
Hudson River to buy all or any part of the outstanding $10,- 
000,000 stock of the New York & Harlem, the price to be not 
higher than $175 for a $50 share. 

The commission has given its permission to the issue of $35,- 
000,000 4 per cent, debentures at not less than 90, or $30,000,000 
notes at not less than 985'!. The railway company's requests 
for authority were described in these columns last week. 

New York & Harlem. — See New York Central & Hudson River. 

Old Colony Railroad. — ^There was sold at public auction on 
January 3 $500,000 capital stock, making the total capital stock 
now outstanding $21,664,000. 

Pennsylvania Company. — The Toledo, Columbus & Ohio, all 
of whose stock is owned by the Pennsylvania Company, has 
declared an initial 6 per cent, annual dividend on its $8,000,000 

Reading & Columbia. — See Reading Company. 

Reading Company. — Stockholders of the Reading & Columbia, a 
subsidiary of the Reading Company, have been asked to au- 
thorize $850,000 new first mortgage 4 per cent, bonds of 1912- 
1962, to be guaranteed by the Reading Company, and the pro- 
ceeds to be used to refund $650,000 first mortgage 4 per cent. ' 
bonds, due March 1, 1912, and $200,000 of the $350,000 second 
mortgage 5 per cent, bonds, due September 1, 1912. The re- 
maining $150,000 second mortgage 5 per cent, bonds will be 
converted into debenture bonds. 

Seaboard Company, — Stockholders of the Seaboard Company, 
which owns 83 per cent, of the Seaboard Air Line Railway 
stocks and $6,785,000 of the railway adjustment bonds, voted 
unanimously to dissolve the company by retiring the first pre- 
ferred stock for cash at par, exchanging for the second pre- 
ferred stock \]/3 shares of the railway company preferred 
stock, for each share outstanding, and for the common stock 
slightly over par in common stock of the railway. The ad- 
justment mortgage bonds were recently sold by the holding 
company to provide for this dissolution. 

Southern Pacific. — This company has, it is understood, 
bought from the Atchison the Sonora Railway and the New 
Mexico & Arizona and the Atchison has bought from the 
Southern Pacific tlie line between Mojave and the Needles in 

The Atchison has organized the California, .\rizona & 
Santa Fe with a capitalization of $50,000,000 to consolidate the 
Mojave-Needles line with the Arizona-California line from 
Bengal. Ariz., to Wickenburg, on the Santa Fee, Prescott 
& Phoenix, a distance of about 195 miles. 

.Atchison directors and officers have resigned from the New 
Mexico & Arizona and Sonora Railway, Limited, and South- 
ern Pacific directors and officers have been elected. The New 
Mexico & Arizona line runs from Benson, Ariz., on the 
Southern Pacific, south to Nogales on the Arizona-Mexico 
border, a distance of about 80 miles. The Sonora line runs 
from Nogales on the south through Mexico to Guaymas on 
the Gulf of California, and is 263 miles long. The line from 
Mojave to Needles in California is 243 miles long and has 
always formed part of the Atchison's through line. Since 
1885 it has been leased to the Atchison at an annual rental of 
$163,850. This rental has been offset by payment of the same 
amount annually by Southern Pacific for use of the Sonora 

St. Johnsbury & Lake Champlain. — See Maine Central. 

Toledo, Columbus & Ohio. — See Pennsylvania Company. 

Western Maryland. — This company has authorized an issue of 
$10,000,000 secured 5 per cent, notes of 1912-1915, of which 
$8,000,000 have been sold. The notes are secured by all of the 
capital stock of the Georgia's Creek & Cumberland and of the 
Connellsville & State Line Railway, which companies own the 
85-mile line running from Cumberland, Md., to a connection 
with the Pittsburgh & Lake Erie at Connellsville, Pa. This 
line is not covered by any mortgage. The proceeds of the notes 
are to be used for additions and betterments. 

The Russian railways examination committee lias received a 
report on the investigations carried out on the Siberian railway. 
It reports that the total cost of equipping the railway after fin- 
ishing its partial reconstruction will make about $110,000 per mile. 
Taking into account the facilities for receiving and discharging 
traffic and the difficulties in working, the estimate is considered 
moderate. The operation of the Siberian railway is carried 
out very satisfactorily on the whole, and improvements are to be 
wished for only in respect to the organization of the work in 
constructing the second line, the quality of the rails, the con- 
trol of supplies of material and the calculations as to working 
capital, the organization of the commercial sections and the in- 
firmary department. 

January 12, 1912. 



Including the Railroad Gazette and the Railway Age 

Published Every Friday and Daily Eight Times in Junk, by 
THE RAILROAD GAZETTE (Inc.), 83 Fulton St., New York. 

CHICAGO: 417 South Dearborn St. CLEVELAND: New England Bldg. 
LONDON: Queen Anne's Chambers, Westminster. 

E. A. Simmons, President. 

L. B. Sherman, Vice-President. Henry Lee, Sec'y & Treas. 

The address of the company is the address of the officers. 

date, been reserved. The steady growth of the exhibition since 
the organization of the Railway Appliances Association, and the 
beginning of the use of the Coliseum instead of the parlors of 
the hotel where the engineering conventions were held, is but one 
illustration of its increase in importance. Another illustration 
of this is afforded by the fact that concerns dealing in appliances 
used in the mechanical, as well as in the maintenance of way and 
construction department, are enrolling themselves among the 
exhibitors. The exhibition is now attended not only by engineers 
incidentally to their attendance on the convention, but by them 
and by numerous other railway men from all over the country 
because of its independent educational worth. 

Samuel O. Dunn, 

Bradford Boardman, 

Managing Editor. 
Roy V. Wright 
B. B. Adams 

E. T. HowsoM 
G. L. Fowler 
William Forsyth 
W. E. Hooper 
H. F. Lane 
H. H. Simmons 

R. E. Thayer 
F. W. Kraeoer 
E. S. Faust 
S. W. Dunning 
Clarence Deming 

Subscriptions, including 52 regular weekly issues and special daily editions 
published from time to time in New York, or in places other than New 
York, payable in advance and postage free: 

United States and Mexico $6.00 

Canada 6.00 

Foreign Countries (excepting daily editions) 8.00 

Single Copies 16 cents each 

Engineering and Maintenance of Way Edition and the four Maintenance 
of Way Convention Daily issues, North America, $1.00; foreign, $2.00. 

Entered at the Post Office at New York, N, Y., as mail matter of the 
second class. 

Volume 52. 

January 12, 1912. 

Number 2. 



Editorial Notes 39 

The Civic Peril of the Railways 40 

Give the Commission Power to Stop Unfair Discriminations 41 

The Steam Railways and Street Railways 41 

The Rail Situation 42 



Effect of Cold Weather on Tonnage Ratings; by Edward C. Schmidt. 44 
Steel Observation Car for the Panama Limited of the Illinois Central. 50 

Mikado Superheater Locomotives for the Missouri Pacific 55 

Improved Method of Treating Ties and Timbers; by W. F. Goltra... 59 


Collateral Trust Bonds; by William Z. Ripley 48 

Why Steamboat Traffic Declined Before the Railway; by Paul W. Brown 51 

Annual Report of New Jersey Commission 57 

Foreign Railway Notes 44, 49, 62 


IF the number and size of the reservations of space made by 
supply manufacturers for the annual railway appliance exhibition 
to be held in Chicago in connection with the convention of the 
American Railway Engineering Association in March may be 
regarded as any criterion of their views of the business outlook, 
they are anticipating that 1912 will be a far more prosperous 
year than was 1911. The list of those who will have exhibits, 
published elsewhere, shows that not only is the extent of the 
entire exhibition to be increased, but that many who have been 
prominently represented in previous years have taken still larger 
spaces this year. Although 16,000 sq. ft. of extra exhibit space 
have been made available by renting the First Regiment Armory 
in addition to the Coliseum, nearly all of it has, at this early 

THERE is an old story of a president of a 10-mile railway, 
who, on being refused exchange transportation over the 
Pennsylvania because of the difference between the mileage of 
the two roads, replied : "My road may not be as long as yours 
but it is just as wide." A great deal of free transportation is 
being issued every year by the railways of the United States 
for the issuance of which many persons can see no more con- 
vincing reason than the one given by this president. In an- 
other column is published a letter from a yardmaster regarding 
what he calls "the abuse of the pass privilege." "Yardmaster" 
suggests that free transportation be abolished and that a 
nominal, or at least a reduced, rate be charged railway employees 
when traveling for their own pleasure or on their own busi- 
ness. Some railway officers have gone so far as to suggest the 
entire elimination of exchange transportation for even railway 
business travel. A few years ago such a proposal would have 
seemed radical, but now that federal and state laws have greatly 
reduced the pass giving and receiving custom the idea of still 
further restricting it may be viewed in a different light. The 
practice on the part of railway officers of giving passes to 
friends, politicians and shippers was — and, where it still obtains, 
is yet — open to abuses not inherent in the custom of the A. B. C. 
railway standing a part of the expenses of an officer or employee 
of the X. Y. Z. railway, traveling on company business, or even 
taking his wife and family on a vacation trip. But it is a 
question worth considering whether the railways would not put 
themselves in a sounder position before the public, as well as 
establish more business-like relations among themselves, if they 
stopped the practice of exchanging annual or term passes, con- 
fining the use of such transportation to their own officers and 
employees when on their own lines and issuing trip passes to 
those of other lines, and then only under special circumstances. 
Interchangeable mileage tickets could be used for employees re- 
quired to travel constantly over different roads. The existing 
practice in most instances has been reduced to a matter of 
routine which precludes the idea of the extension of a courtesy, 
and, while between many roads the exchange of transportation 
probably is approximately equal, there are many cases where this 
is far from true; and in all cases the practically unrestricted is- 
suance and exchange of transportation doubtless involves much 
needless expense. A frank expression of views on this subject 
by railway men might lead to good results. 

THERE are some special reasons that make the state of 
Massachusetts an interesting field for railway study. It 
has a dense population very largely grouped in cities. Its railway 
capitalization has been conservative and its railway corporations 
nnder close supervision by a railway commission. The nature 
of its population has given it an exceptionally large passenger 
business in ratio to freight ; and in freight business it has been a 
great consumer of raw material while shipping away factory 
products much less in volume than incoming freight but of a 
much higher freight classification. It is superlatively a factory 
state. Such features call attention to the returns of the state 
railway commission for the last fiscal year, which report has 
just appeared. As compared with 1910 the general railway busi- 
ness shows a handsome increase, passengers carried rising from 



Vol. 52, No. 2. 

160.769,201 to 162,940,242, frciglit tonnage from 55,786,434 to 
56,557,644 and gross revenue from $120,140,993 to $123,959,490. 
But this increase in gross of $3,818,497 was much more than 
bffset by an increase in expenses of $7,458,386, increased expense 
thus almost doubling increased gain in gross earnings, higher 
wages undoubtedly being the greater element. When the depres- 
sion in Massachusetts textile industries is considered (26 mills 
in Fall River alone reduced dividends in 1911) the gain in gross 
earnings, however, seems remarkable. Not so cheering is a 
deficit of $4,444,762 over dividends as compared with a surplus of 
$1,165,737 in 1910, even though we allow for the heavy net losses 
of the Boston & Maine system. That such a net showing should 
be made in an old and populous commonwealth where railway 
conditions are supposed to be stable is a little startling. It is 
qualified by the fact that the conditions are probably temporary 
and that Boston & Maine rehabilitation and efiiciencies will ere 
long modify the returns. Passenger revenue rose from $52,- 
995,871 in 1910 to $55,602,106, while freight business increased 
only from $64,070,157 to $65,038,750, illustrating the general con- 
dition of the higher sustaining power of passenger traffic com- 
pared with freight — though a rise of average passenger fare from 
1.65 to 1.72 cents a mile, while the freight rate per ton mile fell 
from 1.18 to 1.17 cents, partly accounts for the difference. Evi- 
dently the Massachusetts companies were able to lift decidedly 
local passenger rates in avoidance of any interstate rulings. 
In connection with the subject of supervision of railways in the 
state may be noted the urgency of Governor Foss in his message 
that the railway commission be merged in a "general utilities" 
body having supervision of electric and gas lighting, telegraphs 
and telephones also. It is a phase of commission development 
all over the country to which we have alluded heretofore. But 
in the case of the Masachusetts railway commission, already 
overloaded with duties connected with both the steam and street 
railways, the plan has exceptional infirmities. 


'X'HE most conspicuous fact on a broad scale in the life story 
•*• of our American railways has been their segregation into 
a comparatively few large groups — in other words, their drift to 
consolidation. It has come through the action of several forces : 
Branch lines have passed to main lines by natural absorbtion, 
resting either on normal value as feeders or on fear of rival con- 
trol. Rival lines have coalesced under the law of abated compe- 
tition. Connecting lines have been joined on the principle of more 
efficient management or to secure important and remoter 
terminals ; and, finally, considerable systems already consolidated 
have combined with others on what is really the basic motive of 
consolidation, namely, control of railway territory. With the 
railway groups grown so big, and with the interstate relation 
constantly deepening, contacts with -federal authority were prob- 
ably inevitable ; and the step was but a short one to new con- 
tacts with state authority, too. Probably the most philosophical 
and certainly the most charitable view of the long series of an- 
tagonisms between the civic authorities and the railways is that 
which thus attributes them to fundamental conditions. That the 
antagonism has been stimulated by popular outcry and the play 
of political and partisan motive the same kindly philosophy will 
perhaps treat as an unfortunate but logical incident in which the 
railway corporations themselves have had their share of the 
blame. But the result of it all has been the creation of certain 
tendencies of a broad and general character which, in the look 
ahead, are worth their attention. 

One of these tendencies bears as much on civic authority as 
on the railways — indeed, even more. Side by side has grown inter- 
state as well as intrastate regulation of the railway. Federal 
regulation and state regulation, the inner and the outer regula- 
tion, have both been intensified. They are now, theoretically at 
least, held apart by a constitutional division. But in character 
as well as directions they are approaching each other and their 
limitations growing less definite. Just where, for example, as a 
practical question, is the line to be drawn when an intrastate 

railway corporation controls by a holding company or other- 
wise a railway in another state owning its separate charter? The 
attorney general of the United States brought suit against the 
New Haven for holding Boston & Maine shares. But he with- 
drew it when the state of Massachusetts ratified the holding, 
although there was not the slightest change in the economic and 
physical situation — indeed, the "restraint of trade," if it existed 
at all, was increased by the state's enactment. On the other 
hand, if he had not withdrawn the suit he might have been in 
collision with the state. This case — and other instances are the 
Minnesota rate case and the Supreme Court safety appliance de- 
cisions — illustrates the way in which federal regulation is moving 
toward state regulation, and z-ice versa, a tendency on which the 
Hadley commission laid considerable stress. If the result be a 
general collision, as it already has been in some instances, the 
difficulties of either judicial or constitutional adjustment are ob- 
vious. Meanwhile, the misfortune of the railway in sustaining 
the impact of both movements is also obvious. It is between the 
state and federal millstones that often grind exceeding small in 
more senses than one. 

A second tendency, of an external and compulsory nature, is 
outlined in what may be termed the federal policy of paternalism. 
That paternalism in the railway case has apparently been extend- 
ed to the shipper rather than the railway carrier, in whose case 
federal paternalism has at its best been that of the scriptural 
parent who spares not the rod. Such paternalism has its present 
evil of undue severity. But it has other evils that inhere in the 
thing itself. Unjust paternalism cannot last forever. The rail- 
ways approximate one-third of the corporate wealth of the coun- 
try, and form about one-sixth of its total wealth. They are in- 
terweaved closely with almost every element of national pros- 
perity. Their material magnitudes and the direct and indirect in- 
terests that they involve must inevitably force a reaction toward 
justice in the federal policy. But it may still be a justice based 
upon a paternal regimen — a dependent relation upon a fickle 
parent that now yields up no powers, but rather seeks larger 
powers. Nor can the federal parent be exactly described as pos- 
sessed of acute perceptions in the solution of the problems of 
railway management. The evident danger of such paternalism is 
its narrowing of the gap between regulation and ownership — a 
federal tendency toward taking the final step and a railway 
tendency to accept it as a choice of evils. How grave that alter- 
native evil would be in a civic as well as an economic sense 
hardly needs demonstration. But it is an evil toward which ex- 
cessive regulation, whose other name is paternalism, points the 

Through both these tendencies which we have described, 
whether they pertain to state or federal powers, there has run a 
bad principle. Stated briefly, it has been — and is — the confound- 
ing of an economic question with a civic one. Railway regula- 
tion has been approached overmuch from its civic side, using 
those terms here broadly, so as to include such elements as public 
feeling, politics, and immediate or ultimate vote-getting. The 
economic, the commercial, the investment side of railway regula- 
tion, while not ignored, has been thrust to a secondary place. 
The railway corporation, for example, has been treated as though 
it were a body made up merely of a group of directors with a 
president and secretary, instead of a great body of stockholders 
with interests at bottom exactly analogous to those of the shop- 
keeper or the private factory owner. The railway dififers from 
them in form, is giiasi public, owns charter privilege and obtains 
certain powers of eminent domain, and, on those grounds, opens 
itself to regulation. But the fundamental interests are private 
and personal, possessed of vested and material rights of an ele- 
mentary quality and rooted in the old common law. The ques- 
tion of the future is how far that principle is to be recognized 
and one-sided paternalism of federal and state authority contract 
its powers and be modified into the economic equities. On that 
idea — with the aid of the courts as interpreters of organic law — 
rests the hope that certain dangerous tendencies now affecting the 
railways mav be checked. 

January 12, 1912. 




OTATEMENTS by the Interstate Commerce Commission in 
*^ that part of its annual report in which it discusses the ac- 
tion of the Commerce Court in restraining it from enforcing its 
order in the Transcontinental Rate cases make clear that it does 
not believe it has authority in any circumstances to fix an abso- 
lute or a minimum rate. It says (page 38) : 

"The Cojnmerce Court intimates that the mistake of the commission is 
an having attempted to fix a relation of rates instead of establishing reason- 
able rates; but, as we have already pointed out, there is no way in which 
the discrimination found to exist in these tariffs can be prevented except 
hy fi.xing a diflferential, since we have no power to establish an absolute 
rate or fi.x a minimum charge below which the carrier is not free to go." 

It does not follow from the commission's reasoning that the law 
authorizes it to adjust rates as it sought to do in these cases. 
But it does seem probable that its view, that in no case can it 
fix an absolute or a minimum rate, is a correct interpretation of 
its power. E.xcept in the fourth section, the only authority the act 
to regulate commerce gives it over rates which it has found 
unreasonable is that of fixing the "reasonable maximum" rates 
thereafter to be charged. Therefore, the commission cannot 
prevent any discrimination that the railways may be disposed 
to persist in effecting unless possibly it be one to which the 
fourth section applies; for if the commission shall find that one 
of two rates is relatively too high and order it reduced, the rail- 
way may reduce the otlicr rate in proportion, and thereby per- 
petuate the discrimination. 

The fourth section, however, provides, in substance, that the 
carriers must get the permission of the commission to charge a 
lower rate for a longer than for a shorter haul, and that the 
commission may prescribe the e-xtent to which the one rate may 
be made lower than the other. It has, therefore, been argued by 
some that where the long and short haul question is involved the 
commission may fix a specific minimum rate for the longer 
haul. As the quotation made from its annual report shows, the 
commission rejects this view. If the question were presented 
directly to the courts it seems probable they would hold that any 
authority which is not clearly conferred is not given at all ; and 
certainly the power to fix absolute or minimum rates is nowhere 
expressly conferred. Therefore, the conclusion seems justifiable 
that the commission has not authority, even under the fourth 
section, to fi.x minimum or absolute rates, and, consequently, has 
not adequate power to prevent unfair discrimination in rates in 
any case whatever. 

At another place in its annual report (page 34) the commission 
says : 

"The commission might determine a rate below which the traffic would 
te unrenuinerative to the carrier and might refuse relief in case the 
carrier fell below this rate, but such an order would not reach the difficulty, 
since the point of discrimination might be passed long before the unre- 
munerative rate was reached." 

This is said merely in reference to the fixing of rates to the 
Pacific coast, but it applies with equal force to the entire matter 
of regulation of discriminatory rates under the law as it now 
stands. The rates on packing house products from Kansas 
City and Omaha to Chicago should, on every sound principle of 
rate-making, be the same. The railways miglit make a lower 
charge from Kansas City than from Omaha, which, however, 
might not be unremunerative. This would be an unfair discrim- 
ination against Omaha ; but, under existing law, the commission 
could not remedy it, because, as it cannot fix a minimum rate, 
the roads could reduce the rate from Kansas City as fast as the 
commission could reduce that from Omaha. Similarly, the car- 
riers can make a rate of, say, 2.8S mills per ton per mile on 
copper from Omaha to New York and charge rates which are 
very much higher in proportion on other commodities. This 
would be an unjust discimination against the shippers of all 
other commodities. But is the discrimination to be remedied by 
reducing all the other rates in the railways' tariffs? Obviously, 
the only fair way to correct it would be to raise the rate on 
copper and fix a minimum below which it must not go. The fore- 
going illustrations are not hypothetical. They describe almost 
exactly the present conditions. The rate on packing house 

products from Kansas City to Chicago is unfairly discriminatory 
as compared with that from Omaha. The present rate on copper 
from Omaha to New York of 2.85 mills per ton per mile is un- 
fairly discriminatory as compared with the rates on practically all 
other commodities. Yet the commission cannot fairly correct 
these discriminations because they grow out of rates that are 
unfairly low, and for it to make all other rates in proportion 
would simply be to make all rates unfairly low. 

The Railway Age Gacette long has contended that the com- 
mission should be given power to raise rates and prevent their 
reduction similar to that which it now has to reduce them and 
prevent advances, on the ground that only when it possesses this 
authority will it be able to correct and prevent all unfair discrim- 
inations. The commission's statements in its annual report sup- 
port this position. Legislation of the nature indicated is especially 
needed to protect the small shippers and small communities that 
are put at a disadvantage by the incessant and often successful 
efforts of the larger shippers and the larger communities to get 
undue concessions from the carriers. 


■ I 'HE street railways of the country in 1910 reached a magni- 
•^ tude of interests which, measured by outstanding securities, 
was $4,682,21 7,0(X). The figures are considerably higher now 
and may by the same test be reckoned, even allowing for profuse 
stock watering in the earlier stages, at about one quarter of the 
steam railway capitalization of the country in stock and debt. 
The growth and size of the "tractions" are impressive facts in 
themselves. But they become more interesting as elements in 
that general field of transportation where they acquire relations 
more or less close with the steam railway. There have been 
some recent changes in those relations which make the subject 
worth an up-to-date study. 

In their earlier times the tractions as investments, except of 
the most speculative kind, were open to a suspicion which 
affected both stock and bonds, and which they have not yet out- 
lived ; and the calamitous "high finance" of the New York City 
tractions has persistently shadowed them at the financial center 
of the country. The "bond and bonus" plan so pervasive in their 
early financing, and to a degree still existant, has prejudiced 
their credit elsewhere. But many of them, especially during the 
last year or two, have begun to live down the old notoriety and 
become standardized. More and more our .eastern states have 
begun to open the best traction bonds to savings bank and 
trust investment, and increasingly, as the returns of the savings 
banks prove, has the "institutional" demand taken them up. The 
result has been a somewhat acute competition of bonds of this 
type with the better class of steam railway bonds. The average 
good traction security has not yet reached the investment level 
of the good steam railway security. But it has been approaching 
it, and its higher yield in times when increased income has so 
much shaped personal investment has intensified the rivalry. 
One may go farther and say that in the general field of con- 
servative buying the good traction bond has been one of the 
major forces to reduce bond prices. And when one notes, along 
with the fall of consols and of the higher class of railway securi- 
ties in England, the estimate of the London Economist that dur- 
in 1911 some $100,000,000 of English capital has sought invest- 
ment in this country, the American traction bond rivalry may 
even be vested with a foreign influence. 

But, on the other hand, turning to the field of physical rela- 
tions, the steam railway has in recent years made good. At first 
the competition of the traction was severe. As a parallel it 
affected not only long distances but short distances, and cut 
down steam passenger traffic to the lowest terms. Such condi- 
tions still prevail in limited regions in the West and South. 
But generally, in the older and more populous communities, with 
the initial rivalries lived down, the traction has become a feeder 
— or, more strictly speaking, its character as a lateral and feeder 
has come to dominate its nature as a parallel. This is especially' 
true of the East, where profitable new traction teritory was 
long ago mostly exhausted. A minor factor is the tendency of 



Vol. 52, No. 2. 

the suburban traction to bring the suburb into closer connection 
with the urban steam railway station. 

Rarely an interstate line, the traction has in a great majority 
of cases escaped the federal interference which has visited the 
steam road, and, as a state and localized corporation, has prob- 
ably been less subject to regulation by state commissions also. 
But it has had its own hardships. With a large constituency of 
passengers who use it at least twice a day, it has encountered 
in very intense form the criticism which the commuter loads on 
the steam road. It — the traction — is the target of sharp com- 
plaints of the overcrowded car, defective equipment and irregu- 
larities of service. The demand for transfer privilege is loud 
and incessant. Then, in the matter of fares, there is that vexing 
limitation of the nickel and the obstacles to adjusting it to zone 
systems ; and retrenchment, when called for by financial needs 
of the traction company, is almost sure to meet stronger opposi- 
tion than on the steam road. 

Compared with present conditions, and in the light of recent 
progress, the future of the steam-traction relation is also an 
attractive study. Will the analogy of the New Haven and the 
New York Central continue, and the tractions gradually be 
absorbed by steam systems, themselves operated much more 
extensively by electricity than at present? Or, will the tractions, 
in the main, be segregated, as now? The best guess, if we look 
far enough ahead, probably favors the former alternative; but, 
if state policy and legislation allow it, it will be preceded by an 
interval of consolidation of the tractions into large systems, re- 
peating thus the history of steam lines. 


IN its issue of December 15 the Railiuay Age Gazette published 
* an editorial entitled "What Are the Railways Going to 
do About Rails?" which has been the subject of much discussion. 
Persons connected with both the steel companies and railways 
have complained because, as they have said, the statements in 
it implied that they have been doing nothing in recent years to 
improve the quality of rails and that there has been no improve- 
ment. The Raihvay Age Gazette did not say or imply that no 
efforts have been made to improve rails or that no improvements 
have been made. What it said was that the efforts made and the 
improvements effected have not been as great as conditions 
demand. It has also been asserted that our utterances conveyed 
the impression that the danger of accidents due to rail break- 
ages is very great. The largest number of people killed in any 
year of the ten ending with June 30, 1911, as a result of derail- 
ments from rail breakages was 24, this being in the year ending 
June 30, 1910. The number thus killed in 1911 was twelve, which 
is less than the average trespassers killed on the railways of the 
United States every day in the year. The total persons killed as 
a result of derailments caused by broken rails in the ten years 
1902-1911, inclusive, was 106. The total number killed meantime 
while trespassing on railway property was over 51,000. It is 
said the regulating authorities may take steps to reduce the acci- 
dents due to broken rails. If the public authorities would for 
awhile use their energy to reduce fatal accidents due to tres- 
passing, for which the public and faulty drafting and enforce- 
ment of the laws are to blame, instead of to reduce the relatively 
very small number for which the railway managements are to 
blame, the results gained would be greater and more beneficial. 


1902 78 

1903 150 

1904 176 

1905 201 

1906 220 

1907 308 

1908 238 

1909 196 

1910 243 

1911 249 

Totals 2,059 

Five years ended June 30. 1906. . 825 
Five years ended June 30. 1911.. 1.234 
Increase p. c. latter period 49.5 

However, it is a fact that the number of derailments caused by 
broken rails is greater, according to the statistics of the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission, than that' due to any other defect 
of railway roadway ; and the deaths thus caused in the past six 
months probably have exceeded those in any previous year. 
Some of the criticisms of our comments on this subject have 
shown a surprising lack of information regarding it. The fol- 
lowing table giving the numbers of derailments caused during the 
past ten years by the various defects of roadway is bjsed upon 
the statistics of the Interstate Commerce Commission. Doubtless 
in the report there are included under this head some breakages 
caused by defective equipment and not due to inherent shortcom- 
ings of the rails ; but to what extent this is the case nobody knows. 

It will be seen that the number of accidents due to almost all 
the different kinds of defects of roadway were greater in 1907 
than in any other year of the last ten. This, doubtless, was due 
to the heavy increase in traffic in that year and the difficulties 
under which the railways handled it. If comparison be made 
merely between the figures for 1911 and 1907 the conclusion will 
be reached that there has been an improvement all along the line. 
However, even proceeding this way, the showing regarding rail 
breakages will not be found relatively encouraging. The number 
of derailments due to broken rails was greater in 1911 than in 
any other year for the last ten except 1907. On the other hand, 
the number due to spread rails was less in 1911 than in 1910, 
1908 or 1907, the number due to soft track less than in any year 
since 1905, and the number due to irregular track less than in 
any year since 1907 e.xcept 1909. 

Often no enlightening conclusion can be reached by comparing 
the results of one year with those of another. It is better to com- 
pare period with period. Let us, therefore, compare the five- 
year period 1902-1906, inclusive, and the five-year period 1907- 
1911, inclusive. The number of derailments due to broken rails 
increased from 825 in the first-named period to 1,234 in the second 
period, or 49j^ per cent. Meantime, the number of derailments 
due to the spreading of rails increased only 39.4 per cent. ; to 
soft track, 26.7 per cent. ; to irregular track, 38 per cent. ; to 
miscellaneous causes, 29.7 per cent. ; and to all causes other than 
broken rails, 36 per cent. The percentages of increase in derail- 
ments due to bad tires and sun kinks were much greater, but the 
absolute numbers of derailments due to these causes are quite 
small compared with those due to other causes, and, therefore, 
do not materially affect the total results. 

During the years mentioned there was a substantial increase in 
the railway mileage of the country. There was also a large 
increase in the traffic handled, the increase in passengers hauled 
one mile being 28 per cent., and in tons hauled one mile 
30.4 per cent. There was not a proportionate increase in 
the number of trains run one mile to handle the traffic, but, 
on the other hand, there was an increase in the weight 
of cars and locomotives and in the average train load, and 
therefore, in the pounding and stresses to which the track was 
subjected. Therefore, other things being equal, some increase in 
rail breakages was naturally to be expected. It will be seen, 
however, that the increase of derailments due to rail breakages 
was substantially greater in proportion than in those due to other 
causes, and also was markedly greater in proportion than the 
increase in the traffic handled. If any conclusion at all can fairly 
be drawn from the foregoing figures it is that, from the stand- 

Derailments Due 

TO Defects 

OF Roadway 


due to defects 






of roadway other 








than broken rails. 














































































































January 12, 1912. 



point of public safety, the improvement in rails has been sub- 
stantially less than the improvement of the condition of the 
roadway in general. It may be said that the number of derail- 
ments due to broken rails is not a true index of the number of 
rails that break, because there are many more breakages than 
there are resulting deraihnents. But if we may fairly assume 
that the care the railways took properly to inspect and maintain 
their track was as great in the last as in the preceding five-year 
period, it must follow that they detected and took out of the 
track during the second period as many broken rails in propor- 
tion which did not cause accidents as they did in the earlier 
period, and that the number of breakages causing derailments 
is, therefore, a true index of the total number of breakages. As a 
matter of fact, probably more care was taken to look for and re- 
move broken rails during the later and during the earlier period. 
One criticism that the Railivay Age Gazette passed on the rail- 
ways in the editorial heretofore referred to was that they do not 
give publicity to data which show the facts about rail breakages 
and the reasons for them. We also suggested that they could get 
better rails by concentrating their orders on the mills that make 
good rails. We have compiled all the data regarding rail break- 
ages during the year ending October 31, 1910, which the railways 
have furnished to the American Railway Engineering Associa- 
tion, and a summary is presented in the following tables : 



Mill. 100 lb. 90 lb. 85 lb. 80 lb. 75 lb. Average. Tonnage. 

I 31.2 37.3 45.0 8.0 10.5 29.5 2,628,040 

II 28.1 119.4 42.2 51.0 22.7 50.6 2,466,843 

III 18.6 39.9 10.6 11.9 20.6 18.6 1,159,903 

IV 20.9 63.6 20.8 13.1 11.1 22.9 652,539 

V 52.8 44.1 40.2 20.8 73.9 42.4 1,110,692 

VI 15.6 40.4 10.8 20.1 583,374 

VII 17.4 17.4 12.0 12.3 34.0 15.3 192,472 

Open Hearth, 

I 5.0 11.3 8.2 .... 1.7 9.7 347,665 

II'- 7.8 .... 2.2 4.5 39,660 

IV 10.6 10.6 18,881 

V 0.5 0.5 43.733 

VI 8.5 1.0 7.5 151,078 

VII 5.1 .... 3.7 4.4 78,988 

VIII 24.9 54.2 13.1 39.5 222,427 

IX 11.7 13.8 19.1 14.3 16.3 614,969 

The facts will be made clearer to many person if the figures 
regarding Bessemer rails be presented on the basis of the number 
of rails reported in track in the year ending October 31, 1910, for 
each breakage. The following table reduces to this basis the 
above statistics regarding Bessemer rails : 


Total rails 
number for one 
Total num- break- break- 
Mill. 100 lb. 90 lb. 85 lb. 80 lb. 75 lb. ber rails. ages. age. 

I 653.5 606.8 532.0 3,484.5 2,834.3 6,597,523 7,759 850.3 

II ... 724.5 189.5 567.7 549.1 1,310.3 6,074,725 12,492 486.3 

III ..1,093.5 567.0 2,248.9 2,346.1 1.448.6 2,740.971 2,161 1,268.4 

IV ... 972.0 355.4 1,149.5 2,129.6 2,685.0 1,477,778 1,494 989.1 

V ... 385.4 513.2 594.5 1,344.2 403.6 2,671,095 4,712 566.9 

VI 1,537.9 692.7 2,776.2 1,464,190 1,174 1,247.2 

VII ..1,173.3 1,043.9 1,993.6 2,276.0 878.0 477,521 294 1,624.2 

Totals 21,503,803 30,086 714.4 

We have used numbers instead of the names of the mills in 
these tables, because, as was said in our former discussion of 
this subject, the railways have not furnished anything like com- 
plete information regarding the rail situation, and to publish the 
names of the mills while giving only incomplete information 
regarding their output in track might do injustice to some of 
them. The incomplete data given indicates that the railways 
have been by no means concentrating their orders on the mills 
that make good rails. It will be seen that on the average there 
was only one breakage reported for each 850.3 of the rails of 
Mill I in track, this mill being credited with the largest tonnage ; 
while there was one breakage for each 486.3 of the rails of Mill 
II in track, this mill being credited with the second largest ton- 
nage reported on. Mill III had only one breakage for each 
1,268.4 rails charged up against it, and yet the tonnage reported 
for it was less than half as great as the tonnage reported for 
either Mill I or Mill II. There is no apparent relationship 
between the quality of the rails being made by the different mills 
and the sizes of the orders that they have received. It seems 
improbable that the mills give their traffic to the railways regard- 
less of their rates or service. If they did, the traffic man- 

agers of the steel companies would soon be looking for new jobs. 
A glance at these figures is enough to show that they tell a 
very different story from those for the Harriman Lines given 
by Mr. Isaacs in the letter we published December 29. Mr. 
Isaacs said : "The number of rails breaking during the first year 
of service (on the Harriman Lines) which is their critical period 
under traffic, has fallen in that time (three years) from about 
one rail in 370 to one in 3,670, with an increase in tonnage, and 
but for an unfortunate manufacturing error, which was very soon 
discovered, it would have approximated one rail in 7,000." The 
foregoing statistics showing only, on the average, 714.4 rails in 
track for each breakage, indicate that the experience of the 
Harriman Lines is not typical, but exceptional. 

The figures indicate that the greatest numbers of breakages in 
proportion take place in the larger sections, which seems to 
demonstrate that the buying of heavier rails is not yet proving a 
remedy for this trouble. The showing made by the higher priced 
open hearth rails is much better in proportion than that made 
by the Bessemer rails, but probably only very general conclusions 
can be drawn from the data given, because of its incompleteness. 
For example, it includes no facts throwing light on the conditions 
of operation under which the rails were used. Mr. Isaacs, in 
the letter already mentioned, described the method employed by 
the Harriman Lines in reporting rail failures. If all of the rail- 
ways of the United States would use a similar method in secur- 
ing reports of broken rails and transmitting them to the Ameri- 
can Railway Engineering Association, and would let that associa- 
tion make them public, information would be available which 
would really show what results the railways are getting from 
rails and why they are getting them. 

The editorial previously printed in this paper on the rail ques- 
tion has been widely quoted in the press, and has been inter- 
preted as implying that there is "collusion" between the rail- 
makers and the railway managers which results in the railways 
buying poor rails. The fact is that committees of the American 
Railway Association and the American Railway Engineering 
Association have been negotiating for several years with repre- 
sentatives of the steel companies to get improved rails. It has 
been a hard fight, but they have made some progress. The 
attitude of the steel manufacturers is much more conciliatory 
and they are showing a stronger disposition to co-operate now 
than in past years. But when one considers the fact that, to a 
very large extent, the same men are dominant financially in the 
steel and iron manufacturing industry and in the railway busi- 
ness one feels less gratification at the progress that has been 
made than disappointment that it has not been greater. If the 
big financiers who are largely interested in both the steel busi- 
ness and the railways should say to the United States Steel Cor- 
poration and the other steel companies that they must make the 
railways good rails at reasonable prices the roads probably would 
get better rails than they now are getting, and at reasonable 
prices. And the testimony of E. H. Gary before the Stanley 
committee is a recognition on behalf of the big men in the United 
States Steel Corporation, at least, that it is just as much their 
duty to seek to make good rails at reasonable prices for the 
railways as it is the duty of the railway managers to seek to get 
good rails at such prices. Judge Gary said that large industrial 
concerns such as the Steel Corporation should be subjected to 
administrative regulation somewhat similar to that applied to the 
railways. This involves recognition by him and by those whom 
he represents that the Steel Corporation is essentially as much 
a concern engaged in rendering a public service as are the rail- 
ways. Now, the law and their duty to the public require the rail- 
ways to give safe transportation at reasonable rates ; and, to a 
considerable extent, on the kind of rails they get, and the prices 
at which they get them, depend the safety of the transportation 
that they can give and the rates that they must charge for it. 
The Steel Corporation cannot better justify its existence than-, 
by furnishing the railways better and safer rails at lower prices 
than they could hope for under competitive conditions ; and if 
there is any evidence that it has been, or is, doing so, the best 
use to which it could be put would be to make it public. 



Vol. 52, No. 2. 

Si^lt^f ^ to the Sdilon 



I^T'T December 28, 1911. 

To THE Editor of the Railway Age Gazette : 

Your editorial and the resultant cornments on the subject of 
"present giving" by seller to buyer are most timely and most 
encouraging to the right thinking. One of your correspondents 
regrets that the discussion was not started a longer time before 
Christmas, that greater good might have resulted. 

This reminds me that now would be a good time to make a 
suggestion about the giving of some gifts that takes place at 
Atlantic City each year. Some wise action has already been 
taken by the supply men regarding souvenirs that have outward 
and visible form. It is the inward and- invisible ones that I 
wish to speak about — the kind that are given between 6 p. m. and 
6 a. m. Can't these be cut out, also? I have heard that certain 
supply firms have men for this particular kind of entertainment, 
but I don't believe it. Do you? 

While we are cutting out gifts at Christmas and souvenirs at 
the conventions, let's also cut out this other kind. 

mechanical man. 


Pittsburgh, Pa., Dec. 29, 1911. 
To THE Editor of the Railway Age Gazette: 

One of the greatest evils on the railways today is the abuse 
of the pass privilege. In many business concerns employees are 
given goods at cost, but never free. There was a time when free 
transportation to railway employees was indirectly considered 
part of their salary, but this claim can no longer be advanced, 
as railway employees are paid as well as, if not better than, em- 
ployees in other service. 

A low rate, not necessarily cost, would cure the abuse. This 
rate should be so low that no employee would hesitate for a mo- 
ment, on account of expense, to make any pleasure or business 
trip, but high enough to stop the "joy riding." For example, the 
commutation rate for employees should be about % cent a mile 
within a radius of 20 miles, any one traveling more than 20 miles 
to and from work is either not getting his proper rest or is not 
giving his duties the proper attention. The through rate for 
employees should be about Yz cent a mile. This would make the 
round trip rate between New York and Chicago about $10. Be- 
tween Pittsburgh and New York and return, and between Buf- 
falo and Chicago and return, it would be about $5. From New 
York to San Francisco and return the rate would be $30. The 
round trip over any division would cost between $1 and $2. This 
would be a very small percentage of the total cost of any business 
or pleasure trip. 

Mileage books would be the best form of transportation, the 
present pass regulation to govern. , 

The two important points are : First, there should be a ticket 
for every mile traveled, either for business or for pleasure. Sec- 
ond, travel by those officers and employees whose railway duties 
require traveling should be free from expense. Free mileage 
books should be furnished, the official's travel being governed by 
his own judgment and duties, and the employees's free travel 
being governed by his superior. 

For its educational advantages, travel by all employees should 
be encouraged, and intelligent handling of this transportation 
question is important. yardmaster. 

A bill has been introduced into the congress of Bolivia pro- 
viding for the sum of $6,000,000 to be set aside for the con- 
struction of the La Paz-Puerto Pando railway. The bill further 
provides that this amount shall be used exclusively for 
building that line, which shall not be transferable to any other 

Professor of Railway Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 

Any method of tonnage rating should recognize the three im- 
portant variables which modify train resistance,! namely, speed, 
average weight of the cars, and air temperature. The influence 
of the third variable, air temperature, may be as great as that 
of either speed or car weight, and it is proper that it should 
have received as general consideration in establishing winter 
ratings as it has. The railway engineering department of the 
University of Illinois has been e.xperimenting along these lines 
for the past two years, and although the tests are still far from 
being completed, the work has gone far enough to develop some 
rather interesting results. The influence of cold weather in in- 
creasing total train resistance is greater than its influence on 
the tractive effort of the locomotive. 

At the speeds at which freight trains pass ruling grades the 
net resistance is composed almost entirely of the resistance 
developed at the wheel rim and the resistance developed in the 
car journals. The former is called rolling resistance and the lat- 
ter journal resistance. Whether the rolling friction is greater or 
smaller in cold weather need not concern us here, for it is 
altogether likely that at the speeds prevailing at ruling grades 
































HI _ 











































—i r- 



TEST NO S-1041 



f) 6 



i 4 



8 12 16 20 24 28 32 





















Fig. 1 — Curve of Train Resistance at a Speed of 15 M. P. H. 
for Temperatures Between 30 and 42 Deg. F. 

this rolling resistance is much less than the journal friction. In 
the journals of a car which has been standing for some time, the 
oil film will be broken through and the journal and brass will 
probably be in direct contact. As the car starts and the journal 
turns, oil is brought up from the waste below and the film of 
oil begins to establish itself. Until this oil film is established 
over the whole journal the friction is high and gives rise to the 
great starting resistances which prevail at this time. Low air 
temperature not only makes the oil more viscous but lengthens 
the period during which the film is being established. The 
temperature of the bearing will increase until the rate of heat 
production within the bearing equals the rate at which the heat 
is dissipated from the box and other parts, such as the axle. To 
maintain a certain rate of dissipation of heat the journal tem- 
perature may be lower in cold weather than in warm weather. 
Therefore the minimum resistance attained in cold weather is 
greater than in warm weather. 

Two years ago tests were made in summer weather to deter- 
mine the influence of car weight on resistance and the results 
were published in Bulletin 43 of the Engineering Experiment 
Station of the University of Illinois. The first test in cold 
weather was made on October 31, 1908, and the air temperature 

•Abstract from a paper presented before the Central Railway Club, Janu- 
ary II. Copyrighted by the Central Railway Club, 1911. Reprinted by 

tTliroughout the paper, train resistance means the force needed to keep 
the train moving at uniform speed on straight, level track and in still 
air. This force is expressed in pounds per ton of train weight. 

January 12, 1912. 



varied from 30 deg. F. at the beginning to 42 deg. F. at the end 
of the test. As at first plotted, there seemed to be no definite 
relation between resistance and speed for this test, the resistance 
vahies, for speeds in the neighborhood of 15 m. p. h., varying 
from 8.9 to 12.6 lbs. per ton, and similar variations occurred 
at other speeds. If cold weather causes these variations, it does 
so through its influence on journal temperature. It was conceived, 
therefore, that the variations were due to differences in journal 
temperature, and that these differences were, in their turn, due 
to the fact that most of these values were taken while the jour- 
nals were warming up. 

If the journal temperature was varying, it must have been in- 
creasing as the train moved further and further from the start- 
ing point, and it was concluded that if, for each point on the 
road at which resistance had been determined, its value were 
plotted with respect to the distance of that point from the begin- 
ning of the run, such a plot would reveal a regular variation of 
resistance with the distance due to the influence of the distance 
upon journal temperature. 

All resistance readings taken between 14 and 16 m. p. h. were 
plotted as in Fig. 1, in which vertical distances denote resistance, 
and horizontal distances represent miles run from the starting 
point. The points which have the highest resistance values are 
found near the beginning of the run, whereas those having the 







— 1 




I 1 1 II 1 II II 





















1 1 














TEST NO. S-1041 
















1 1 1 II II 1 1 1 1 1 1 









i 12 16 20 24 28 32 








4 f 



Fig. 2 — Showing Resistance in Cold Weather and Summer 

lowest resistance values fall at the end of the run, and in gen- 
eral the points so arrange themselves that their resistance values 
constantly decrease as the distance increases. Bearing in mind 
the facts that all values apply to the same train and to ap- 
proximately the same speed, it is apparent that neither variations 
in car weights nor variations in speed can account for the regu- 
lar decrease in resistance shown. This decrease must therefore 
be due to the only remaining variable which exerts any important 
influence upon resistance, namely, journal temperature. It is 
therefore assumed that the regular decrease in resistance as the 
train progresses is due to the fact that the journal temperatures 
are constantly increasing and that oil viscosity and journal re- 
sistance are therefore diminishing. This assumption underlies 
the further discussion of this and of the following figures. The 
test conditions* made it difficult to directly measure the tem- 
perature of the journals in the train and the results are there- 
fore presented in terms of distance run by the test train. The 
journal temperatures are intimately related to this distance un- 
less the test is run under widely varying speeds. 

The curve CC drawn in Fig. 1 represents approximately the 
rate at which resistance changes with distance run, and it applies 
to a speed of about 15 m. p. h. It is apparent from this curve 
that the resistance at the beginning of the run is about 14 lbs. 

•The trains tested were freight trains of the Illinois Central, accepted as 
they came in the regular service. It has not proved feasible, thus far, to 
directly measure the temperature of any of the journals of the cars com- 
posing these trains. 

per ton at this speed and that it constantly decreases until the 
train has progressed about 35 miles, at which point the resistance 
reaches its minimum value of about 10.5 lbs. per ton and the 
journal temperature reaches its maximum. Trains of like char- 
acter when run at similar speeds in warm weather reach their 
minimum resistance within the first 8 or 10 miles of their run, 
and their minimum resistance is less than that attained in the 
train whose performance is exhibited in Fig. 1. 

From further analyses of the results it was found that for 
speeds of 21.3, 17.3, 15 and 12 m. p. h., the minimum resistance 
is reached at about 35 miles from the beginning of the run. 



































TEST NO. S-104S 
















—1 - 

























" n 









r llll 




1 J 

' " 









i iii 

-'-K^ 1 























S 12 16 20 24 28 32 











Fig. 3 — Resistance Curves Showing the Influence of Stops irb 
Cold Weather. 

From curves for speeds of 21.3, 17.25, IS and 12 m. p. h., plotted 
in the same manner as in Fig. 1, the curves in Fig. 2 were drawn. 
The corresponding values of resistance and speeds at 35 m. p. h. 
constitute the co-ordinates of the four points shown on the curve 
H, of Fig. 2, and serve to define this curve. The curve G, for 5 
m. p. h., is found in the same way. The vertical distances rep- 
resent resistance and horizontal distances represent speed, the 
curves G, and H represent, therefore, the variations of resistance 
with speed for test 1041, and present train resistance curves in 
their usual form. This test was made when the air temperature 

-jz ""~T T 

^ ' - _ Ji__ _ __±__ ' - 

iJZ- IE ~ ~ l^ '^' 

a. _jf|gf° - c V _iz 

m -,-'' ■- ~v ^'^ ^ ^ • 

a. 8 ^ - ^^^- S Ti-il 

-J / " \. -".5^ 

U ___ __ __ _.j|)| 

ze'- - - -- i" 

<-+- ' J a 

' • -1 - - _ i, 1 

!? h' • * ~" :? 9 

Ui"* ►-♦♦^.l^- -j_f--.__^ 

k RESISTANCE • - 1 - 

Z " ~ ^ _ _ _- 

?■ 2 - - 

?4- - -._ - 

_, ^ to 15 

Fig. 4 — Resistance Curve of Train of Heavily Loaded Cars. 

varied from 30 deg. F. to 42 deg. F., and when the wind was 
light. The train was composed of cars weighing, on the average, 
17.2 tons. 

In order to compare the resistance shown by curves G "aiid 
H with the resistance prevailing in warm weather, the curve K 
is drawn. This curve shows the approximate resistance in sum- 
mer weather of a train composed of cars weighing 17.2 tons. 
The curve K is therefore comparable with either G or H. 
Curve H represents resistances which are approximately 25 to 
30 per cent, greater than those represented by curve K and we 



Vol. 52, No. 2. 

may conclude that for the train of test 1041 even the minimum 
resistance attained after the train had run 35 miles is about 25 
per cent, greater than the resistance of a similar train in warm 
weather. Whether the change from summer temperatures to 
a temperature of 30 deg. F. will always result in an increase of 
25 per cent, in the resistance does not appear, and the data in 
hand do not as yet warrant generalizations of this sort. At- 
tention is called to the fact that the term resistance as here used 
means resistance on level track, and consequently a difference of 
25 per cent, in resistance does not necessarily require a difference 
of 25 per cent, in tonnage rating. This statement is developed 

Fig. 3 is similar to Fig. 1, and it leads to similar conclusions. 
It applies to test 1045 during which the air temperature varied 
from 22 deg. to 26 deg., and for which the train was composed 
of cars averaging 49.2 tons in weight. In Fig. 3 the speed dur- 
ing the run is indicated by the line in the upper part of the dia- 
gram. It will be noticed that the train was brought up to a 
-speed of about 20 m. p. h. within the first 3 miles of the run 
iand that the speed was thereafter maintained at approximately 
_20 miles, e.xcept in the immediate neighborhood of the two stops 
which are indicated at A and B. The speed for all but four 
•of the points for which resistance is calculated lies between 18 
and 21 m. p. h., and the speeds for these four points lie close 
to this range. Since the speed is so nearly uniform for all these 
points, its influence in modifying resistance is practically elimi- 
nated, and such changes in resistance as are indicated on the 
diagram are chiefly due to changes in journal temperature. At 
point A about 14 miles from the start, the train was stopped 
for one hour and IS minutes, the air temperature at that 
time being 23 deg. F. Again at B, 12 miles farther along, a stop 
of two minutes' duration was made. It is interesting to note 
the effect of these stops upon the resistance. The resistance in 
the beginning is in the neighborhood of 7 lbs. per ton. It stead- 
ily decreases as the train progresses, until at the point A, where 
the train was first detained, it had fallen to about 4 or 4^ lbs. 
Upon leaving A the train's speed was immediately raised to its 
general value of 20 m. p. h., and the resistance is found to have 
risen again to about the same value which it had at the original 
starting point. From there on, the resistance again decreases 
steadily until the point B is reached, after which there is a slight 
increase in resistance due, probably, not so much to the 2-minute 
stop as to the cooling of the journals during the considerably 
longer period in which the speed at this point was low, while 
the train was approaching and leaving B. The diagram serves 
well to show how important the effect of such a stop as that at 
A may be. If the ruling grade in this case had occurred just 
beyond A, it is entirely likely that the increased train resistance 
would have stalled the train at that point. There is no evi- 
dence in this diagram that the minimum resistance of this train 
at this speed is reached during the test. Indeed, if the resistance 
curves there drawn are accepted as correct, it seems clear that 
the stops have delayed the establishment of this minimum re- 
sistance beyond the test limits. Comparison with resistance in 
warm weather is therefore unwarranted. 

During test 1084 the air temperature varied from 1 deg. F. 
below zero at the beginning to 5 deg. F. above zero at the end 
of the test. These temperatures are lower than any others pre- 
vailing during the tests here discussed. The speed during this 
test was increased from 8 m. p. h. near the start to 20 m. p. h., 
at which it was maintained uniform. The resistance values de- 
rived for the first 10 miles of the run are not numerous enough 
to offer much information. The resistance at 10 miles from the 
Start was 20 lbs. per ton, and decreased at 24 miles from the 
start to about 16 lbs. per ton, and probably would have continued 
to decrease had the test been continued beyond this point. The 
normal resistance in summer weather for a train of this car 
weight (16.5 tons) is 9.5 lbs. per ton. The train of this test has, 
therefore, a resistance 68 per cent, in excess of the normal, even 
after running 24 miles. Part of this excess is doubtless due to 

the fact that a rather strong wind prevailed during the test ; most 
of it, however, is probably due to low temperature. 

Fig. 4 applies to test 1086, during which there were very light 
winds and the air temperature varied between 28 and 30 deg. F. 
The test train was composed of cars whose weights averaged 59.5 
tons. The points shown were taken between the speed limits of 
12.5 and 26 m. p. h. The resistance value for each point lying 
within these limits is plotted with respect to the distance of this 
point from the start. The upper line represents the speed, which 
was quite uniform and near 20 m. p. h. for the first 12 miles of 
the run. Beyond this point the speed varied considerably. As in 
the tests previously discussed, the resistance decreases with great 
regularity during the first 12 miles, until at C the journals have 
apparently attained their maximum temperature for a speed of 
20 m. p. h., and the resistance has reached its minimum value 
for this speed. Beyond C, therefore, the influence of journal 
temperature upon resistance largely disappears and the resistance 
thereafter responds, in its variation, quite definitely to changes 
in speed. 

One other fact developed by Fig. 4 merits consideration. It 
has been noted that in this case the maximum journal tempera- 
ture was attained after running only 12 miles. This is a shorter 
run than was necessary to thoroughly warm up the journals in 
the other trains here discussed. These trains differ from the 
train of test 1086 in having lower car weights and the ex- 
planation probably lies in this fact. It seems likely that the 
greater load on the journals in test 1086, and the consequent 
greater heat production within the bearings has caused their 
temperature of equilibrium to be attained sooner in this test. 


It was Stated above that an increase in net train resistance, 
of say 30 per cent, due to low temperature, does not necessarily 
require a like reduction in train tonnage. This is due to the 
facts that net train resistance, which here denotes merely the re- 
sistance on level track, is not the only resistance which absorbs 
the tractive effort, and that the other resistances are unaffected 
by temperature. 

The process of rating locomotives consists essentially in speci- 
fying a train whose gross resistance shall equal the available 
tractive effort. Since ratings are made to meet the conditions which 
exist at the ruling grades, this gross resistance must always con- 
sist of net resistance, as above defined, and of grade resistance.* 
Of these two elements, the grade resistance is almost always 
the greater. Obviously neither air temperature nor any other 
external condition can affect the grade resistance, which is 
modified only by difference in grade. Since the larger element 
of gross resistance remains unaffected, the reductions in rating 
in cold weather need not be as great as the variations which 
cold weather causes in the smaller element of gross resistance, 
that is, in the net train resistance. Neither are these tonnage 
reductions the same for different grades. An example may serve 
to make this clearer. 

Assume that it be required to find the summer and winter 
ratings for a certain class of locomotives on two divisions of a 
road, which we here designate as division A and division B. 
The ruling grade on A is one-half per cent, and that on B is 1 
per cent. The resistance due to grade alone is 20 lbs. per ton 
of train weight for each per cent, of grade, and the grade re- 
sistance on division A is therefore 10 lbs. per ton, while on di- 
vision B it is 20 lbs. per ton. Now assume also that the net 
train resistance for the desired speed is 4.5 lbs. per ton in sum- 
mer and that in winter it is 33^ per cent, greater, namely 6.0 lbs. 
per ton. We assume further that in summer the available 
tractive effort on grade A for the class of engines under con- 
sideration is 32,000 lbs., and on grade B 30,500 lbs. If the effect 
of cold weather upon the engine itself be assumed such as to 

'Acceleration and curve resistance may also be components of this gross 
resistance. They are, however, ignored here, since their consideration is 
not necessary to the argument, although their presence may modify its 

January 12, 1912. 



cause a reduction of 5 per cent, in tractive effort, we find the 
available tractive effort in winter to be 30,400 lbs. on division A 
and 28,970 lbs. on division B. We have now available enough 
information to calculate the tonnage ratings. On division A, for 
example, the gross resistance in summer is 10 + 4.5 = 14.5 lbs. 
per ton, tiie tractive effort is 32,000 lbs., and the tonnage is con- 
sequently 32,000 -H 14.5 = 2,207 tons. The winter tonnage on 
division A is 30,400 H- (10 + 6.0) = 1,900 tons. The proper 
winter tonnage on division A is found therefore to be (2,207 — 
1,9(X)) -H 2,207 = 14 per cent, less than the summer tonnage. 
Similarly for division B the tonnage reduction for winter weather 
is found to be 10 per cent. The results of these calculations are 
summarized in the following table : 

Ruling grade — per cent 

Tractive effort in summer lbs 32.000 

Tractive effort in winter lbs 30,400 

Crade resistance lbs. per ton. 

Net resistance in summer lbs. per ton. 

Net resistance in winter lbs. per ton. 

Gross resistance in summer lbs. per ton. 

Gross resistance in winter lbs. per ton. 

Tonnage in summer tons 

Tonnage in winter tons 

Tonnage reduction per cent.... 

ision A. 

Division B. 























It is apparent from these calculations that an increase in net 
resistance of 2>yA per cent, necessitates a reduction in rating on 
division A of only 14 per cent., and on division B this reduction 
need be only 10 per cent. Not only are the tonnage reductions 
in both cases considerably less than the difference in net re- 
sistance, but the reductions are different on the different grades. 
The greater grade requires the smaller tonnage reduction. If 
the ruling grades on a particular road do not differ greatly on 
the different divisions, it would be an unnecessary refinement of 
practice to discriminate between divisions in establishing tonnage 
reductions for winter weather. If, on the other hand, a road 
runs in both level and mountainous country, it is not only logical 
but economical to make such distinctions. 

There are a few roads operating almost exclusively in mountain 
territory which find it unnecessary to make reductions in rating 

for low temperatures. The ruling grades on these roads are, of 
course, heavy. The foregoing example illustrates how the effect 
of heavy grades may disguise and almost nullify great variations 
in net resistance, and it offers therefore, some justification for the 
practice which ignores distinctions between summer and winter 
ratings in such territory. 


A considerable amount of information has been collected from 
the railways of the country concerning their tonnage rating prac- 
tice. This information is presented in the accompanying table. 
It is believed that the table fairly represents, in most cases, the 
practice of the various roads as stated by their own officers. 
It has, however, been found difficult to force into the form 
and limits of the table all the information available, and in 
a few cases the tabular statement scarcely represents all the facts. 
It is hardly possible to indicate in the table the degree of au- 
thority given on these roads to trainmasters and despatchers, 
under which they may vary from the usual practice. 

The roads are arranged in the table in the order of the air 
temperature limits which determine the normal rating. This ar- 
rangement was adopted because it makes easier the direct com- 
parison of figures appearing in the later columns. At the same 
time, it brings together roads which operate in a very different 
territory and under very different weather conditions, and these 
facts should be borne in mind in making comparisons. Exami- 
nation of the table makes it evident at once that there is great 
diversity of practice. Not only are different tonnage reductions 
made for similar temperatures, but the range in temperature 
which is considered to warrant tonnage reduction varies from a 
few degrees to 30 or 40 deg. Most of the differences in prac- 
tice are not surprising when it is considered that the roads in- 
cluded, represent practically the entire United States and Canada 
and represent, therefore, the greatest variety in weather condi- 
tions. Most of the differences in practice disclosed by the 
table are quite sufficiently explained by the differences in the 
weather conditions prevailing in the territory served. 


Minimum Tonn.^ge Reductions for Various Temperature Conditions. 

temperature / "^ 

Road. for normal Tempera- Reduc- Tempera- Reduc- Tempera- Reduc- Tempera- Reduc- 

rating. ture tions ture tions ture tions ture tions 

Degs. F. range. per cent. range per cent. range. per cent. range. per cent. 

Chicago Great Western ♦45 45-25 8 25-0 16 & below 25 

Chicago & Eastern Illinois 45 45-32 10 32-15 20 15-0 30 0-10 35 

Chesapeake & Ohio 45 For each 10 deg. change in temperature make 5 per cent, reduction. 

Boston & Albany 40 A reduction of from 50 to 150 tons is made from summer rating for winter rating. 

New York Cent. & H. R 50 More or less discretionary. For a drop of 20 deg. reduce about 10 p^r cent 

Central R. R. of New Jersey.. 40 40-20 10 200 20 

Pittsburg & Lake Erie 40 40-20 210 ts 20-10 420 ts Zero 640-860 ts 

Baltimore & Ohio 35 From 35 degs. to zero and below make reductions of from zero to 30 per cent 

Erie 33 33-23 5 23-13 10 13-3 15 Below 3 ' 20 

Del., Lack. & Western 32 I\Iake 10 per cent, reduction for temperatures below 32 deg. and 15 per cent, reduction for 

extreme conditions. 

Wabash 32 Governed by Special Orders. 

Norfolk & Western 30 At jo 50-100 ts 30-.iO 100-150 ts 20-10 200-250 ts 10-0 300-350 ts 

Chi., Bur. & Quincy *30 *.in 10-15 *ri<-low zero 15-20 130—0 15-20 tBelow zero 20-'in 

Chi., Mil. & St. Paul 30 30-20 S 20-10 10 10 to —10 20 —10 to— 20 30 

Chi., St. P., Minn. & Omaha.. 30 3U-IU 10 lu to — 10 15 — 10 & lower 25 

Great Northern 25 t25-5 10 5 to —10 20 — 10 & lower 25 

Chicago & North Western 20-25 Below 25 10-25 

Duluth & Iron Range 25 25-0 10 Zero to— 10 20 Below— 10 25 

Lehigh Valley 25 About 5 per cent. Reduction for each 1 deg. drop in temperature. 

Boston & Maine 15 150 7-15 1 to — 15 12-18 —16 to— 30 17—22 

Central Vermont Zero From zero to 35 degs. below reduce 150 tons for each 8 deg. drop in temperature 

Grand Trunk Pacific Zero to — 5 5 —5 to — 10 10 — 10 to — 15 15 — 15 Slower 20 

Intercolonial of Canada Zero Make reduction of 100 tons for temperature below zero. 

Chi., R. I. & Pac Zero Make 20 per cent, reduction for temperature below zero with no wind and 25 to 30 per 

cent, with heavy winds. 

Denver & Rio Grande Zero to — 10 10 — 10 to — 30 20 

Colorado & Southern Zero to — 25 10 to 23 

Big Four Governed by special orders. 

J!- Y., New Haven & Hartford Matter left to division officers. 

Grand Trunk Matter left to division officers. 

."%. ,^o1"^"^ -. Bad storms and very cold weather, 20 to 30 per cent, reduction. 

a' J' c o E' 5°^^* Lines No reductions except on Albuquerque Div., where reduction of 100 tons is made in winter. 

A. T. h S. F. Eastern Lines Governed by special orders. 

St. Louis & San Francisco Matter left to sub-division officers. 

Northern Pacific W. of Paradise, Mont.. Matter left to division officers. 

Southern Pacific No reduction. 

Kansas City Southern No reduction. 

El Paso & Southwestern No reduction. 

Seaboard Air Line No reduction. 

Atlantic Coast Line No reduction. 

Virginian No reduction. 

Oregon Short Line No reduction. 

•Light or no wind. fHeavy wind. JBad rail. 

Additional reduc- 
tions for unusual 

ts per cent. 

Special orders. 
Special orders. 
Special orders. 
Special orders. 
Special orders. 
Special orders. 
Special orders. 

Special orders. 
Special orders, 
t; 10-1 5 per cent. 
Special orders. 
Special orders. 
Special orders. 
Special orders. 
Special orders. 

J7-15 per cent. 
.Special orders. 
Special orders. 
Special orders. 
JIO per cent. 

Special orders. 
Special orders. 
Special orders. 

Special orders. 
Special orders. 

Special orders. 
Special orders. 

Special orders. 



Vol. 52, No. 2. 


Professor of Economics, Harvard University. 

Collateral trust bonds, so called, constitute by far the most 
important type of funded indebtedness, next to the ordinary 
simple mortgage. Approximately one-ninth of the total borrow- 
ings of the railways of the United States in 1908 assumed this 
form. This is the more notable, as this huge volume of more 
than a billion dollars, is in large measure the creation of the 
decade since 1900. It is indubitable that without this expedient, 
few if any of the great railway consolidations could have taken 
place. Certainly the holding company as a means of effecting 
combination could never have been employed. 

A collateral trust bond differs from the ordinary bond in 
that it is a mortgage secured, not by any real property or fran- 
chise, but by the deposit with a designated trustee of stocks or 
bonds of other companies. Its lien upon actual property there- 
fore is not immediate but indirect, through the medium of such 
other securities as are thus deposited as collateral. The col- 
lateral trust bond, moreover, depends for its interest upon such 
revenues as may accrue from these stock or bond holdings, 
together with such additional guarantee as the issuing company 
may find it expedient to give. A concrete illustration will make 
the practice clear. In 1902, 306,000 shares of the Louisville & 
Nashville out of a total of 600,000 shares, as a result of an 
untoward speculative raid, was turned over to a much smaller 
company, the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. This latter road, 
thus assuming control by ownership of a majority of the stock, 
paid for the purchase by an issue of $35,000,000 of its own col- 
lateral trust bonds, together with certain other considerations 
in cash and securities. These Atlantic Coast Line bonds bore 4 per 
cent, interest and constituted a mortgage upon the Louisville & 
Nashville shares. These shares were in fact deposited with a 
trustee for that purpose. It is evident that the Atlantic Coast 
Line independently could never have issued bonds to this large 
amount, it being nearly three times the entire capital stock 
($12,600,000) of the company. But the bonds, calling for an 
interest charge of $1,400,000 annually, were to be supported by 
the dividends of $1,530,000 upon the purchased stock. It was an- 
ticipated of course that the enhanced earning power of the con- 
joined companies would still further guarantee the success of the 
issue. At the outset this plan, including the additional consideration 
given, netted a heavy loss to the issuing company ; but in the 
course of a few years, increased dividends upon the deposited 
Stock brought about a large direct profit, aside from the oper- 
ating advantages. 

The first use of the collateral trust bond dates from the early 
history of the Union Pacific. In 1873 Congress, in order to pro- 
tect its heavy loans to the company, prohibited by law any 
further increase of the bonded indebtedness of the road subject 
to its lien. This greatly embarrassed all projects for expansion 
through construction of either branch lines or extensions. To 
finance these by means of small independent companies was out 
of the question. Small companies could not successfully sell 
bonds, nor would it be wise to lose control of them ; consequently 
the Union Pacific advanced funds for construction, taking the 
stocks and bonds of the new companies in payment. Its treasury 
was then reimbursed by the issuance of the 6 per cent, collateral 
trust bonds of 1879, secured by the deposit of these securities. 
Thus the needed extensions were built without violating the let- 
ter of the federal prohibition. 

The foregoing illustration indicates the earliest, and for a 
long time, the most important reason for the resort to collateral 
trust bonds. Indeed in a country divided into so many in- 
dependent states, it is difficult to see how much of our con- 
struction could have been efi'ected otherwise. Most charters 
issued by states authorize construction only within certain strictly 
defined territory. Subsequent extensions can be legally made 
only by means of new charters or amendment of the old one. 

The latter expedient may require modification of original liberal 
charter rights. It is safer to organize new and independent 
corporations. Moreover, of course, construction beyond state 
boundaries must of itself entail the formation of a separate com- 
pany with a charter of its own. None of these new and sub- 
sidiary companies can be successfully financed by themselves. It 
is more profitable that the necessary funds should be procured 
by the parent road. Its bonds or stocks will sell to far better 
advantage in distant markets. The undoubted advantages in this 
plan have led to its adoption by most of the large companies, 
notably the Union Pacific, Atchison, Burlington, and Rock 
Island roads in the West ; and the Louisville & Nashville and 
Illinois Central in the South. 

In recent years, particularly since the resumption of general 
prosperity in 1897, the collateral trust bond has been largely util- 
ized as a means for financing the consolidation of railways. To 
tlie holding company as a mode of combination, it is in fact in- 
dispensable. The New York Central & Hudson River after 1898 
acquired control of the Michigan Central and Lake Shore by the 
exchange of its own collateral trust bonds for the stocks of these 
roads deposited as collateral. Among many similar operations 
within the last decade, one of the most notable was the joint 
purchase of the Burlington road in 1901, by the Great Northern 
and Northern Pacific companies. In this case the bonds be- " 
came a joint obligation of both companies, being secured by the 
deposit of their Burlington stock as collateral. The variations 
of procedure are many. Control of another road may first be 
acquired by purchase for cash, with subsequent reimbursement 
through mortgaging the securities purchased. This was a com- 
mon mode prior to 1900; but was obviously open only to strong 
companies with ample cash resources. Another mode would be 
the direct exchange of the new collateral trust bonds for the 
desired stocks or bonds to be acquired. This method has been 
largely utilized in building up the Rock Island system. Or a 
third method may be adopted; namely, first to procure the neces- 
sary funds by sale of the collateral trust bonds, and then with 
the proceeds engage in the necessary business.* 

The collateral trust bond, as used in acquisition of securities 
of other companies, is precisely analogous to "margin" opera- 
tions by individuals upon the stock exchanges. Its advantages 
and dangers to individuals and corporations are precisely alike. 
There is no difference whatever in principle. Payment in full 
in cash for purchases of securities, ties up a large amount of 
capital indefinitely. Both principal and interest are lost, being 
offset only by the income derived from the stocks or bonds ac- 
quired. But if such operations can be based not upon cash but 
credit, an indefinite expansion of the scale of operations becomes 
possible. The property acquired, as Mitchell observes, pays its 
own purchase price. It is a great economizer of funds. Thus 
E. H. Harriman in 1896 obtained control of $10,000,000 par value 
of Illinois Central stock with an outlay of less than $1,500,000 
of Union Pacific cash. The stock paying 5 per cent, dividends 
was bought by an issue of bonds bearing only 4 per cent. In 
other words bonds could be sold on sufficiently good terms to pay 
even the necessary premiums on the stock, and entail little if 
any burden upon the parent company. 

As a means of railway consolidation, the collateral trust bond 
has certain well defined merits. The most notable is its elasticity. 
Whereas actual mergers and even long term leases are prac- 
tically indissoluble; a control by means of stock ownership, 
financed through an issue of collateral trust bonds, may be read- 
ily enough terminated by selling the stock and retiring the bonds 
with the proceeds. Thus, when in 1909, the Rock Island system 
found the St._ Louis & San Francisco road too heavy a financial 
burden, the connection was severed by simply retiring the col- 
lateral trust bonds through the sale of "Frisco" stock. This 
stock was the only tie between the two roads. Sometimes, how- 
ever, with additional complications in the nature of guaranteed 

•These plans are fully discussed by T. W. Mitchell in Quarterly Journal 

of Economics, May. 1906, pp. 445-467. 

January 12, 1912. 



dividends, leases, and preferred shares, as in the Union Pacific 
tangle about 1908, this remedy is extremely difficult to apply. 
The much discussed segregation of assets of the Union Pacific 
by means of a holding company was impossible at that time for 
these reasons. On the other hand the collateral trust bond may 
readily become a source of danger where it imposes a heavy bur- 
den of fixed charges upon a company. Most of the early issues of 
this sort down to 1901 were based upon the deposit of bonds of 
subsidiary companies. The New York Central-Lake Shore col- 
lateral trust bonds in 1898 and the Burlington joint 4's three 
years later started the fashion of issuing such securities not upon 
bonds as collateral, but upon deposited stocks. This change was 
undoubtedly due to a shift of the main purpose for which such 
bonds were put forth. Instead of being used for the extension 
of existing lines into new territory they were used for purposes 
of consolidation. Fixed charges were thus created for the parent 
roads, wliich were supported not by assured, but only by con- 
tingent, income — income contingent, that is to say, upon its being 
earned by the- companies whose stocks were deposited. 

The most serious danger lurking in the collateral trust bond, 
however, is its invitation to corporate speculation and over- 
extension of credit. The ease with which a strong company 
may engage in stock market operations on a large scale by such 
means is most clearly demonstrated by the experience of the 
Union Pacific road between 1901 and the death of Mr. Harriman 
in 1909.* The cost of its investment in Northern Pacific stock, 
subsequently converted into Northern Securities Company's stock 
was about $76,900,000. This had been financed by means of col- 
lateral trust bonds for the most part based upon operations of 
the Southern Pacific road, also within its control. The profit 
in hand and on paper when these operations were closed out 
amounted to about $82,900,000 or 113 per cent. These profits 
it will be noted, as described more in detail elsewhere, were 
promptly reinvested in stocks of other roads all over the coun- 
try. But the new purchases were made at the high prices pre- 
vailing before the panic of 1907 ; and, although largely increasing 
its revenue, could not have been closed out without losses quite 
commensurate with the previous gains. But in the latter case 
it may be urged that the stocks acquired were bona fide invest- 
ments, paid for in full from cash in hand. On the other hand, 
the large sums due the Union Pacific by the Oregon Short Line 
which was the cat's paw in these speculative plunges, as appeared 
in 1910, shows how burdensome was the diversion of funds from 
their legitimate uses for operating development into the channels 
of outside investment. 

The stock market operations of the trunk lines in their acqui- 
sition of the hard and soft coal lines in 1900-06 affords yet 
further illustration of the amazing development of credit which 
is possible with the use of collateral trust bonds. The follow- 
ing table shows the amount of these purchases and the paper 
profits at prices prevalent in August, 1905 : 


The Pennsylvania group: Purchased. "Profit. 

Baltimore & Ohio com $30,293,300 $13,500,000 

Baltimore & Ohio pfd 21,480,000 4,200,000 

Chesapeake & Ohio 16,000.000 6,400.000 

Central of N. J 14.500,000 8,400,000 

Norfolk & Western 32.000.000 16,500,000 

Reading com 13,952,000 6.000.000 

Reading 1st pfd 6,065,000 300.000 

Reading 2d pfd 14,265,000 3,800,000 

The Vanderbilt group: 

Lake Shore 50,000,000 50.000,000 

Reading com 13,952,000 6,000,000 

Reading 1st pfd 6,065,000 300,000 

Reading 3d pfd 14,265,000 3,800.000 

Big Four 11,224,000 4,400,000 

I.ehigh Valley 3,200,000 2,500,000 

Michigan Central 20,000.000 10,000.000 

Chesapeake & Ohio 16,000,000 6,400,000 


Ontario & Western 30,000.000 3,000.000 

Soo Line, com 7,066,000 9,500,000 

Soo Line pfd 3,533,000 5,000,000 


•Succinctly set forth in Quarterly Journal of Economics, August, 1907, 
pp. 569-612. 

These of course are paper profits entirely. Any attempt to 
liquidate their holdings on any large scale would of course have 
led to rapidly crumbling quotations. Yet when in 1906 some of 
these holdings were sold out, the actual profits were large. The 
Lake Shore was credited with having made an average profit ol 
$30 on about 100,000 shares of Reading stock. On the Chesa- 
peake & Ohio the Pennsylvania Railroad cleared possibly 
$4,500,000. Its Baltimore & Ohio investment, sold to the Union 
Pacific in 1906, undoubtedly yielded large gains. These profits 
undoubtedly went into the great projects for improvement about 
New York. But suppose that instead of profit, there had been 
heavy losses, as in fact there were on paper in the case of many 
purchases made prior to the break of 1907. When the Reading 
was practically taken out of the market in 1903, its common 
stock sold for nearly $70 per sliare (par value $50). Within a 
year the price fell to $37. Similarly the Union Pacific re- 
investments in 1906 of proceeds of its Northern Pacific operations 
within the next two years registered a loss on paper of many 
million dollars. Nor can there be question that, as in the case of 
the New York Central, many of these companies would have 
been better off, had they devoted these huge sums, tied up in stock 
market operations, to the prosecution of their legitimate functiom 
of transportation. The New York Central certainly, had it 
had the undivided support of the Lake Shore would not have 
been compelled to pile up still higher the burden of its capital- 
' ization in order to complete its terminal improvements at New 
York. Not all of these operations were financed by the use of 
collateral trust bonds. But even if not, capital had to be raised 
somehow to pay for these purchases. And hardly ever, when 
the securities liave been resold, have the proceeds been used to 
reduce the capitalization to its former level. The entire de- 
velopment of these years represents a most dangerous tendency. 
And for its first suggestion as to ways and means, the collateral 
trust bond must be held largely accountable. Merely because the 
outcome of these purchases, by means of borrowed money, 
chanced to have a favorable issue, due to a rapidly rising level 
of prices, does not in the least detract from the force of the 

Certain other uses of the collateral trust bond may be men- 
tioned. It is commonly employed for the funding of trouble- 
some floating debts. These are usually, however, issued for a 
short term and are rather of the nature of notes based upon 
specific collateral. Of far greater general importance is their 
use in making effective appeal to certain classes of investors. 
Many conservative people who would never dream of purchasing 
railway stocks, will trustingly invest in a collateral trust bond 
whose sole security is the deposit of such stocks. This matter 
came prominently to the fore in connection with the New York 
Life Insurance Investigation of 1905. As a result of this ex- 
amination, the insurance companies were prohibited from in- 
vesting in stocks of railway or other corporations. The laws 
of foreign countries also restrict the investments of insurance 
companies in much the same way. Yet the reserves of these 
companies may, and undoubtedly do contain, large amounts of 
collateral trust bonds, based upon stocks as collateral. The 
mere substitution of a bond for a stock by this means evidently 
largely widens the market for railway securities. 

The Diario Official of September 29, 1911, gives the official 
contract that has been submitted for the consideration of the 
government of Salvador, covering the construction of a rail- 
way from San Salvador to the port of La Libertad, on the 
Pacific coast. According to the plans this new railway will con- 
nect with the line which is already built and is now in operation 
as far as the city of Santa Tecla. The new line is to be of the 
same gage, 3 ft., as the existing line. The terms of the contract 
require that the work must be concluded within a period of two 
years of the acceptance of the plans by the government, and a 
subsidy of $11,000 per mile is granted. 



Vol. 52, No. 2. 


The Panama Limited train of the Illinois Central, running 
between Chicago and New Orleans, has a daylight trip through 
both the north and the southland. A steel observation car with 
a new feature called a sun parlor, specially designed for this 
service, has been recently added to it. The car was built by the 
Pullman Company, and has the semi-elliptical roof so generally 
used by the Harriman Lines. The rear platform, which is usually 
open on observation cars, is here enclosed, enabling the passengers 
to view tlie winter landscape of the north through the protecting 
glass, while, in the semi-tropical climate of the south, the large 

74 ft. long and weighs 133,100 lbs. without storage batteries; the 
latter increase the weight about 3,000 lbs., making the total weight 
in working order, 136,100 lbs. 

The lighting is by axle light and storage battery; for emergency 
purposes the cars are fitted with twelve of the Pullman Com- 
pany's candle lamps. The generator is of the Gould new type 
B, belted, 40 volts, 3 k. w. The main lamp regulator is situated 
underneath, while the generator regulator and lamp multiplier 
are located in the switchboard locker. The battery boxes are of 
O. H. steel, Pullman Company's standard design, containing 24 
cells. The Edison batteries are divided in two portions, and 
are placed on opposite sides of the car to equalize the weight on 
the springs. 

Looking Toward the Rear End of the Observation Car. 

Smoking Room of Observation Car. 

sash may be dropped in the side walls of the car, giving the full 
effect of an open platform. The window sill is hinged so as to 
cover up the opening ; the vertical and horizontal sections of this 
drop sash and its guides and cover are here illustrated. 

There is the usual large parlor with 25 chairs and a wide seat 
at the end with grill work above. Bej'ond this is a double writing 
table and bookcase. In the front end of the car is the smoking 
room with 20 seats, a toilet and a small -buffet. The smoking 
room is enclosed and has a side door from the aisle. The car is 

The heating is by the vapor system, with the smoking room and 
sun parlor independent. Each of these two rooms may be cut 
out from the heating system as desired. The train line consists 
of 2 in. pipes well covered with magnesia ; all inside heating 
pipes are concealed by brass grills. The ventilation is obtained by 
ten Garland type C registers. The interior of the sun parlor 
and body of the car are finished in Cuban mahogany with Eng- 
lish oak in the smoking room and quarter sawed oak in the 
buffet. The cars are fitted with 40 mahogany side frame chairs 

\<r-4'//--^2'6^ -7b- 'f e'j'—^^^—'f's'-^i^-'fil-^ — sk- h — 4'S 

Re fngtrafor 



,||., — -70 ^ 

1 1 .Drop )Vihdows^ \ 



A ^moking Room. ^SeafinffCapacihj ?0 /^7>i I n 

Observation Room. 

© © 

Seafing Capadfy 25- 







Plan of the Observation Car Used on the Panama Limited Train of the Illinois Central. 

January 12, 1912. 



upholstered in tapestry and Spanish leather. The shades are 
silk, faced with pantasote, while in the sun parlor they are of 

Verfical SecHon. 

Details of Drop Sash in Observation Car. 

monk's cloth. Among the special features provided on these cars 
is a telephone, U. S. mail box, and electric flat iron and ironing 



The completion of the Northern Pacific and the decline of the 
steamboat trade on the upper Missouri decided the last great 
campaign in the contest between the American railway and the 
American river steamer as means of transportation. What 
has come to pass since that day has been but the realization of a 
foregone conclusion. The trade on the lower Mississippi yielded 
to the inevitable much earlier; its "peak" was touched just at the 
end of the 'SO's ; it never recovered the disorganization of the 
Civil War. The decade ending with 1880 saw a heavy traiific on 
the upper Mississippi ; the lumber trade was brisk, and the rush 
to the Red river wheat country caused the upstream boats to 
draw deep. The Missouri, with its 2,084 miles of navigable 
channel leading to the very gates of the Rocky mountains, was 
the last stronghold of river transportation. 

Though more than a score of years have passed since the issue 
was definitely decided, with momentous consequences in the 
realms of social development, economic progress, finance and 
even government, no adequate explanation of the victory of the 
railway over the river carrier has yet appeared. The course of 
events has been deemed too simple to require extended explana- 
tion. Champions of inland waterway navigation and writers on 
railway development, in polar antagonism on many points, have 
tacitly agreed that the reason for the decline of river traffic lay 
on the surface of the event. 

When they have proceeded to state that reason, however, they 
have been far from saying the same thing. There are two 
standardized explanations of the passing of the steamboat trade, 
and each is made, with scarce the change of a phrase, many 
times a year. 

The steamboat man and the waterway enthusiast — who, by the 
way, are not necessarily the same person — assert that it was the 
total depravity of railway managers which killed the steamboat 
trade. This is alleged as a sole and sufficient explanation. 

Steamboat traffic is of necessity litnitcd to certain routes. Rail- 
ways, we are told, were for years content to do business at a 
loss on those routes, and recoup themselves by overcharging in 
districts where there was no waterway competition, in order to 
strangle the steamboat trade. They gave rebates, issued passes, 
cut rates, bought up water terminals. They purchased boats, 
and either laid them up to rot, or made rates so high that no 
business fell to them. Their work was insidious. When the 
steamboat owners finally awoke to their danger, the railways 
were everywhere ; their capitalization had reached a figure 
which made them preponderant in the world of finance ; ship- 
pers were unable to take the large view, and saw only the free 
passes and immediate rate concessions held out to them, blind 
to the coming time when the railway should, like Poe's Red 
Death on the morning after the feast, "hold illimitable do- 
minion over all." This is the steamboat view. 

The railway men, on the other hand, declares that the passing 
of the steamboat was but the inevitable progress of an outworn 
instrument of transportation to the evolutional scrap heap. 
The steamboat season was limited; the railway runs twelve 
months every year. The steamboat schedule is broken by high 
water, low water, floating ice, storm ; the railway is well-nigh as 
independent of weather as of season. An upstream freight car- 
rier nets five miles an hour ; a slow freight train nets 15. 
Steamboats are confined to certain routes, nearly always cir- 
cuitous ; railways may follow air lines in level country, and 
surmount mountain ranges in that which is rough. Steamboats 
are restricted to waterside terminals in delivering freight; rail- 
way terminals may be as wide as the confines of the com- 
munity served. 

Each of these explanations wins its victory too easily ; both 
are characterized by what John J. Ingalls called "the fatal gift 
of facility." Waterway explainer and railway explainer have 
shirked the laborious task of finding out why the steamboat 
passed away before the railway advance ; each has told how the 
change ought to have occurred. 

Now, history manufactured by "the rule of reason" is the least 
trustworthy commodity known to the commerce of ideas. Ac- 
tual situations are always more complex than our thoughts about 
them. Leaving altogether at one side the question why the 
steamboat ought to have yielded to the railway, why, in fact, 
did it yield? 

The moment we begin to scrutinize the two standardized ex- 
planations, we are afflicted with certain doubts. The steam- 
boat man's explanation may apply to the final phases of the 
struggle, but it seems wholly insufficient to account for the rail- 
way's initial victories. When the railway first appeared upon 
the scene, it was the interloper, the untried ad unproven instru- 
mentality, while the steamboat held the field. Throughout the 
river valleys of the West, the steamboat interests controlled 
transportation, and were inextricably interlocked with banking 
and manufacturing interests. As for total depravity, manifest- 
ing itself in rate-cutting and kindred practices, by what Machia- 
vellian stroke did the infant railways possess themselves of all 
the effective resources of human rascality, and leave the steam- 
boat owners to go to hopeless ruin with clean hands and pure 
hearts? No explanation of this miracle has ever been tendered, 
nor am I aware of anything in tlic history of morals which 
might help one to understand it. 

When we turn to the railway explanation we feel the same 
dissatisfaction. It is true that the river carrier docs not oper- 
ate throughout the whole year; but the same disability has 
not prevented the lake carrier from building up a traffic which 
is one of the wonders of modern transportation. The railway 
may, within certain broad limits, go where it pleases and de- 
liver goods where they are desired ; but the infant railway 
competed for business in a world organized for steamboat 
traffic, with waterside warehouses and factories. Steamboats 
are much slower than fast freight trains ; but in the years of 
the railway's initial victories over the steamboat our modern 



Vol. 52, No. 2. 

high-pressure system of distribution had not been organized, 
and was not even dreamed of. Shoes were made by hand ; 
packinghouse products were unknown outside of a few large 
centers ; harness, wagons, buggies were made in small shops in 
■every village; bananas and oranges were unfamiliar delicacies 
to the average American. We cannot account for the early 
triumphs of the railway by invoking its supply of needs which 
had not then been created. 

When we consider the main contention of the railway view 
— that the steamboat was brushed aside before a more econom- 
ical means of transportation — we are confronted by the incon- 
testable fact that it has not been brushed aside. Small as is the 
volume of steamboat traffic, it still continues, and not simply 
with districts not readily accessible by rail, like the projecting 
tongue of land between the Mississippi and Illinois. The steam- 
boat survives in highly competitive territory. St. Louis and 
Alton are connected by railways and by a fast interurban trol- 
ley line ; yet packet boats, carrying both freight and passengers, 
carry on a trade which flourishes in the teeth of this double 
competition. The Lee line runs steamers between Memphis and 
St. Louis, Memphis and Vicksburg, and Memphis and Cincin- 
nati, in competition with great railway systems operating 
through a country whose climate and topography are especially 
favorable for economical railway operation. The single instance 
■of this company, with its record of continuous operation for 
niort than a generation between chief commercial centers of the 
central west, is proof conclusive that the explanation of the 
passing of the steamboat must be sought in something more 
convincing than an easy generalization about "an outworn in- 
strument of transportation." 

The full explanation is not all to be found in any one place. 
The portions of it which I have gathered have been encoun- 
tered in many places : in conversations with old merchants in 
little waterside towns, and with old pilots on hills overlooking 
long reaches of empty river ; in stray remarks dropped in 
pilot-houses, as a laden packet went swinging down the long 
curve under the high bank of a great bend on a summer night ; 
from dusty files or newspapers of the 'SO's ; out of observation 
•of the actual operation of steamboats on many waters at the 
present day. The main factors of the decline of the steamboat 
trade in the face of the railway advance were : 

Instability of rates. 

Uncertainty and irregularity of service other than those occa- 
sioned by the shortness and variable length of the river season 
and the ordinary hazards of navigation. 

The short life of the individual steamboat. 

The nuisance of marine insurance. 

The lack of effective line organization. 

The habit of extravagance engendered by an era in which the 
westward advance of population was out of all proportion to 
the capacity of existing means of transportation. 

The first two points — instability of rates and irregularity of 
service other than that inseparable from the conditions of 
steamboat operation — are so intimately related that they may 
most conveniently be considered together. 

In the golden days of steamboating there was not a stable 
Tate in all the vast region lying between Fort Benton. Mont., 
and Pittsburgh, Pa. Each steamboat was an independent traffic 
unit ; the captain was his own freight and passenger association, 
classification committee, and general passenger and freight 
agent. In New Orleans in the greatest year river trade ever 
saw — the season ending August 31, 1860 — the average cargo of 
the 4,030 steamboats tieing up at the levee was 540 tons; at St. 
Louis, 18 years before, the average cargo of the 2,412 arrivals 
was 193 tons. It is not too much to say that there were as 
many "adjustments" of rates as there were arrivals, for while 
occasionally two or three boats might load side by side at iden- 
tical rates, more often the captain of a steamboat that was 
loading found it either necessary to "shade" his figures to com- 
plete a cargo, or possibly to raise them as the available stowage 

space grew smaller, in view of an empty river and a full wharf. 

A single instance will mirror the situation. Missouri City, 
on the north bank of the Missouri river, 28 miles below Kansas 
City, was once an important shipping point for a wide hinter- 
land. "When boats were plenty at the season of high water," 
said an old shipping merchant, "the St. Louis rate would go 
down to 25 cents; when the low water season came on and 
boats were scarce, it sometimes reached $2.50. Passenger rates 
varied from $10 to $25 for the same reason." 

An incident of those days rounds out the picture. "I re- 
member," said the Old Timer, "once Jim Lane sold some to- 
bacco to the government. The water was low, and Jim was 
mighty anxious to get it started towards Fort Leavenworth. 
Well, the Annie Jacobs, Captain Bill Massie, come along, loaded 
so's she was drawin' all the water they was in the river, but 
pretty well down by the head, so if she got her nose over a 
bar, the rest'd be pretty sure to follow. 'Take my tobacco?' says 
Jim. 'Not on yer life," says Bill Massie. Jim begged and begged, 
but 'twa'n't no use. Finally he says : 'Cap,' says he, 'if you'll 
jest put that tobacco aboard, and start her up river, I'll pay ye 
the full rate, and give ye the best suit o' clothes that a $100 
bill '11 buy in St. Louis,' so Bill he took the tobacco." It is 
needless to remind the reader either that the Elkins law slum- 
bered in the bosom of the unrevealed future at this time, or 
that that interesting statute has never been construed to apply 
to steamboats. 

Late in November, 1852, just at the end of the season, the 
Excelsior arrived in St. Paul from St. Louis with 300 tons of 
freight for which she had received "one dollar a hundred any 

Coupled with fluctuations in rates wliich mounted to 1,000 
per cent, of the minimum there was great irregularity of service, 
owing to the fact that the individual steamboat did not, for the 
most part, develop a trade and stick to it, but went where the 
returns were greatest. The western "steamboat country" ex- 
tended from St. Paul to the gulf, and from the heart of the 
Southern Appalachians and the headwaters of the Allegheny to 
the foothills of the Rockies in Montana. Times might be dull 
on the Tennessee and good on the Ouachita ; the Minnesota 
river trade might boom just at the time when crops had failed 
on the Osage and the Gasconade. What happened then? A 
steamboat which had made regular trips to certain landings for 
two or three seasons might enter another trade simply by hiring 
a new pilot, or instructing the old one, if his license covered 
the new territory, to turn the boat's head in that direction. The 
freight at the old landings would wait in vain ; it might rot, 
or find some other conveyance. Nothing bound the vagrant 
steamer to her old trade, as the sound of her deep breathing 
grew fainter in the distance, and the white water from her 
paddles blended indistinguishably with the turbid river. This 
tendency of the steamboat, without warning to the shipper, to 
deprive him of his accustomed means of transportation just at the 
season of his greatest need — the time of crop failure, or of slow 
transit, because of low water — was one of the prime uncertainties 
of business "when the steamboat was king." Trade can adjust 
itself to a limited shipping season; the hazards of high and 
low water follow, usually, a certai.n cycle, and may be in a gen- 
eral way foreseen. But the steamboat that departed for more 
crowded landings just at the time when an established trade 
most needed regular service introduced into business a hazard 
of the first order. 

What was the effect of these fluctuations in rates and uncertain- 
ties of service on the competition of rail transit with the river 

While there are, of course, factors making for variability m 
rail rates, they are few and feeble compared with those which 
influenced river rates in the olden days. The river is an open 
highway'; any man who could command $20,000 could build and 
pay for a small sternwheel boat and become a factor in rate 
making; the railway is an artificial traffic way and requires a 

January 12, 1912. 



heavy initial investment before equipment is purchased and oper- 
ations begin. The costs of river transportation as carried on in 
the 'SO's were only interest on cost of equipment, depreciation of 
equipment, wharfage charges, fuel and boat supplies, and wages 
of crew. To run a railway requires a large and permanent organ- 
ization — engineers, section men, bridge men, station agents, des- 
patchers and signal men, yard and roundhouse crews, a traffic 
staflf, etc.— in addition to the crews operating the trains. All 
this fixed expense tended inevitably toward stability of rates. 
Then, too, the climatic factor, while afifecting the railways to 
some e.xtent, is negligible in rate making. Times of high water 
may cause an occasional washout on a railway, but that is all ; 
while the season of low water does not e.xist for railway opera- 
tion. A railway knows delay on account of storms, but it is 
but an incident of the day's work. In the steamboat trade, on the 
■other hand, low water greatly increases operating expense, while 
high water makes certain landings inaccessible, and opens up 
some areas of traffic which are closed at ordinary stages. AH 
these are real and vital factors in the making of rates. 

Still another thing must be taken into consideration: the size 
of. the unit of equipment. A railway train is elastic, and is an 
aggregation of traffic units containing, in the early days, about 
eight or ten tons each. The steamboat with which they competed 
had a fixed capacity averaging as much as two 20-car railway 
trains. Full or empty, the downstream expense was practically 
the same, and the upstream cost nearly so. After a boat had se- 
cured cargo enough to meet her fixed and operating expenses, all 
that came to her in addition, at any rate greater than the expense 
of setting it on and off, was so much clear gain. If the freight 
trains of that day had had a fixed length of 20 cars, railway rates 
would have had an additional element of instabihty. 

But in the matter of service, the great advantage of the railway 
over the steamboat was that the grade was not portable and the 
rails spiked down. The railway stayed when the steamboat went 
— not because the railway man was wiser than the steamboat 
man, not because he would not have been glad to move his road, 
when times were dull at home, to lead into the Red River Valley, 
or to the mines of Montana, but simply because it couldn't get 
away. Before long, the railway man began to see his oppor- 
tunity in the steamboat man's desertion of his territory. The 
railway intrenched itself as an instrument of transportation in the 
lean years, zsjhen the steamboat liad departed for other valleys, 
where the hills were green afar off. 

Now it is an axiom of the transportation business that any 
rate is better than an uncertain rate. When this is re-enforced 
by the further axiom that a certain means of transportation has 
an infinite advantage over an uncertain one, it will be understood 
why the shipper "signed up" with the station agent after the 
steamboat had left his goods, literally high and dry, in his hour 
of need, and paid a somewhat higher rate for a definite service. 
The shipper was willing to wait for the Prairie Belle when the 
river was low, and to lay in a stock in the fall to "run him 
through" till spring; but when the captain of the Belle left the 
Illinois river to go to the Yellowstone without sending him 
word, and he let the Evening Star go by because he was saving 
his apples for the other boat, thus losing a dollar a barrel in the 
St. Louis market, he vowed vengeance, and went in quest of the 
railway station agent. 

The life of the wooden steamboat is short. The Western 
Boatman for 1848 presented an estimate of the total number of 
steamboat "fatalities" up to that time, with an analysis of 
causes. The conclusion was that the average age of boats "worn 
out or abandoned" was five years, and that of those "sunk, burnt 
or otherwise lost" was "four years, or nearly four." In the 10 
years between 1840 and 18S0 there were 270 boats lost in 
western waters. Forty boats lost their lives by snags in 1840, 
according to Gould's "History of River Navigation," and 29 in 
the year following. George B. Merrick, the historian of steam- 
boating on the upper Mississippi, has compiled records, as far 
as possible, of every boat which ever ran regularly above the 

Upper (Rock Island) Rapids. Their average life was five years. 
The most prosperous year on the Lower River, 1860, saw 290 
boats destroyed or damaged ; 120 of these were totally destroyed. 

It is interesting to compare these figures with the number of 
steamboat arrivals at New Orleans, the great entrepot of the 
valley. These totaled 4,030. The casualty list, of course, includes 
all Western waters, but it is suggestive that if the boats reaching 
New Orleans averaged but ten trips each in the season — which 
is 12 months long on the Lower River — the fleet numbered but 
403; and that the number of casualties in the Valley resulting in 
total loss was about one-third as great as the whole New Orleans 

The average life of the boats worn out in service seems very 
short. 'VVe shall return to that point later. It should be re- 
membered here that average means average. There were boats 
which remained in service for 20 years, like the Itasca, built in 
1857, and burnd at La Crosse in 1878; but there were others, 
which never completed the first trip. 

Now, the short life of the steamboat had a very definite in- 
fluence in its contest with the railway, entirely apart from the 
question of hazard. A railway is, physically, a resistant thing, 
and a dull season perhaps has as great a tendency to lengthen 
the life of rails and equipment as to shorten it. But the causes 
which operated to produce a dull year in the steamboat trade — 
crop failure and consequent paralysis of business — brought about 
also a stage of water that greatly increased the hazards of 
operating wooden boats. Then, too, it must be remembered that 
the prosperous boat owner who became a trifle lazy and stopped 
building boats, though he might continue to operate all he had, 
would, in the course of a very few years, go out of the business 
automatically. A railway, short of bankrupt sale, remains, for 
better or for worse, in the hands of its owners ; a fleet of wooden 
steamboats, no matter how well operated, if not re-enforced by 
frequent additions, literally disappears from sight in the course 
of a few years and "leaves not a wrack behind." 

The nuisance of marine insurance was a factor in the decline 
of the steamboat trade which may be summarily disposed of. 
For some inscrutable reason, steamboat men have never learned 
to deal with the insurance brokers themselves, and issue an 
insured bill of lading. After the shipper has obtained a satis- 
factory rate, he must visit the broker himself, and get his in- 
surance. Nor is the insurance full ; it covers only damage in 
transit ; goods at the landing are at the shippers risk. Even 
though freight rate and insurance rate added together leave a 
comfortable margin below the rail rate, there are the human 
factors of worry and trouble, and the commercial factor of time 
lost over negotiations. 

Before we begin to consider the effect on the steamboat trade 
of absence of adequate line organization, I wish to revert to the 
important fact that the victory over the steamboat was won, 
not by the railway of the present day, but by the railway as it was 
in the Mississippi valley between 1860 and 1880. When the steam- 
boat man of the present day talks of the change that has come 
over his calling, he accounts for it by experiences of the past 
25 years, the darkening twilight period since the setting of the 
steamboat sun. When the railway man of the present day pauses 
to account for railway supremacy, he unconsciously thinks in 
terms of the modern railway. Now, let us recognize, once for 
all, that the railway that won a victory over the steamboat knew 
nothing of continuous brakes on freight trains ; that its freight 
cars carried from 16,000 to 28,000 lbs. each, instead of from 60,000 
to 110,000; that 38 tons was, in the Mississippi valley, a heavy 
locomotive; that rails were largely of iron, perhaps 40 lbs. in 
weight on the average; that block signals, gravity terminals, 
automatic couplers, steel underframing and draft rig were as 
far from the vision of the railway man as were concrete bridges 
and culverts, 100-lb. rails, Yz per cent, grades through rough 
country, compound engines and superheated steam. The steam- 
boat of fifty years ago was every bit as good as the steamboat 
of the present day; the record time between New Orleans and 
St. Louis was probably made by the /. M. White in 1844 (the 



Vol. 52, No. 2. 

Robert E. Lee, in 1870, finished in less time than the White; but 
the river had materially shortened itself by cut-offs in the 
interval). The railway has gone on; the steamboat has stood 

Is is very easy to draw the wrong inference from this fact. 
The hasty generalizer will jump to the conclusion that if the 
steamboat retired before railways so imperfect it is evidence of 
its utter worthlessness in the modern transportation world. Let 
me once more remind him of the boats now in operation in highly 
competitive territory, and advance, tentatively, the view that the 
conclusion to be drawn is rather that factors other than the 
straight economic test of two rival instruments of transportation 
are to be invoked in the explanation. 

This is especially to be remembered when we take up the 
absence of adequate line organization, and its effect on the steam- 
boat's fate. 

The great magnitude of American commercial corporations, 
that most significant fact of our modern commercial life, with its 
marked effects on social organization and even on national 
character, is the direct result of necessities laid upon American 
railway managers by the continental sweep of American territory. 
The first big American corporation was the railway corporation 
and it became big because of the breadth of its necessary field 
of operation. In England, there is no town or village situated 
more than 90 miles from a seaport. In France, the greatest dis- 
tance from the seaboard is little more than twice as much. In 
the United States, the goods which, at Buffalo, reach the eastern 
limit of lake navigation after a joruney of 1,000 miles are still 
400 miles from the seaboard. In 1843, the traveler could go by 
rail from Buffalo to Albany, but he was carried on the rails of 
16 different companies. The business was largely through busi- 
ness. It traversed a territory under one government, with one 
language, one law and one tradition. That these 16 companies, 
each but a link in one haul, should coalesce and become one 
was inevitable. It was but response to the compulsiofi of in- 
exorable physical necessity. 

All over the United States the same process was going on. 
The world had never seen such corporations. Mankind had 
never extended so far the bounds of a single commercial man- 
agement. But the continent was inexorable. It was the con- 
tinent that compelled the American railway manager to stretch 
his conceptions to its imperial extent, to think in terms of its 
vastness, to run one railway from the sea to the Lakes, and 
from the central river to the western sea. The early railway 
managers made mistakes. They tried to apply to corporations 
gigantic beyond precedent means of control inadequate to such 
vast creations. Some of them were devoured by their own 
Frankensteins. But the length of the railway was dictated by 
necessity. The road had to run to the land's end. 

The steamboat man saw this, and tried to meet combination 
with combination. He failed. The reason is clear. He was not 
coerced by necessity. Between St. Louis and New Orleans one 
captain and crew, with a $40,000 boat, was as complete an in- 
strument of transportation as, the Illinois Central Railroad — of 
far less capacity, but equally sufficient unto itself. 

The human factor is tremendously important here. The steam- 
boat, in 1860, had been the chief means of transportation in the 
West for 40 years. It was then as old as the railway was in 1894, 
forty years after the first line touched the Mississippi. The best 
human material had gone into the business. Now, the steam- 
boat man was an individualist, pure and simple. The captain 
made his own schedule, selected his own route, accepted or re- 
jected freight consignments as his judgment dictated. He often 
owned his own boat ; how often one must pore over old steam- 
boat lists to realize. If he worked for other owners, they trusted 
him in everything, so long as the returns of the trade were satis- 
factory. He penetrated new countries. He braved hostile 
Indians. At each end of the season, in the North, his boat played 
a game with death as he dared the ice, for there were rich 
rewards for the last boat into St. Paul, and the first to leave St. 
Louis or Dunleigh (East Dubuque) in the spring. 

One thing this admirable and capable individual did not under- 
stand—how to work in harness. This is the first lesson the rail- 
way teaches, for obvious reasons. It is, in the end, the great 
lesson of civilization's riper stages. The steamboat captain lived 
and died a pioneer. And when the transportation business 
reached the stage where organization on a large scale was a 
determining factor, the railway found itself with a personnel 
trained to pull together and move at the word of command, 
while the steamboat trade was manned by a splendid set of in- 
dividual chieftains, undisciplinable, unorganizable, each ready to 
go down to the bottom of the river, if necessary, with his own 
particular pennant nailed to his own particular jackstaff. 

The Rock Island tapped the Mississippi in 1854. Within two 
years thereafter railway reached the river crossings at Galena, 
Alton, Burlington, Quincy and Cairo, and the railway became a 
factor in the steamboat world. The first joint-stock company for 
the operation of steamboats in western waters was the "Cincinnati 
and Louisville Mail Line," organized in 1818. The first regularly 
organized company in the Upper Mississippi was formed in 1842. 
It was not until just after the Civil War that this form of or- 
ganization was tried out on the Missouri. Many of the so-called 
"lines" were simply operating pools. Each captain owned his 
own boat, and could retire with his share of the profits or losses 
at any time. The instability of such an organization at just those 
times when organization was most vital to the life of the trade 
needs no comment. 

A few brief biographies of lines, real and so-called, will reveal 
the actual course of events better than general statements. In 
1858, the "Railroad Line," having traffic arrangements with the 
Illinois Central at Cairo, and the Ohio and Mississippi at St. 
Louis, was formed by the owners of 10 of the finest steamers in 
western waters to run between St. Louis and New Orleans. 
"While this was not a joint stock company, the boats were run 
in joint interest, and with a regularity heretofore unknown in this 
trade and at uniform prices for the business they did." The 
traffic man will read much between the lines of this naive com- 
ment of Captain Gould, vessel master and historian of steam- 
boating. Soon the new line, which included the Pennsylvania 
and the Alex. Scott, was high in favor with shippers and 
passengers. "A position in the 'Railroad Line,' or a 'day in the 
line,' as it was called, was coveted by all who had a boat suitable 
for the trade, and commanded a large premium when offered for 
sale, and as high as $1,500 was paid in some instances." This line 
was broken up by the Civil War. 

Just after the war, in the prostration following the destruction 
of southern trade and the disuse of army transports, a large joint 
stock company, the "Atlantic and Mississippi Steamship Com- 
pany," was formed by steamboat owners, who took stock accord- 
ing to the appraised value of the boats they put into the line. 
The capital was $2,000,000. The line had through billing arrange- 
ments with railways and ocean-going lines. This venture was 
killed by the individualism of the steamboat man, both without 
the line and within it. The owners who were left out of the new 
organization combined at once and disorganized the rate situa- 
tion by competition. The effects of this spirit within the line 
are eloquently summed up by Captain Gould. "Many of the 
steamboats were in commission, manned by crews with little 
[pecuniary] interest beyond their salaries, each crew striving to 
excel the other in the excellence and luxury of their tables and 
the speed of their boats, with no one to control or check their 

A lurid light is cast upon the central organization of a corpora- 
tion the aggregate of whose property was "fabulous" to the 
chronicler. "The widespreading limits of the company's business 
rendered it impossible for the executive officers (only two of 
which were receiving salaries) to do more than give general 
supervision, leaving the detail and the result to the judgment 
and the caprice of those in charge of the boats." Discipline in 
the general sense there was none, and discipline on the individual 
boat appears to have gone by the board, for a series of disasters 
swept away half the fleet in six months. The line lasted less than 

Janl-arv U, 1912. 



two years. We read that "the directors were liberal, high-toned 
business men, and stood manfully by the company throughout all 
its embarrassments." 

It is worth while to remark again that these were the best 
boats, officered by the best boatmen in the valley. This single 
history is conclusive as to the fitness of the pioneer steamboatman 
to "work in harness." 

All other forces making for the decline of the steamboat trade 
were intensified in destructive quality by the general social situa- 
tion in the 40 years intervening between 1850 and 1890. This was 
a time when a tremendous population movement overflowed 
utterly inadequate channels of transportation. All the steam- 
boatman's other disabilities might have been overcome had he 
been in any true sense a sane business man. He was the spoiled 
darling of fortune. The whole course of social development was 
such as to beget in him habits of extravagance, and to make him 
trust that the morrow would care for the things of itself. The 
steamboat, during the years between the building of the first 
railroad to the Mississippi and the completion of the Northern 
Pacific, which killed the trade between St. Louis and the Upper 
Missouri, was not, like the railways of the present day. the 
medium of the interchanges of a settled population. It was the 
vehicle of the advance of an eager population into a virgin land. 
The '40's and 'SO's saw the rush to Wisconsin and Minnesota ; the 
period following tlie war witnessed the conquest of the Red river 
wheat country by immigrants by the Missouri, and the Red river 
of the north. Then came the discovery of El Dorados on the 
headwaters of the Missouri, beyond the end of its 2,084-mile 
steamboat journey from St. Louis. 

"Many a time during the Minnesota rush," said an old pilot to 
me, "the captain has watched the people coming on the boat at 
Dunleith or Rock Island until she had all she'd sleep on the 
cabin floor and the boiler deck, besides two in every bunk and 
steerage passengers all over the freight on the main deck. When 
he guessed she had all she'd take, he and I would take the 
sounding pole and walk down the landing-stage, crowding back 
the people who were pouring on in a steady stream. Then we'd 
cast off and straighten up. with the levee as crowded, to the eye, 
as when we come in." 

It was the demand for transportation thus created — and the 
incident given above could be paralleled many times in every 
"trade" of that day — that was at the root of all the steamboat's 
disabilities. It was responsible for the fantastic variations in 
rates ; it was responsible for the desertion of established routes 
by captains, lured by the great rewards of pioneering. The short 
life of the steamboat would have lengthened, as improvements 
strengthened its weak places, substituted steel for wood, and 
differentiated passenger and freight carriers, just as has hap- 
pened in Europe; but what was the use? When a good boat 
would pay for herself in one season and could reasonably be 
expected to last five, why worry over steel hulls and cargo-box 
barges? Suppose the shipper did find himself incommoded by 
the necessity of bargaining with the insurance broker; who cared, 
wben there was more freight as it was than the boat could load? 
Suppose the line went to pieces ; the captain of the Nancy 
Belle held a license covering the Missouri, and passengers were 
plenty at St. Louis with $300 each to pay for transportation to 
Fort Benton. Pilots were paid regularly $500 a month ; crack 
men received much more. One pilot, paid by the trip, who had 
an especially good knowledge of the eccentricities of the Missouri, 
made $120 a day between Kansas City and Omaha. Captain "Bill" 
Massie "cleaned up" more than $30,000 in a single season on the 
Missouri at the wheel. 

When the west and north became populated this transporta- 
tion fever went down. It left the steamboatman with an empty 
pocketbook — for his prodigality had equaled his earning power — 
expensive tastes and invincible prejudices in favor of the busi- 
ness methods of a boom period. 

The foregoing were, in my opinion, the chief causes of the 
decline of the river trade in the west. The causes usually alleged 

by critics of the railways certainly operated and go far to explain 
how the rail lines, grown strong and conscious of their strength, 
took away the remnant of the kingdom of the steamboat. But 
this is not the real problem ; that is set for us by the earlier 
years, when the railway was crude and its service imperfect, 
when accidents were many and schedules represented only the 
substance of things hoped for, while the steamboat was the ac- 
cepted means of transportation in a traffic world organized by 
and for water carriage. The victory of the railway was not a 
matter either of swiftness of transit or ton-mile costs. The ques- 
tion of the relative economy of the two instruments of trans- 
portation in the Mississippi Valley has yet to be tried out in a 
practical way. 


The Mikado type locomotive has become quite popular during 
the past year, the total number ordered being about 22 per cent, 
of all the locomotive orders placed. The American Locomotive 
Company, New York, has recently completed SO locomotives of 
tliis type for the Missouri Pacific. These engines weigli 275,000 
lbs. in working order, and are equipped with the Locomotive 
Superheater Company's type A superheater. The tractive effort 
is rated at 50,000 lbs., which with a weight of 209,000 lbs. on 
drivers, gives a factor of adhesion of 5.5. 

The engines were built to replace the 103-ton consolidations, 
wliich have a tractive effort of 39,200 lbs., and are expected to 
liaul about 28 per cent, more tonnage. They will be operated on 
the divisions between St. Louis, Mo., and Hoxie, Ark., and 
Kansas City, Kan., and Pueblo, Col. From St. Louis to Hoxie 
there are some heavy grades, especially between Des Arc, Mo., 
and Piedmont, where Gads Hill has a 1.6 per cent, grade on one 
side and a 1.4 per cent, grade on the other. Between Annapolis 
and Arcadia there is another severe maximum grade of 1.9S per 
cent. From Kansas City to Pueblo there is a general up grade, 
but tlie maximums do not exceed 1.5 per cent. 

The boilers are of the conical connection type, the first ring 
being 74;4 i"- inside diameter with a 34-in. plate. The second 
course tapers to 85->4 in. outside diameter with a %-in. plate. 
The dome is placed in this ring and is 10 ft. back of the 
front tube sheet. It is built up of V/i-'m. collar with a 
^-in. shell, whose seam is welded, and a \yi-m. dome ring. 
The firebox has a combustion chamber 34 in. deep, which 
limits the length of the tubes to 16 ft. 6 in. The grate is 66 in. 
wide and lOSj/^ in. long, providing a grate area of 49.5 sq. ft. 
The total equivalent heating surface, which consists of the total 
heating surface plus V/z times the superheating surface, is 3,795 
sq. ft. The boiler pressure is 170 lbs. 

The cylinders are 27 in. x 30 in., and arc located on 90 in. 
centers, which brings them 23,'/2 in. outside of the centers of the 
frames. The piston valves are 4 in. outside of the center lines 
of the cylinders and are connected to the steam headers by a pipe 
running directly through the side of the smokebox, which 
eliminates the passage through the cylinder saddle, making a 
comparatively simple cylinder casting. The valves are operated 
by the Walschaert valve gear and have a travel of 6 in. with a 
steam lap of 1 in. The exhaust ports are set line and line, and 
the valves are set with a lead of 3/16 in. The cylinders are 
provided with extended piston rods, which are supported by 
sliding crosshead bearings on guides in the extension casings. 
The frames are 6 in. wide, and are of the usual design for tills 
type of locomotive. 

These engines are similar to the Mikado locomotives built for 
the Illinois Central by the Baldwin Locomotive Works, and de- 
scribed in the Railway Age Gazette, September 29, page 585, in 
that they have the same size cylinders and drivers, and both use 
the same type of superheater. Their tractive efforts, total 
weights, weight on drivers and boiler pressures are very nearly 
alike, but the boilers are radically different, which makes a 



Vol. 52, No. 2. 













January 12, 1912. 



marked difference in their ratios. The Illinois Central engines 
have boilers about 6 in. larger in nominal diameter than the Mis- 
souri Pacific, but do not have combustion chambers, which al- 
lows them to use tubes 4 ft. longer. Their total equivalent heat- 
ing surface is also larger by 54 per cent. The accompanying 
table gives a good comparison of these two engines : 

111. Cent. 

Tractive effort SI ,700 lbs. 

Total weight 283,850 lbs. 

Weight on drivers 218,000 lbs. 

Length of tubes 20 ft. 6 in. 

Boiler pressure 175 lbs. 

Boiler, nominal diameter 82 in. 

Firebox heating surface , 235 sq. ft. 

Total heating surface 4,068 sq. ft. 

Superheating surface 1,093 sq. ft. 

Total equivalent heating surface 5,708 sq. ft. 

Grate area 

Tractive effort X diameter of drivers -i- total 

equivalent heating surface 

Total equivalent heating surface — grate area. 
Weight of drivers -h total equivalent heating 


Total weight -H total equivalent heating surface 
Total equivalent heating surface -j- volume of 


70 sq. ft. 




Mo. Pac. 

50,000 lbs. 

275,000 lbs. 

209,000 lbs. 

16 ft. 6 in. 

170 lbs. 

75)^ in. 

254 sq. ft. 
2,868 sq. ft. 

558 sq. ft. 
3,705 sq. ft. 

49.5 sq. ft. 




It will be seen that the tractive effort multiplied by the diam- 
eter of drivers, divided by the total equivalent heating surface, 
or the boiler capacity factor, is considerably larger in the Mis- 
souri Pacific locomotives than for those of the Illinois Central 
which would indicate that the former locomotives must run at a 
lower speed in order to meet the demands of their cylinders. 
The smaller grate area in the case of the Missouri Pacific engines 
would seem to indicate either that they would use a considerably 
better grade of fuel than used on the Illinois Central, or that the 
rate of combustion would be much higher. 

The ratio of total weight to the total equivalent heating sur- 
face is about one-half again as much as that of the Illinois 
Central engines. Although the combustion chamber may tend 
to discount these differences, it is a question as to whether it 
will overbalance the whole difference. Following is a table of 
the principal ratios and dimensions of the Missouri Pacific loco- 
motives : 

General Data. 




Fuel Soft coal 

Tractive effort 50,000 lbs. 

Weight in working order 275,000 lbs. 

Weight on drivers 209,500 lbs. 

Weight of engine and tender in working order. . .431,100 lbs. 

Wheel base, driving 16 ft. 6 in. 

Wheel base, front truck 9 ft. 1 in. 

Wheel base, total 34 ft. 9 m. 

Wheel base, engine and tender 67 ft. 


Total weight -i- tractive effort 

Weight on drivers -i- tractive effort • 

Tractive effort X diam. drivers -h heating surface. ... L 
•Tractive effort X diam. drivers -=- equivalent heating 


Total heating surface -t- grate area 

•Total equivalent heating surface H- grate area 

Firebo,-c heating surface -=- total heating surface, per 

cent •■••:•■ 

•Firebox heating surface -=- total equivalent heating 

surface, per cent 

Weight on drivers -H total heating surface 

•Weight on drivers -i- total equivalent heating surface.. 






Total weight -H total heating surface 95.9 

•Total weight ~- total equivalent heating surface 74.1 

Volume of both cylinders, cu. ft 19,86 

Total heating surface -i- vol. cylinders 144.5 

•Total equivalent heating surface -j- vol. cylinders 186.8 

Grate area -~ vol. cylinders 2.S 


Kind Simple 

Diameter 27 in. 

Stroke 30 in. 


Kind Piston 

Travel 6 in. 

Steam lap 1 in. 

Lead 3/16 in. 

tV heels. 

Driving, diameter over tire 63 in. 

Driving, thickness of tire _. . . . 3^ in. 

Driving journals, main, diam 11 in. x 12 in. 

Driving journals, others, diam 10 in. x 12 in. 

Engine truck, diameter ...33^ in. 

Engine truck journals 6^ in. x 12 in. 

Trailing truck, diameter _ 42 in. 

Trailing truck journals 8 in. x 14 in. 


Style Conical connection 

Working pressure 170 lbs. 

Outside diameter of first ring ._ 75 J| in. 

Firebox, width and length 66 in. x 108^ in. 

Firebox plates, thickness ^ in. 

Firebox water space 4J^ in. 

Tubes, number and diameter 224 — 2 in.; 30 — -5^ in. 

Tubes, length 16 ft. 6 in. 

Heating surface, tubes 2,614 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, firebox 254 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, total 2,868 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, superheating 558 sq. ft. 

•Heating surface, total equivalent 3,705 sq. ft. 

Grate area 49.5 sq. ft. 

Center of boiler above rail 9 ft. 10 in. 

Top of smokestack above rail 15 ft. 5J4 in. 


Tank, style Hopper 

Frame Cast steel 

Wheels, diameter 33 in. 

Journals S'A in. x 10 in. 

Water capacity 8,000 gal. 

Coal capacity 14 tons 

•Total equivalent heating surface equals total heating surface (2,868 
sq. ft.) plus IJ^ times superheating surface. 


The Board of Public Utility Commissioners of New Jersey, 
Robert Williams, Thomas J. Hillery and W. M. Daniels, have 
issued their annual report — a comprehensive and business-like 
document. This is the first important report made, the report 
of a year ago having been made before the reorganized commis- 
sion had been in office long enough to begin important activities. 
The railway commission, which was succeeded by the present 
board, was established only five years ago. The present board 
has broad powers; it may fix just and reasonable rates; may sus- 
pend increases in rates; and, in general, has authority over rail- 
ways, telephones and lighting companies, like the New York com- 
missions. The three important problems now before the board 
are the rates for intrastate commutation passengers, the price 
of gas and the charges for the use of telephones. Season ticket 
passengers going to Hoboken and Jersey City have to buy tick- 

Mlk^do Superheater Locomotive for the Missouri Pacific. 



Vol. 52, No. 2. 

ets to New York (including ferryboat fare) and pay the New 
York rale. The question of requiring a reduction was before 
the commission for some months, and an order was finally issued 
requiring season tickets to be sold to Hoboken and Jersey 
City. The railways complied with this order, but named rates 
the same as those to New Y'ork, and the question of the authority 
of the commission is now before the supreme court of the state. 
The commission has forbidden numerous proposed increases in 
passenger rates. 

Cases of discrimination by street railways have been before 
tlie board, and a number of decisions have been rendered. The 
charges for gas and for electric service are briefly discussed. 
An elaborate investigation is now being made of telephone rates. 
The board has fixed a code of standards and regulations for the 
gas companies. The commission proposes to require the tele- 
phone companies to file their tariffs and also to conform to a 
system of uniform accounts, such as the Interstate Commerce 
Commission has prescribed for railways. Many telephone com- 
panies do such a small business, however, that they cannot 
reasonably be required to keep elaborate accounts. The street 
railway companies now keep their accounts in such a way as to 
conform to the system prescribed by the Interstate Commerce 
Commission, and they will henceforth be required to file reports. 
Much of the time of the chief inspector and of the counsel 
of the board has been taken up in the examination of franchises, 
the law now requiring that every franchise for a public utility 
shall be approved by the board. The board also is charged with 
the duty of approving issues of stock, bonds, etc., and the re- 
port calls attention to the fact that under a law passed in 1906 
bonds may be issued for 25 per cent, more than the value re- 
ceived; and it is suggested that this law ought to be repealed 
and the board given exclusive authority to settle all questions 
connected with the approval of issues of securities. 

The board has made no changes in the requirements as to 
railway accidents, but now requires reports of accidents from 
street railways. Accident reports have not been required from 
other public utilities, because the board has had to keep a great 
variety of records, taking up its time and facilities; but in- 
spectors of the board report anything dangerous that they may 
see. Officers of public utilities cheerfully co-operate with the 
board in abolishing dangerous conditions. The report mentions 
the investigation which the board made on the derailment at 
Martin's Creek, and says that the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission concurred in the report of the New Jersey board on that 

Systematic inspections of railways are made, tlie same as was 
done by the old commission; and also of street railways and 
other properties, so far as practicable. The Interstate Com- 
merce Conuiiission is to send to, the New Jersey commission 
duplicates of the reports which it receives concerning the in- 
spection of locomotive boilers. The board is required by a law 
of May, 1911, to formulate regulations for the safe transpor- 
tation of explosives, but thus far it has delayed action because 
changes are going on; in the meantime, the requirements of the 
Interstate Commerce Commission afford reasonable protection. 
Complying with an order of the legislature the board will soon 
make a report on the proposition for a full crew law. 

The board has given careful attention to the grade crossing 
problem. During the year it has secured protection, or has had 
the protection improved, at 49 grade crossings. It has refused 
to permit certain new highways to cross tracks, and m other 
cases has approved new grade crossings. The board discusses 
the problem of grade crossing elimination in a conservative tone, 
while yet expressing full appreciation of its gravity, as related to 
tlic. safety of the public. To indicate in some degree the great 
cool which would be involved in separating the grades at cross- 
ings in New Jersey, attention is called to the experience of Massa- 
chusetts, where in 20 years the sum of $34,372,048 has been ex- 
pended : 21 millions by railways, nearly 9 millions by the state, 
and about 4'^ millions by the cities and towns. The board sug- 

gests to the legislature that any law on this subject should pro- 
vide for an equitable division of the cost between the railways, 
the state and the municipalities. Continuing, the report says: 

•'So far as the elimination of a grade crossing lessens damage 
costs, and the cost of protecting the crossings, it redounds di- 
rectly to the financial benefit of the railway. So far as it permits 
greater speed and facility of operation it also helps railway 
earnings. But the carriers must make a capital outlay on this 
elimination work ; and so far as the annual charges on the outlay 
are not met l)y the economies and facilities provided by track 
elevation, the roads are bound to obtain the residue of the in- 
creased annual charge from rates and fares. If the public owned 
and operated the roads, track elevation would necessarily be a 
public charge in its entirety. While it is argued that private 
ownership and operation for gain transfers the responsibility from 
the public to the carrier, the interests of both are so closely re- 
lated that in the final analysis, no matter what provision is made 
for its immediate assumption, a part of the charge must be 
borne by the public. 

"If a law is passed which provides that grade crossings shall 
be eliminated without cost to the municipalities, it is not un- 
reasonable to assume that, no public burden being apparent, an 
agitation will start for the elimination of grade crossings where- 
ever they exist, for all grade crossings are objectionable and 
possess some element of danger. 

"But to remove all these crossings must be necessarily the 
work of years ; disappointment would ensue to those who had 
been led to look for immediate results, and doubt would arise 
as to the efficacy of the law, no matter how earnest and intelli- 
gent the efiforts made for its application. 

"If, on the other hand, the law provides that a part of the 
cost, which may be small, in proportion to that paid by the 
railway, shall be borne directly by the municipality, sharing the 
benefit, local movements for the abolition of grade crossings 
would be accompanied by a sense of direct financial responsibil- 
ity, which would tend to concentrate public attention on efiforts 
for the elimination of crossings where the danger and annoyance 
are greatest. 

"It would seem that this concentration of attention would lead 
to more practical results than could be reasonably looked for if 
the efforts for crossing elimination are based upon the general 
public impression that all grade crossings in the state are to be 
eliminated without cost to any municipality in which such cross- 
ings exist. Any law providing for a division of the cost of 
eliminating grade crossings should be so framed that the munici- 
palities would be protected against any extravagant or dispropor- 
tionate expenditure of public funds for this purpose." 

The board recommends the amendment of the public utilities 
laws as follows : Where a company sells bonds for less than 
their face value it shall be required to amortize the discount, 
the board to decide at what rate. The board should have power 
to order connections not only between railways and street rail- 
ways but between telephones lines. New public utilities should 
be granted an indeterminate franchise. All the property and the 
intangible rights (except franchise valuations) should be de- 
fined in advance and a fair return allowed on the value thus 
fixed ; the property to be purchasable at a fair price, if ever taken 
over by the city or state. The intent of this recommendation 
appears to be that a public utility shall retain its franchise so 
long as it conforms to the law. 

The report ends with a chapter describing the organization of 
the commission. It is divided into two divisions, the railway 
division and the utilities division. Each has a chief and three as- 
sistant inspectors. An accountant of the board examines applica- 
tions for approval of issues of stock and bonds. No strict line 
is drawn between the two administrative divisions; and in- 
spectors from one are frequently assigned to work in the other. 
Most of the inspectors have their headquarters at the branch 
office of the commission in Newark. The board has insufficient 
room in the State House at Trenton. 

January 12, 1912. RAILWAY AGE GAZETTE. 59 

IMPROVED METHOD OF TREAT ING TIES AND TIMBERS. 5. The chief point in securing good treatment is to withdraw 

BY w F GOLTRv "^^ Juiccs, saps and acids from the timber. Hence steaming is 

„, . , . , . . ' "" essential part in the process of treatment of wood, not only 

The science of tmiber preservation .s one of the liveliest sub- as to the effect on the timber, extracting the juices and toughen- 

jects before railway men today. Many problems in the art of i^g the fiber of the wood, but in a general way to prepare it to 

treating wood with antiseptics have yet to be solved, and there absorb the chemical preservative, whatever it may be 

is much room for improvement. Undoubtedly much improve- 6. Experiments under varying conditions indicate that large 

ment over methods commonly employed in this country, is pos- timbers, such as railway ties, piling, etc., may be steamed at 20 

sible in the securing of a speedier and more efficient method of lbs. pressure for as much as four hours without material 

seasoning, a better preparation for impregnating ties and tim- depreciation of strength. 

bers, as well as greater economy in handling of material. The duration of the steaming is determined by the color of 

Despite the diversity of practice it is possible to find among the the condensation from the cylinders. At first the condensed 

experienced and practical operators, both in this country and ,vater runs off fairlv clear and colorless, but later on it gets 

abroad, a measure of agreement as to both methods and results, „H,ch darker and discolored and has a particular woody smell 

and from these to outline the essentials of a correct method. from the extracts dissolved. Steaming is continued until this 

A new and original method of treating ties and timbers with stage is passed and the condensed water again runs clear and 

preservatives is here submitted for the consideration of those colorless, showing that the sap has been dissolved and with- 

interested in timber preservation. Several distinct steps are drawn to the fullest extent possible. 

taken in carrying out this method or process, consisting of The moisture in timber amounts to from 16 to 65 per cent, 

steaming of ties upon delivery at plant; stacking of ties in the it is unequally distributed in green timber, being greatest in the 

yard for open air seasoning; machining of ties preparatory to sapwood. The per cent, of moisture present in different kinds 

impregnation; completion of drying and warming ties in ovens, of wood is approximately as shown in the accompanying table: 
and impregnation with antiseptic liquid. 

A -i LI 1 1 f 1 ■ ^1 • a- 1- • -11 . i 1 Sapwood or Heartwood 

A suitable plant for making this process effective is ilhistrated outer part, or interior. 

in the accompanying drawings. P'"«' cedar, spruce, firs 45-65 16-25 

Cypress, e.xtremely variable 50-65 18-60 

STEAMING TIES. O^l^' beech, ash, maple, elm, hickory, chestnut, walnut 

and sycamore 40-50 30-40 

Upon arrival of the ties or timber at the treating plant, they 
are transferred bv hand from standard gage cars to narrow '^^'^ ''S''*" ^""^' °^ '^'°°'^^ ''^"''^ ''^^ most water in the sap- 
gage tram cars, which are placed alongside. The tram cars are '"°°'^' '^"^ sycamore has more than hickory, 
then run into the steaming cylinder. The ties or timbers are ^* '= manifest that the greater part of this moisture must be 
subjected to live steam for a period varying from 30 minutes '^"'°'-^<^ >" order to put the timber in condition to receive 
to four hours, depending upon their character and condition, at t|-"tment with antiseptics. While it is true that by long con- 
a pressure of about IS lbs. per sq. in. In most cases possibly 15 """^^ exposure to open air, timber can be sufficiently dried 
to 20 lbs. should be the maximum, for reasons set forth later. ^° ""^^^ =°'"'"°" requirements, it is being seriously questioned 
It should not, however, be inferred from the above that it is '^ 'f ^ '"^'^°.''' ^° "°' ^^l"'^^ '°° ™"=h time and space to meet 

.. . - , r , ■ modern conditions, 
necessary to separate ties or timbers into groups for steaming 

bevond the natural separation at the shipping point. ..W,*^^" steannng sawed ties, or lumber, the pieces should be 

In order that this step in the process may be clearly appre- P'''^^ °". "°^^ ^'"^'^■^' ^^°"^ ^ '"• ^P^" horizontally, so that the 

bended, both as to its own importance and its preparatory value f"m will have access to all surfaces. The steam pressure should 

r 1. ,. ■ i. i ir -i -11 u 1, J lU i i. • *i J bs only a few pounds at the beginning and gradually increased 

for what is to follow, it will be observed that steaming the wood ■' ,.-,„, j'^*- 

, ■ ,- . , , ., a: .. to not exceeding 20 lbs. at the end of the operation, so as not to 

as above indicated has the effect, , , . , * , ' ', . , 

1 /-.r , , ■ ., 11 11 1 1 • heat the timber too suddenly, which might cause checking and 

1. (Jt breaking the cell walls and producing narrow micro- ,. . „ , ■ , r , , ■ 

■ 1 r. .1 1 1 • I ..1 ■ • 1 • xi II J Splitting, an effect which frequently occurs when hot oil is intro- 

scopical slits, through which the juices and saps in the cells and , , " , ,, . 

- . „ , 11 .. J duced in the retort on cold ties. 

intercellular spaces are liberated. „ . , , , , . . - ., , 

T c» • a: . .. J ..- r ii i- t, xi Experience has demonstrated that it is not leasible to im- 

2. steaming effects a great reduction of the time subsequently . , . , ... ,.,,,,. , 

, , - .,.1. J 1 ii. -x 1 ■ 11-1 xu pregnate timbers with antiseptics immediately following the 

required for seasoning the wood, whether it be in a drv kiln with . , , ,, ,-,,,■, , f , 

, ^ , . , ^ , . . T-, . ;, , steaming, because the cells are filled with vapor and condensed 

heated air, or by natural air seasoning. 1 his greatly reduces , . , . , , , ,.,.,. 

^, ^, ... ijii"j 1. steam, which resist the entrance of the chemical. A fair pene- 

the stock necessary to maintain on hand and thus reduces about . , ,.,.,. , , • , , , 

,, . . ' , -. 1 ,1 ■ , , ^, ■ u X- J tration can be obtained with zinc chloride, but scarcely any at 

three-quarters of the capital that might otherwise be tied up, ,, . , ., ,. . .,,,.,. 

, ., .. ... , T 1- ,1 /T i all with creosote oil. It is very essential that the ties and tim- 

when the ties or timbers are not steamed. It further effects a , , , . , , 

. . , ... . r ■ . 11 ,- c . .- 1 .. bers be dried after the steaming, 
material economy in the cost of installation of a treating plant, 

by proportionately diminishing the storage yard space and length stacking of ties in yard for air seasoning. 
of tracks needed to handle the ties. Fire insurance and taxes are Having taken the initial step in the seasoning process by steam- 
also correspondingly reduced. ing, the next in order is to evaporate the condensed steam or 

3. Steaming dissolves and withdraws the juices and saps con- moisture from the ties or timbers. This is accomplished by stack- 
tained in the wood and prevents decay when subsequently dried. ing in a yard for air seasoning. 

When green ties, and lumber generally, are piled for air drying The loaded tram cars are drawn out of the steaming cylinders 

without preliminary steaming, the saps and juices ferment and by a small locomotive or any other suitable means and placed on 

decompose rapidly. Decay attacks the delicate cells and less com- a transfer table. The table is moved to one of the parallel yard 

pact portions of the timber, and then the firmer portions until, tracks and the tram-cars are drawn to the place where the ties 

in a few months, the timber becomes spongy or doaty in the are to be stacked. The tracks in the yard are laid with three 

interior and its strength is impaired. In this condition it ab- rails so tliat a standard gage locomotive crane can stand on one 

sorbs undue quantities of preservatives, when afterwards treated, track and unload narrow gage tram cars standing on another. 

4. Steaming softens the outer surfaces and opens the pores of The use of a locomotive crane and transfer table also mate- 
such timbers as may have had a preliminary air seasoning and rially reduces the cost of building a plant, as the arrangement 
which may have become "case-hardened," thus permitting rapid of the yard, thereby made possible, affords a better utilization of 
evaporation of the moisture contained in the interior of the the space for stacking ties, lessens the space required and cor- 
timber and thereby preventing much of the checking and splitting, respondingly lessens the lengths of tracks; and also obviates 
which is so common in crossties and timbers generally, while the expense of constructing a high-loading platform, as the 
undergoing air seasoning. treated ties are transferred directly from tram cars to standard 



Vol. 52, No. 2. 

gage gondola cars, from the yard level, for shipment to desti- 
nation. The space required for a plant having the capacity for 
treating upwards of one million ties annually is about 20 acres, 
and the length of the tracks in the yard is approximately four 

Ties which have been given a preliminary steaming dry rapidly, 
and the average time required to evaporate the moisture to put 
them in condition for treatment is about three months, depending 
upon the character of the wood and climatic conditions. Or- 
dinarily it requires from nine to twelve months in the open air 
for ties to season sufficiently for treatment. 


When the ties have sufficiently seasoned and are ready for 
treatment, they are taken from stacks, passed through an adzing 
and boring machine and loaded directly on tram cars to be 
transported to the ovens for the completion of the drying, and 
thence to the impregnating cylinder for treatment with pre- 

The adzing and boring machine is preferably mounted in a 
standard gage box car, which is moved about the yard and 
placed opposite the stacks of ties. A skid is placed between the 

and tests on both treated and untreated ties, have proved that 
longer life is obtained by the machining operation. The ma- 
chining of ties obviates the necessity of adzing them before 
laying in the track, thereby effecting a saving in the time and 
labor of the section men. 

In fastening a rail to a tie, either a cut spike must be driven, 
or a screw spike must be turned into the tie structure. If a 
screw spike be used in any form now on the market, it is neces- 
sary to first bore a hole for it to enter. If a cut spike be used it 
is possible to drive it in most of our American tie woods without 
previously boring a hole. The holding power of a heavy spike 
is greater when it follows a small hole than when driven directly 
into the wood structure, also the boring of ties to be treated is 
essential because the holes become mediums through which 
chemicals reach the interior of the ties and it penetrates radially 
from each hole, thus promoting impregnation. In consequence, 
the spike never opens the grain of the wood beyond the pene- 
tration depth. 


After the ties have been machined and loaded directly upon 
tram cars, they are transported to the dr\'ing ovens. 

Proposed Arrangement of Timber Treating Plant and Tracks. 

stacks and the car on one side, and another skid is placed 
between the machine car and tram cars on the other side. In 
loading ties on tram cars care should be exercised to pile 
them loosely, both vertically and horizontally, to permit the 
heated air in the ovens, as well as the preservative fluid in the 
retorts, to come in contact with all surfaces. If the ties are 
sawed the parting strips should be about 1 in. thick to keep the 
surface apart. 

There are two causes of tie deterioration, decay and mechanical 
wear, and there is no economy in increasing the resistance to 
one without also increasing the resistance to the other. Of 
these two destructive agencies decay is much the greater, but it is 
so interwoven with mechanical wear that the two should be con- 
sidered together. It has been almost the universal practice on 
English, French and several European railways, to machine their 
ties before attaching the rails or rail chairs to them. The con- 
sensus of opinion in Europe is to the effect that such preparation, 
by machining, is of marked economy. Years of observations 

The moisture content in timber has a very appreciable effect 
upon the way in which it lends itself to treatment, and any 
method that will make same moisture condition uniform is bound 
to result in a much more uniform penetration and dissemination 
of the antiseptic. Slow air seasoning is not found sufficient to 
insure a good preparation of the ties and timbers for treatment, 
and the drying should therefore be completed in the ovens. In 
France some of the treating plants are equipped with drying 
ovens and the seasoning of ties is completed just prior to the 
treatment with antiseptic. 

Different woods absorb heat with different degrees of rapidity, 
depending principally upon the conductivity of their fibers. It 
has been demonstrated that an average of 24 hours is sufficient 
time to thoroughly heat timbers, such as railway ties, and dur- 
ing this time the moisture content will be reduced 3 to 4 per 
cent. The object in placing the timber in the ovens is not only 
to complete the air drying, but also to permit a perfect regu- 
larity of operations at the plant at all seasons of the year and 

January 12, 1912. 



in all kinds of weather. The timber thus dried comes to the out on to the transfer table and immediately run into the im- 

impregnating retort in a hot condition and the high temperature pregnating cylinders for chemical treatment. Each cylinder holds 

of the impregnating fluid, when introduced into the retort, is 12 trams, each of which carries between 45 and 50 ties, or ap- 

maintained when it comes in contact with the wood, conse- proximatetly 560 ties per charge. 

quently the penetration is deeper and more perfect. During the The duration of one complete operation in the impregnating 

winter season, especially in the northern latitudes, it is frequently cylinder is as follows : 

necessary to close down the works on account of ties being cov- Charging the cylinder with ties IS minutes 

.... , -.,,, 1 ,. 1 J • iU t *. Producing vacuum to 14 in 45 " 

ered with ice and snow. When such ties are placed in the retort Filling cylinder with chemical I5 " 

for treatment the warm impregnating fluid is congealed and, Continuation of filling with pressure pump. 90 ;■ 

.. ., ... J Returning surplus chemical to working tank 15 

in consequence, the penetration is very slight. Again, ties exposed Producing vacuum to hasten drying of ties 30 " 

,, ,, . J. . 1 ■ i ^ i i iTi. j_ „^u 1 Blowing back last remnant of chemical to working tank 15 '* 

to the weather immediately prior to treatment are otten drenched opening door and discharging cylinder 15 

by heavy rains and absorb considerable water. This offsets, in Total, 240 minutes, or four hours. 

a great measure, the air seasoning and makes it difficult to ob- In their order the first step is to produce a vacuum up to 14 in. 

tain good results from such seasoning alone. of mercury and which should be attained within 30 to 45 minutes. 

The rapidity with which the drying can be carried on, after the The vacuum having been on for sufficient time it is held while 

material has received a preliminary steaming, or air seasoning, the chemical is allowed to flow in, until the impregnating cylinder 

depends upon several factors, such as species of wood, its soft- is completely filled, it being understood that the chemical, whether 

ness and porosity, proportion of heartwood and sapwood, in- it be creosote, chloride of zinc, or a mixture of the two, has been 

tended use, and the manner in which it is presented to the air previously heated by means of coils in the respective tanks to a 

in the ovens. No positive rule can, therefore, be given as to the temperature of 75 degs. F. When the air pressure in the im- 

duration of the drying period and the temperature for the vari- pregnating retort reaches the atmospheric pressure, as shown by 

ous kinds of woods, under all conditions, but experience soon the vacuum gage, an air valve with an overflow pipe attached is 

T^Property Line. 1114.0' Stacking space for45,000. Ties. -^^ 1-, 

if Fire iiydrant j—4 Wafer 

Proposed Arrangen:ient of Timber Treating Plant and Tracks. 

teaches the operator how rapidly the ties or lumber can be dried 
in the ovens, without injuring, by splitting, checking, warping or 

The drying oven, as a structure, is preferably built of cement 
and masonry and corresponds in length and size to the length of 
the impregnating retorts. The air is heated by means of heat- 
ing coils, placed under or in the bottom of the ovens, and the 
circulation of the air is effected by means of a blower or fan. 
Fresh air enters at the ends of the ovens, passes through the 
heating coils, thence in the oven chambers, through the loads 
on the trams, to the opposite end of the ovens, and downward 
into the moist air duct, from which it passes into the moist air 
gallery and is drawn out by means of the blower. Each oven is 
adapted to be operated independently of the other, so that when 
one or more ovens are being charged, the others are not affected. 


After the timbers have remained in the ovens a sufficient length 
of time to thoroughly dry and warm them, the trams are drawn 

opened to let the air escape from the retort, while filling. As 
soon as the fluid begins to flow in a full stream through the over- 
flow pipe, the air valve is closed, and the force or pressure pump 
is put into action and kept working until a pressure of say 100 
lbs. per sq. in. is obtained. The more the chemical penetrates the 
wood, the more the force pump has to be kept at work to main- 
tain this necessary pressure, and the impregnation is considered 
complete when the manometer shows, for at least 20 minutes, 
that without further pumping the pressure has remained station- 
ary at 100 lbs., thus showing that the chemical is no longer pene- 
trating into the wood. 

The duration of this phase of the operation varies from one to 
two hours, depending upon many factors, such as species of wood, 
its physical structure, proportion of heartwood and sapwood, 
degree of seasoning, size, shape, mass and other conditions, not 
a single one of which is sufficiently well defined to make it pos- 
sible or practicable to segregate timbers into many groups for 
treatment. The treatment should, in all cases, be carried to "re- 



Vol. 52, No. 2. 

fusal," which obviates the necessity for sorting ties or timbers 
into numerous groups. 

When the timber has absorbed all of the chemical it can re- 
ceive, the pressure pump is stopped and the solution valve opened. 
At the same time the air compressor pump which is connected 
with the dome on top of the impregnating cylinder, is put into 
action, pumping air into the cylinder and forcing the excess chem- 
ical back to the working tank from which it was originally drawn, 
through the solution pipes. The solution valves are then closed 
and a vacuum is immediately created in the cylinder by means of a 
vacuum pump. This vacuum, which need not exceed 14 in., is 
held about 30 minutes, or sufficient time to allow the ties to drip. 

When ties or timbers attain a sufficient degree of dryness so 
that they can be handled comfortably, the vacuum is released and 
the dripping returned to the working tank. The tram loads are 
then drawn out and placed on a track in the yard, where they 
are transferred to standard gage gondola cars, by a locomotive 
crane, for shipment to destination. 


A special feature of the plant, as shown in the drawings ac- 
companying this article, is the entire absence of switches for run- 
ning trams from one part of the yard to the other, and shifting 
of devices from track to track. Frequently the room or space, 
where a plant of this kind must be located, is limited and pre- 
cludes the possibility of building a plant of the ordinary kind, 
with switches. Here a yard has been planned in which all of the 
tracks are parallel and relatively near to each other, and which 
are crossed by a transfer table, adapted to move back and forth 
and serve all tracks abutting thereon. The space required for a 
plant of this kind is about one-third less than required for the or- 
dinary type. The length of the tracks is proportionately reduced. 
The plant is more compact and considerable saving in time and 
labor can be effected on that account. The maintenance and de- 
preciation of tracks is materially reduced, and finally the entire 
cost of the plant entirely equipped is actually less than that of 
the plant of the ordinary type, of equal capacity. 


The cost of the plant as described, completely equipped, exclu- 
sive of land, would be approximately as follows : 


Four miles of track and grading $20,000 

Six drying ovens with heating and ventilating apparatus and iron 

work, complete 16,000 

Two steaming cylinders, saddles, piping, etc., installed 8,000 

Two impregnating retorts, saddles, pipe connections, heating coils, 

etc., installed 12,000 

Three 150 h. p. boilers set. complete 4,200 

Iron, steel and wooden tanks, complete 10,400 

Transfer table, electric motor, etc., installed complete 5,500 

Brick buildings, including machine shop 18,000 

Sewers 1,500 

Pumps, air compressors, vacuum, pressure, general service, etc.... 4,600 
Piping, solution pipes, steam pipes, air pipes, valves, etc., installed 

complete in retort building 5,800 

Fire hydrants and piping complete 2,500 

Electric plant and generator, wiring, etc., complete 3,000 

Scales, creosote and zinc chloride wells, driven wells, and miscel- 
laneous items 4,000 



One 12.ton locomotive crane $4,500 

One switch engine, 10 in. x 16 in. cylinders 3,000 

200 tram buggies 9,000 

.\dzing and boring machine, mounted on 40 ft. steel underframe 

car, exhaust fan, air compressor, complete 10. 080 



For plant $115,500 

For equipment 26,500 

Total $142,000 

In addition to the above, it is necessary to carry a stock of creo- 
sote oil and zinc chloride, which would perhaps amount to $30,000 
on the average the year round. The above plant can easily treat 
1,500,000 ties annually, with reasonable allowance for breakdowns 
and interruptions, provided it is operated night and day. In the 
event the capacity was increased 1,000,000 or more, it would 
probably be necessary to add two units of five ovens each to the 
plant, which would cost approximately $25,000. It will be ob- 
served that such a plant requires only about 20 acres of land 
and the tracks amount to only four miles. Furthermore, there is 
no need of a loading platform, as the ties are transferred from 
tram cars to gondola cars with a crane, from the ground level. 
This saves approximately $3,000 in the installation of a plant. 


The president of Venezuela has approved the contract made 
by the department of public works with the representative of the 
Bolivar Railway Company on November 16, 1910, permitting' 
the latter to import, free of duty, materials and tools absolutely 
necessary for the conservation and operation of the section of 
this raihvay between Tucacas and Aroa, to the extent of 

The president of Peru has approved tlie law passed by the 
Peruvian congress relating to the construction of railway 
branches from Trujillo to the mining camps at Salpo and 
Quiruvilca. This line is of especial importance, as it will 
open up for rapid development a large area of rich coal de- 
posits. The branch line of the Oroyo-Tarma Railroad to 
Puerto Wertheman has also been approved. 

The electrification of the railways of New Zealand in certain 
sections is now under contemplation by the government, espe- 
cially where there are long tunnels, such as the one between 
Christchurch and Lyttelton, now the longest in the dominion, 
154 miles long, and at the Otira tunnel and at the Rimutaka 
incline, between Wellington and Napier in the North island, 
where there is a grade averaging 1 ft. in every 3 ft., requiring 
two or three engines for hauling trains up the incline. 

Except several very short railway lines owned by mining com- 
panies, all New Zealand railways are owned by the government, 
hence there is no competition such as applies to American rail- 
way systems, and there is not the incentive to rapidly branch 
out into new territory to get business as there is among railways 
in the United States, which have been obliged to show enterprise 
in order to get ahead of rivals. In New Zealand no competition 
would be permitted with existing government lines, which must, 
however, face considerable competition with coastw-ise boats. 

'Sanitary Sewer 

Arrangement of Treating Plant. 


^^ile Drair 

&tnji^ral N^me ^^ction* 

The Boston & Maine is introducing motor cars for the use 
of track repairers. 

The Prime Minister of Manitoba announces that a public 
service commission will be established in that province to 
supervise and regulate raihvaj'S, gas works, electric lighting, 
telegraphs, etc. 

The fast mail train of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern 
on January 2 was run from Cleveland to Toledo, 108 miles, in 
105 minutes, making up 40 minutes. The train consisted of 12 
cars and was drawn by two engines. 

The New York, New Haven & Hartford announces that 
henceforth free individual paper drinking cups will be pro- 
vided on its trains for passengers. The use of a common cup 
for passengers is now forbidden by law in both Massachusetts 
and Connecticut. 

The usual annual offer of the United States Steel Corpora- 
tion to its employees of the privilege of subscribing to its 
shares on a deferred payment plan, enables the employees 
this year to buy preferred stock at $110 a share and common 
stock at $65 a share. 

The mail car of the Southern Pacific Oregon express was 
robbed on January sixth of its registered mail while the 
train was running between Red Blufif and Redding, Cal. The 
two robbers bound and gagged the three mail clerks; and they 
escaped at the next station. 

The Chicago & Eastern Illinois has advanced the wages of 
enginemen, firemen, conductors and brakemen, effective January 
1, to the level of the scales paid on the Frisco lines west of the 
Mississippi river, this in accordance with an agreement reached 
last year by which the advance was to be made in two instal- 
ments. The present advance constitutes the second instalment. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad finds that the capacity of its freight 
yards in 1897 aggregated accommodations for 103,789 cars ; and 
in 1911 192,104 cars (lines east of Pittsburgh and Erie), an in- 
crease of 88,315 cars, or 85 per cent. The new yards at North- 
umberland afford track room for 5,944 cars. Facilities at Al- 
toona have been more than trebled since the installation of the 
Hollidaysburg yard. These two are now required to do the 
work formerly done by the one at Altoona. Their combined 
capacity is nearly 16,000 cars. 

A resolution has been introduced in congress by Repre- 
sentative Ayres, of New York, calling upon the Interstate 
Commerce Commission to inxestigate the repair shops of the 
railways belonging to the Trunk line association. It is de- 
clared that the differences in the cost of various things made 
by railways in their shops vary so greatly as between the 
shops of different roads that an investigation is needed. Rail- 
ways are reporting higher costs for repairing cars and en- 
gines, yet the workmen in the shops do not see any benefit 
from the increase. 

The New York, New Haven & Hartford has announced that 
the road from Stamford to Cedar Hill, a mile beyond New 
Haven, 41 miles, four-track all the way, is to be electrified and 
the work completed within two years. Operations will begin 
early next spring. With this extension the New Haven passen- 
ger trains will be drawn by electric locomotives 74 miles (New 
York to New Haven), and the new plans probably provide for 
the use of electric propulsion for both passenger and freight. 
The main line has a heavy freight traffic from New Rochellc to 
Cedar Hill, 58 miles. 

The California legislature, at a special session, acting under the 
provisions of the recent amendments to the state constitution, 
has made changes in the Employers' Liability Law, both houses 
having passed Senate bills 11, 12 and 22. There will be an indus- 
trial accident board with authority in connection with all indus- 
tries in the state ; and employers failing to meet the requirements 
of the board are liable to penalties. Farmers, horticulturists, dairy- 
men and a few other classes, are exempted. An appropriation 

has been made for the collection of data concerning accidents, 
with a view to formulating a basis for insurance and indemnity 

It is impossible to tell at the present time what the loss 
will be to the Harriman Lines from the burning of the Equitable 
building, 120 Broadway, New York, on January 9.. Many of the 
records are contained in vaults on the third and fourth floors, 
including the stock transfer records, comptroller's books and ac- 
counts, corporate records and the treasurer's and secretary's ac- 
counts. It is probable that the records of W. V. S. Thorne, 
director of purchases, have been destroyed. The great bulk of 
the securities of the treasurer are kept in another building. The 
most serious damage will probably be the loss of the stock 
transfer records. The operating, traffic and legal departments 
had already been moved to the new office, 165 Broadway. 

Thomas A. Edison, the inventor, held a short conference with 
officers of the Illinois Central on Saturday, January 6, and in an 
interview later convinced the Chicago newspapers that he had 
solved the problem of operating the Chicago railway terminals 
by electricity. W. L. Park, vice-president and general manager; 
M. K. Barnum, general superintendent of motive power, and 
C. F. Parker, purchasing agent, conferred with Mr. Edison and 
arrangements were made for an experimental test of three pas- 
senger motor cars to be equipped with storage batteries at the 
Edison shop. Mr. Edison asserted that the batteries can be 
charged in 40 minutes for a run of 200 miles. The Chicago 
Great Western has recently arranged for a test on a branch line 
of a similar car which has already been tried on the Long Island. 

New Mileage Built and Cars Ordered by Electric Railways 
During 1911. 

The total number of new miles of track laid by electric lines 
in the United States and Canada during 1911 was 1,191 miles, as 
compared with a total of 1,397 miles built in 1910. California 
heads the list of states with 120 miles, and North Carolina and 
Illinois each built 104 miles. The new cars of all kinds order?d 
by the electric railways totals 4,015 cars, which is a decrease of 
1,466 from the number ordered in 1910. Of the total, 2,884 were 
city passenger cars, 626 interurban passenger cars, and 505 freight 
and miscellaneous cars. — Electric Railway Journal. 

Governor Wilson Demands a Full Crew Law. 

''We have done much toward securing justice and safely for 
the workingmen of the state in our factory laws, our tenement- 
house legislation, and our Employers' Liability act, but we have 
not done enough. Our workmen very justly demand further 
legislation with regard to the inspection and regulation of fac- 
tories and work shops, and I recommend legislation of this kind 
to your very careful and earnest consideration. I recommend, 
moreover, the passage at an early date of an act requiring the 
railways operating within this state to provide their trains with 
adequate crews. Our sister state of Pennsylvania has adopted 
legislation of this kind, and the railways whose lines cross from 
Pennsylvania into New Jersey actually carry full crews to the 
border of this state, and then send their trains on through New 
Jersey with diminished crews, to the jeopardy, as I believe, of life 
and property; requiring more of the small crew than it can safely 
and thoroughly do." — Annual message of the governor of New 

U. S. Unfilled Tonnage. 

The monthly statement of the United States Steel Corporation 
shows unfilled orders on December 31 amounted to 5,084,761 tons, 
as compared with 4,141,955 tons on November 30; 3,694,328 tons 
on October 31, and 2,674.757 tons on December 31, 1910. Unfilled 
tonnage at the end of the year was the highest since March, 
1910, at the end of which month this item amounted to 5,402,514 
tons. At the end of 1906 unfilled tonnage stood at 8,489,718 tons, 



Vol. 52, No. 2. 

the largest ever recorded by the company. The United States 
Steel Corporation has a capacity of about 43,000 tons a day, so 
that orders now on hand would be sufficient to keep the various 
plants running full for a four months' period if no more orders 
were booked. Operations, however, are at 85 per cent, capacity, 
which is equal to about 37,000 tons a day, or more than 11,000,000 
tons a year. 

Business of Soft Coal Roads In 1911. 

Authorities differ as to the volume of bituminous coal pro- 
duced during 1911, but from the forecasts available at this time, 
in the light of the usual increase in tonnage produced during 
November and December, it would seem a conservative predic- 
tion that the production will be little, if any, in excess of that 
for the year 1910. 

Coal trade during the first half of this year was undoubtedly 
much depressed on account of the slackened business of indus- 
trials; this is especially true regarding the steel manufactures. 
Despite the restricted output of bituminous coal, with a few ex- 
ceptions, the principal carriers of that commodity show increased 
gross revenues for the ten months' period ended October 31, 
1911. The Baltimore & Ohio and the Western Maryland are the 
principal soft coal carriers to suffer reduction in revenues. Nor- 
folk & Western, the Chesapeake & Ohio and the Virginian Rail- 
way, by reason of their location in the midst of rapidly develop- 
ing soft coal fields in the Virginias and Kentucky, have natu- 
rally shared in the advance of bituminous production in that 

The latest reports available in connection with the soft coal 
traffic show that ten leading roads of the East carried 113,381,803 
tons during the ten months ended October 31, compared with 
112,294,031 tons in the same period of same year, a gain of 
1,087,772 tons, or 0.97 per cent. Shipments to the five Atlantic 
coal ports during the period above mentioned show an advance 
from 21,508,798 tons last year to 22,316,286 tons this year, an 
increase of 807,488 tons, or 3.76 per cent. Among these ports 
Norfolk showed the largest gain in tonnage of bituminous coal, 
indicating some advance in the coal tonnage of Norfolk & 
Western eastbound. — Wall Street Journal. 

Burlington Organizes Department of Safety. 

Darius Miller, president of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, 
has addressed a circular letter to each of the 45,000 employees 
of this road, announcing the organization of a department of 
safety similar in its general plan to the safety committees formed 
on the Chicago & North Western, the St. Louis & San Fran- 
cisco, the Baltimore & Ohio, the Chicago Great Western and the 
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western. 

The department will be in charge of E. M. Switzer, who will 
have the title of superintendent of safety, and will be assisted by 
a central or advisory committee, with headquarters at Chicago. 
On each operating division there will be a sub-committee, with 
separate sub-committees for some of the more important shops 
and other places where large numbers of men are employed. 
These sub-committees will be composed largely of employees 
from the different classes of service, supplemented and assisted 
by certain of the division officers. The sub-committees will meet 
monthly, and will be expected to report and discuss all matters 
that have come under their observation involving the safety of 
employees or others, and to endeavor to enlist the co-operation 
and interest of all employees in the promotion of safety. 

The central or advisory committee will consist of the follow- 
ing: E. P. Bracken, assistant general manager; J. A. Connell, 
attorney Iowa lines ; J. A. Denney, medical director and assistant 
superintendent relief and employment departments; W. L. Breck- 
enridge, engineer maintenance of way; J. W. Cyr, superintendent 
motive power lines east of Missouri river ; T. Roope, superin- 
tendent motive power lines west ; L. B. Allen, general superin- 
tendent Nebraska district; A. W. Newton, general inspector per- 
manent way and structures. 

In his circular to employees Mr. Miller says in part: 

"It is very plain to those who have the duty of investigating 
injuries to persons that a great many of them are entirely un- 
necessary, and would not have occurred if proper precautions 
had been taken. The object in sending this personal letter to 
you is to solicit your interest in the matter of preventing personal 
injuries of every character, and to secure your earnest co-opera- 

tion with the local committee which will be formed in your ter- 
ritory. I hope you will inform yourself regarding your commit- 
tee and support its work. This you can do in large measure by 
avoiding all unnecessary risks in your own work and using all 
possible care to avoid injuries to yourself or your co-employees. 
The company will continue its efforts to reduce and remove, as 
far as possible, the elements of danger that may surround your 
work, and you can assist it by reporting to your superior officer 
conditions of ways or structures that appear to threaten injury, 
dangerous methods of work that can be improved, or careless 
employees whose conduct is likely to produce injury to them- 
selves or others. . 

"If every employee on the Burlington will respond to this re- 
quest for co-operation and assistance, we believe that by the ex- 
ercise of greater care on the part of employees, and the provision 
of better safeguards on the part of the company, a very large 
decrease in the number of injuries can be accomplished, and 
much pain, unhappiness and loss of time on the part of em- 
ployees and others can be avoided." 

Chicago Great Western Station Agents' Association. 

The Chicago Great Western Station Agents' Association was 
recently organized for the purpose of bringing station agents 
and station employees into closer relationship with each other 
and with heads of departments. The plan adopted by the edu- 
cational committee in organizing this association contemplated 
a local organization on each division, each local organization to 
be part of a general association comprising the whole system. 
These local associations have been organized and successful meet- 
ings have been held on several divisions. These have been at- 
tended not only by the agents and station employees of the di- 
visions represented, but by officers. Following the business meet- 
ing, enginemen, trainmen and other employees were invited to 
join in a good fellowship gathering. A meeting of the northern 
division was held at St. Paul on November 25. 

It is now proposed to hold a general get-together meeting, or, 
in fact, two meetings, one to complete the organization of the 
Station Agents' Association, and another to be in the nature of 
a good fellowship meeting in the evening. These meetings will 
be held at Oelwein, Iowa, on January 27, and will be attended by 
representatives from all divisions. Enginemen, trainmen, yard- 
men and office men are invited to the evening meeting. Later a 
similar organization may be formed for the shop men, round- 
house men, track and bridge men. Some officers, including Gen- 
eral Manager H. J. Slifer, will be in attendance, but it is an- 
nounced that the meeting is to be entirely in the hands of the 
employees, who will be expected to do most, if not all, of the 
talking. The employees are asked to come prepared to take up 
any subject which they think will be of interest to their fellow 
workers ; but there are four suggested by the company as espe- 
cially profitable for discussion as. follows : 

1. How can I increase the revenue of the company? 

2. How can I improve the freight or passenger service of the 

3. How can I effect economies for the company? 

4. How can I advance the welfare of the company? 

In the circular addressed to employees by General Manager 
Slifer to announce the meeting, he said : 

"I consider myself an employee with the rest of you, and I ex- 
pect to be on hand as an employee^not as an official — and as I 
said before, I want to see as many of my fellow employees there 
as possible, and I want as many of you who feel so inclined to 
prepare short papers on one or more of the topics mentioned 
above, or on any other topic that you may see fit to bring up 
for discussion. You may not have the gift of making extempo- 
raneous speeches, but you can put your thoughts on paper and 
read them. If you do not want to do this or if you will not be 
able to attend the meeting, prepare your paper anyway and send 
it to the secretary, H. Ernest, who will read it for you. To 
make it even easier for you I will agree to have your paper 
read even if it is not signed, provided of course there is nothing 
objectionable in it. We want your thoughts and suggestions 
and do not want to be deprived of them on account of a little 
modesty on your part. Simply send in your ideas and they will 
be read at the meeting, although I would much prefer to have 
the author present to read them in person." 

January 12, 1912. 



Railway Appliances Association. 

The Railway Appliances Association will hold its fourth 
annual exhibit of appliances used in the construction, mainte- 
nance and operation of railways at the Coliseum, Chicago, March 
18 to 23, inclusive, at the time of the annual convention of the 
American Railway Engineering Association. The exhibit will 
occupy not only the entire main floor, anne.x; and balcony of the 
Coliseum, as in previous years, but also the First Regiment 
Armory, Michigan avenue and Sixteenth street, containing 16,000 
sq. ft. of net floor space for exhibit purposes, which, with the 
Coliseum, will give a total of 54,000 sq. ft. of exhibit space. In 
spite of the additional amount of space available this year, prac- 
tically all, or over 50,000 sq. ft., has already been reserved by the 
different exhibitors. 

Many of those who have exhibited in former years have re- 
served larger spaces for the display of their exhibits this year 
than before, and there are many new exhibitors in the list, in- 
cluding several manufacturers of appliances pertaining more to 
the mechanical than to the construction or maintenance' depart- 
ments. On Tuesday of the week devoted to the exhibits, the 
American Railway Engineering Association will adjourn its ses- 
sion at 4 p. m. for the purpose of giving the railway men an op- 
portunity to devote the remainder of the afternoon and evening 
to the inspection of the exhibits. 

Applications for space should be made to Bruce V. Crandall, 
secretary, 537 South Dearborn street, Chicago. 

Following is a list of exhibitors who have secured space : 

Adams & Westlake Co., Chicago. 

Ajax Forge Co., Chicago. 

Alexander Crossing Co., Clinton, 111. 

American Casting Co., Birmingham, Ala. 

American Concrete Pile and Pipe Co., Chicago. 

American Guard Rail Fastener Co., Philadelphia, Fa. 

American Hoist & Derrick Co., Chicago. 

American Iron & Steel Manufacturing Co., Lebanon, Pa. 

American Railway Signal Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 

American Rolling Mill Co., Aliddletown, Ohio. 

American Steel & Wire Co., Chicago. _ 

American Valve and Meter Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

American Vulcanized Fibre Co., Wilmington, Del. 

American Well Works, Aurora, 111. 

.^rmspear Manufacturing Co., New York. 

Asphalt Ready Roofing Co., New York. 

Barrett Manufacturing Co., New York. 

Bausch & Lomb Optical Co., Rochester, N. Y. 

Beaver Dam Malleable Iron Co., Beaver Dam, Wis. 

Blaw Collapsible Steel Centering Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Blocki-Brennan Refining Co., Chicago. 

Boss Nut Co., Chicago. 

Bossert Manufacturing Co.. W. F., Utica, N. Y. 

Bo\r?er & Co.. S. F., Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Bryant Zinc Co., Chicago. 

Buda Co., Harvey, 111. 

Buyers Inde.x Co., Chicago. 

Canton Culvert Co., Canton, Ohio. 

Carey Co., Philip, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Carnegie Steel Co.. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Carpenter & Co., George B., Chicago. 

Chicago Bridge & Iron Works,. Chicago. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co., Chicago. 

Chicago Steel Tape Co., Chicago. 

Cleveland Frog and Crossing Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 

Clyde Iron Works, Chicago. 

Columbia Nut & Bolt Co., Inc., Bridgeport, Conn. 

Concrete Form and Engine Co., Detroit, Mich. 

Conley Frog and Switch Co.. Memphis, Tenn. 

Cook's Standard Tool Co., Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Crane Co., Chicago. 

D. & A. Post Mold Co., Three Rivers, Mich. 

Des Moines Bridge & Iron Works, Des Moines, Iowa. 

Detroit Graphite Co., Chicago. 

Dickinson, Inc., Paul, Chicago. 

Dietzgen Co., Eugene, New York. 

Dilworth, Porter & Co., Ltd., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph, Jersey City, N. J. 

Drouve Co., G., Bridgeport, Conn. 

Eastern Granite Roofing Co., New York. 

Economy Spearable Switch Point Co., Inc., Louisville, Ky. 

Edison. Inc., Thomas A., Orange, N. J. 

Electric Railway Journal, New York. 

Electric Storage ISattery Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Fairbanks. Morse & Co., Chicago. 

Federal Cement Tile Co., Chicago. 

Federal Signal Co., Albany, N. Y. 

I'oster. Frank M., Columbus, Ohio. 

Franklin Manufacturing Co. of Pennsylvania, Franklin, Pa. 

Fruit Growers' Refrigerating & Power Co., Anna, III. 

General Electric Co., Schenectady, N. Y. 

General Railway Sicnal Co., Rochester, N. Y. 

Greenlee Bros, & Co., Rockford, 111. 

Grip Nut Co.. Chicago. 

Hall Signal Co., New York, N. Y. 

Handlan-Buck Manufacturing Co., Chicago. 

Hart Steel Co., Elvria. Ohio. 

Hatfield Rail Joint Manufacturing Co., New York. 

Hayes Track Annlianre Co., Richmond, Ind. 

Hohart-.Mlfree Co.. Chicaco. 

Hubbard & Co.. Pitt^burch. Pa. 

Indianapolis Switch .i?: Frog Co.. Springfield, Ohio. 

Ingalls-Shepard Forcing Co., Chicago. 

Inland Steel Co., Chicago. 

Interlocking Nut & Bolt Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

International Automatic Signal Co., Chicago, 

International Steel Tic Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 

Johns-Manville Co., H. W., New York. 

Jordan Co., O. F., Chicago. 

Joyce-Cridland Co., Dayton, Ohio. 

Kalamazoo Railway Supply Co., Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Kerite Insulated Wire & Cable Co., New York. 

Kernchen Co., Chicago. 

Lackawanna Steel Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Lebanon Engineering Co., Lebanon, Pa.. 

Lidgerwood Manufacturing Co., Chicago. 

Lorain Steel Co., Chicago. 

Lufkin Rule Co., Saginaw, Mich. 

Lupton's Sons Co., David, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Lutz-Lockwood Manufacturing Co., Aldene, Union Co., N. J. 

Massey Co., C. F., Chicago. 

Matthews & Rothermel, Chicago. 

Milburn Co., Alexander, Baltimore, Md. 

Moore & Sons Corp., Samuel L., Elizabeth, N. J. 

Morden Frog & Crossing Works, Chicago. 

Mudge & Co., Burton W., Chicago. 

Nachod Signal Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

National Carbon Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 

National Lock Washer Co., Newark, N. J. 

National Malleable Castings Co., Chicago. 

National Roofing Co., Tonawanda, N. Y. 

National Surface Guard Co., Chicago. 

Nichols & Bro., George P., Chicago. 

Northwestern Manufacturing Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Okonite Co., New York. 

Spencer Otis Co., Chicago. 

P. & M. Co., Chicago. 

Patterson Co., W. W., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Pease Co., C. F., Chicago. 

Pennsylvania Steel Co., Chicago. 

Pittsburgh Steel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Pocket List of Railway Officials, New York. 

Potter-Winslow Co., Chicago. 

Q. & C. Co., New York. 

Rail Joint Co., New York. 

Railroad Supply Co., Chicago. 

Railway Age Gazette. New York. 

Railway & Supplymen's Mutual Catalogue Co., Chicago. 

Railway List Co., Chicago. 

Railway Review, Chicago. 

Ramapo Iron Works, Hillburn, Rockland Co., N. \. 

Roberts & Schaefer Co., Chicago. 

Sandwich Electric Co., Sandwich, 111. 

Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge Co., Chicago. 

Sellers Manufacturing Co., Chicago. 

Signal Engineer, Chicago. 

Snow Construction Co., T. W., Chicago. 

Standard Asphalt & Rubber Co., Chicago. 

Standard Underground Cable Co.. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Stark Rolling Mill Co., Canton, Ohio. 

Strait Scale Co., Chicago. 

Strauss Bascule Bridge Co., Chicago. 

Templeton. Kenly & Co., Ltd., Chicago. 

Trussed Concrete Steel Co., Detroit, Mich. 

Union Switch & Signal Co., Swissvale, Pa. 

U. S. Wind Engine & Pump Co., Batavia, 111. 

Universal Concrete Tie Co., New Orleans, La. 

Universal Met.nllic Tie Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Verona Tool Works, Chicago. 

Weber Chimnev Co., Chicago. _ 

Weir & Craig Manufacturing Co., Chicago. 

Weir Frog Co.. Cincinnati. Ohio. 

Whall & Co., C. H., Boston. Mass. 

Wharton. Jr., & Co., Incorporated. William. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Wilson Railway Gate Co., Birmingham, Mich 
Winans Improved Patent Rail Joint Co., Portland, Ore. 
Winslow Co., Horace L., Chicago. 

Transportation Club of New York. 

An annual exposition of travel and trafiic, under the auspices 
of the Transportation Club of New York, will be held at the Grand 
Central Palace, New York, April 2S-May 4, by the International 
Exposition Company of New York, under an arrangement entered 
into between the club and that company. This exposition will be 
patterned somewhat after similar expositions held successfully in 
London, England, and Berlin, Germany. The exhibits will be 
made by transportation companies and by health and other resorts, 
hunting camp sections and all allied interests. A Show Com- 
mittee of five members of the club has been appointed to look 
after the details in co-operation with the International company. 
One of the principal functions of this committee will be the 
organization of an historical exhibit embracing all the interesting 
relics that can be found relating to the development of trans- 
portation from its inception. D. W. Pardee is secretary of the 
Transportation Club of New York. 

American Society of Engineering Contractors. 

The third annual meeting of the American Society of Engi- 
neering Contractors was held in New York, January 9. In the 
morning members of the society inspected the work being done 
bv the New York Central & Hudson River, in connection with its 
new terminal, at the invitation of W. L. Morse, terminal engineer 
of the New York Central & Hudson River. A business meeting 
was held in the afternoon. In the evenig J. R. Wemlinger pave 
a talk on Methods and Costs of Driving and Pulling Steel Sheet 



Vol. 52, No. 2. 

Piling. Major C. E. Gillette, Philadelphia, Pa., was elected 
president; H. J. Cole, New York, first vice-president, and J. Mar- 
shall, Regina, Canada, second vice-president. 

American Electric Railway Association. 

The annual conference of the executive heads of the member 
companies of the American Electric Railway Association will be 
held in New York, January 26. Only matters of pressing interest 
will be considered and a report of recommendation and instruc- 
tions will be made to the executive committee. The regular mid- 
year meeting of the executive committee will also be held in New 
York, January 25. A banquet, of wiiich the date has not yet been 
announced, will be given to the members of the executive com- 
mittee and the visiting officials by the American Electric Railway 
Manufacturers' Association. 

Cleveland Engineering Society. 

At the regular meeting of the Cleveland Engineering Society, 
held in Cleveland, Ohio, January 9, an illustrated paper on Rail- 
way Signaling was presented by C. E. Denney, signal engineer 
of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern. F. W. Ballard is 

Western Society of Engineers. 

W. C. Armstrong, bridge engineer of the Chicago & North 
Western, has been elected president of the Western Society of 
Engineers; A. Bennett, first vice-president; G. T. Seeley, second 
vice-president ; E. C. Shankland, third vice-president, and 
A. Reichman, treasurer. 

Railway Club of Pittsburgh. 

At the meeting of the Railway Club of Pittsburgh, to be held 
in Pittsburgh, Pa., January 26, an illustrated paper on Oxy-acety- 
lene Welding and Cutting will be presented by J. A. Warfel. 


The following list gives names of secretaries, dates of next or regular 
meetings, and places of meeting. 

Air Brake Association. — F. M. Nellis, 53 State St., Boston, Mass.; annual, 
May 7-10, Richmond, Va. 

American Association of Demurrage Officers.- — A. G. Thomason, Boston, 
Mass. ; annual. May 10-11, San Francisco, Cal. 

American Association of General Passenger and Ticket Agents. — W. C. 
Hope, New York; next convention, Seattle, Wash. 

American Association of Freight Agents. — R. O. Wells, East St. Louis, 
111.; annual, June 18-21, Chicago. 

American Association of Railroad Superintendents.- — O. G. Fetter, 
Carew building, Cincinnati. Ohio; 3d Friday of March and Septem- 
ber; annual, March 17, Chicago. 

American Electric Railway Association. — H. C. Donecker, 29 W. 39th 
St., New York. 

American Electric Railway Manufacturers' Assoc. — George Keegan, 165 
Broadway, New York, Meetings with Am. Elec. Ry. Assoc. 

American Railway Association. — W. F. Allen, 75 Church St., New York. 

American Railway Bridge and Building Association. — C. A. Lichty, C. & 
N. W., Chicago. Convention, 3d week in Oct., Baltimore, Md. 

American Railway Engineering Association. — E. H. Fritch, Monadnock 
Block, Chicago; annual convention, March 19-21, 1912, Chicago. 

American Railway Master Mechanics' Assoc. — J. W. Taylor, Old Colony 
building, Chicago. Convention, June 17-19, Atlantic City, N. J. 

American Railway Tool Foremen's Association. — M. H. Bray. N. Y., 
N. H. & H., New Haven, Conn. 

American Society for Testing Materials. — Prof. E. Marburg, University 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

American Society of Civil Engineers. — C. W. Hunt, 220 W. S7th St., 
New York; l.«;t and 3d Wed., except June and August, New York. 

American Society of Engineering Contractors. — J. R. Wemlinger, 13 
Park Row, New York; 2d Tuesday of each month. New York. 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers. — Calvin W. Rice, 29 W. 
39th St., New York. 

Association of American Railway Accounting Officers. — C. G. Phil- 
lips, 143 Dearborn St., Chicago; annual. June 26, 1912, Quebec, Que, 

Association of Railway Claim Agents. — J. R. McSherry. C. & E. I., Chi- 
cago; annual convention, May 22, 1912, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Association of Railway Electrical Engineers. — Jos. A, Andreucetti, C. & 
N. W. Ry.. Qiicago. 

Association of Railway Telegraph Superintendents. — P. W. Drew, 135 
Adams St., Chicago; annual, June 24, 1912, New York. 

Association of Transportation and Car Accounting Officers. — G. P. 
Conrad, 75 Church St., New York. 

Canadian Railway Club. — James Powell, Grand Trunk Ry., Montreal, 
Que.; 2d Tuesday in month, except June, July and Aug., Montreal. 

Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. — Clement H. McLeod, 413 Dor- 
chester St., Montreal, Que. ; Thursdays, Montreal. 

Car Foremen's Association of Chicago. — Aaron Kline, 841 North 50th 
Court, Chicago; 2d Monday in month, Chicago. 

Central Railway Club. — H. D. Vought, 95 Liberty St., New York; 2d 
Thurs. in Jan. and 2d Fri. in March, May, Sept., Nov., Buffalo. N. Y. 

Civil Engineers' Society of St. Paul. — D. F. Jurgensen, 116 Winter St., 
St. Paul, Minn.; 2d Monday, except June, July and Aug., St. Paul. 

Engineers Society of Pennsylvania. — E. R. Dasher, Box 704, Harris- 
burg, Pa. ; 1st Monday after 2d Saturday, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania. — E. K. Hiles, 803 Fulton 
building, Pittsburgh; 1st and 3d Tuesday, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Freight Claim Association. — Warren P. Taylor, Richmond, Va. ; annual, 

May 15, Buffalo, N. Y. 
General Superintendents' Association of Chicago. — E. S. Roller, 226 

W. Adams St., Chicago; Wed. preceding 3d Thurs., Chicago. 
International Railway Congress. — Executive Committee, rue de Louvain, 

11 Brussels; 1915, Berlin. 
International Railway Fuel Association. — D. B. Sebastian, La Salle 

St, Station, Chicago. 
International Railway General Foremen's Association.— L. H. Bryan, 

Brown Marx building, Birmingham, Ala. Convention, July, 23- 

26, Chicago. 
International Railroad Master Blacksmiths' Association. — A. L, Wood- 
worth, Lima, Ohio. Convention, August 15, Chicago. 
Iowa Railway Club. — W. B. Harrison, Union Station. Des Moines, la.; 

2d Friday in month, except July and August, Des Moines. 
Master Boiler Makers' Association. — Harry D. Vought, 95 Liberty St., 

New York; annual convention, May 14-17, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Master Car Builders' Association. — J. W. Taylor. Old Colony building, 

Chicago. Annual convention, June 12-14, Atlantic City, N. J. 
Master Car and Locomotive Painters' Assoc, of U. S. and Canada. — A, P. 

Dane, B. & M., Reading, Mass. Convention, 2d week in September. 
National Railway- Appliances Assoc. — Bruce V. Crandall, 537 So. Dear- 
born St., Chicago. Meetings with Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc. 
New England Railroad Club. — G. H. Frazier. 10 Oliver St., Boston, Mass.; 

2d Tuesday in month, except June, July, Aug. and Sept., Boston. 
New York Railroad Club. — H. D. Vought, 95 Liberty St., New York; 3d 

Friday in month, except June, July and August, New York. 
Northern Railway Club. — C. L. Kennedy, C, M. & St. P., Duluth, Minn.; 

4th Saturday, Duluth. 
Omaha Railway Club. — H. H. Maulick, Barker Block, Omaha, Neb.; 

second Wednesday. 
Railroad Club of Kansas City. — C. Manlove, 1008 Walnut St., Kansas 

City, Mo.; 3d Friday in month, Kansas City. 
Railway Business Association, — Frank W. Noxon, 2 Rector St., New 

Railway Club of Pittsburgh. — J. B. Anderson, Penna. R. R., Pittsburgh, 

Pa.; 4th Friday in month, except June, July and August, Pittsburgh, 
Railway Electrical Supply Manufacturers' Assoc. — J. Scribner, 1021 

Monadnock Block, Chicago. Meetings with Assoc. Ry. Elec. Engrs. 
Railway Industrial Association. — G. L. Stewart, St. L. S. W. Ry,, St, 

Louis. Mo.; annual, May 12, 1912. Kansas City, Mo. 
Railway Signal Association. — C. C. Rosenberg, Bethlehem, Pa. 
Railway Storekeepers' Association. — J. P. Murphy, Box C, Collinwood, 

Ohio. Convention, May 20-22, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Railway Supply Manufacturers* Assoc — J. D. Conway, 2135 Oliver BIdg., 

Pittsburgh, Pa. Meetings with M. M. and M. C. B. assocs. 
Railway Tel. & Tel. Appliance Assoc. — W. E. Harkness, 284 Pearl St., 

New York. Meetings with Assoc, of Ry. Teleg. Sups. 
Richmond Railroad Club. — F. O. Robinson, Richmond, Va.; 2d Monday, 

except June, July and August. 
Roadmasters' and Maintenance of Way Association. — L. C. Ryan, C. & 

N. W., Sterling; September, 1912, Buffalo. N. Y. 
St. Louis Railway Club. — B, W. Fraumenthal, Union Station, St. Louis, 

Mo.; 2d Friday in month, except June, July and Aug., St. Louis. 
Signal Appliance Association. — F. W. Edmonds. 3868 Park Ave., New 

York. Meetings with annual convention Railway Signal Association. 
Society of Railway Financial Officers. — C. Nyquist, La Salle St. Sta- 
tion, Chicago. 
Southern Association of Car Service Officers. — E. W. Sandwich, A. & 

W. P. Ry., Montgomery, Ala. 
Southern & Southwestern Railway Club. — A. J. Merrill, Grant bldg., 

Atlanta, Ga. ; 3d Thurs., Jan., March, May, July, Sept., Nov., Atlanta, 
Toledo Transportation Club. — J. G. Macomber, Woolson Spice Co., To- 
ledo, Ohio ; 1st Saturday, Toledo. 
Traffic Club of Chicago. — Guy S. McCabe, La Salle Hotel, Chicago; 

meetings monthly. Chicago. 
Traffic Club of New York. — C. A. Swope, 290 Broadway, New York; last 

Tuesday in month, except June, July and August, New York. 
Traffic Club of Pittsburgh. — D. L. Wells, Erie, Pittsburgh, Pa.; meetings 

monthly, Pittsburgh. 
Train Despatchers' Association of America. — J. F. Mackie, 7042 Stewart 

Ave., Chicago; annual, June 18, 1912, Louisville, Ky. 
Transportation Club of Buffalo. — J. M. Sells, Buffalo; first Saturday 

after first Wednesday. 
Transportation Club of Detroit. — W. R. Hurley, L. S. & M. S., Dertoit, 

Mich. ; meetings monthly. 
Traveling Engineers' Association. — W. O. Thompson, N. Y. C. & H. R., 

East Buffalo, N. Y.; August, 1912. 
Western Canada Railway Club. — W. H, Rosevear, P. O. Box 1707, Win- 
nipeg, Man.; 2d Monday, except June. July and August, Winnipeg. 
Western Railway Club. — J. W. Taylor. Old Colony building, Chicago; 3d 

Tuesday of each month, except June, July and August. 
Western Society of Engineers. — J. H. Warder. 1735 Monadnock Block, 

Chicago; 1st Wednesday in month except July and August. Chicago. 

Wood Preservers' Association. — F. J. Angier, B. & O., Baltimore, Md. ; 
annual, January 16-18, Chicago. 

Janl-ary 12, 1912. 



Qlrafftr Ketui^. 

The Nevada-California-Oregon Railway is now running trains 
regularly on its extension northward from its former terminus 
to Lakeview, Ore., 37 miles. 

Press despatches from Boston report a serious congestion 
of freight on the steamship docks because of a strike of long- 
shoremen, which began last week. 

The fifth annual dinner of the Chicago Transportation Associa- 
tion was held on January 9 at the Auditorium Hotel, Chicago. 
William Hodgdon, freight traffic manager of the Pennsylvania 
Lines, was one of the speakers. 

At New York on Friday last, five pence a bushel was paid 
for carrying 16,000 bushels of corn to London; said to be the 
highest rate for such service since 1891. It was an emergency 
shipment to fill a delayed contract. 

The Chicago & Alton has restored its former fast freight 
schedules from Chicago to Kansas City, and St. Joseph, giving 
a second morning delivery. Last winter the Alton and other lines 
lengthened schedules to give a third morning delivery. 

The Western Classification Committee has issued its docket 
for the semi-annual classification meeting to be held at Galveston 
on January 16. The docket includes a list of 404 subjects, among 
which are several that were disposed of at the Milwaukee meet- 
ing last summer, but in which the decisions have been opposed 
by shippers. 

The Florida East Coast Railway is to be opened to Key West 
January 22, and the president of the United States, on behalf of 
the city of Key West, has invited foreign nations to be present 
at a celebration which will be held on that day. Many of the 
foreign ministers in Washington will go, or send representatives. 

The transportation bureau of Wichita, Kan., has passed reso- 
lutions -calling on Kansas senators and representatives in Con- 
gress to support legislation for the abolition of the commerce 
court. Endorsement is also given to the proposals to amend the 
act to regulate commerce so as to give the Interstate Commerce 
Commission the right to prescribe minimum as well as maximum 
rates, and to give it jurisdiction over coastwise steamship traffic 
and rates. 

The Grand Trunk has withdrawn its offer of a commission of 
$3 on immigrant passengers, which was sent to the steamship 
lines a few weeks ago ; and it is understood that the other rail- 
ways taking passengers west from New York have agreed to 
admit the Grand Trunk as a partner in their immigrant office at 
Ellis Island, New York harbor. It is expected that a tariff will 
be issued showing emigrant rates over the Grand Trunk from 
New York to points in western Canada. 

At a meeting of the Western Passenger Association on Janu- 
ary 4, it was decided to make two cents a mile the minimum rate 
for conventions and special excursions. Homeseekers' rates are 
to be made on the same basis as last year. Action on summer 
tourist rates was postponed until next month. An effort is being 
made to bring about an increase of $2.50. The association also 
reaffirmed the rule previously adopted by it providing for an 
excess baggage charge on trunks over 45 in. long, equal to that 
for 10 lbs. for each inch of excess. 

It is reported in Washington that negotiations between the 
American government and representatives of Canada, looking to 
a joint international commission to regulate railway rates between 
the United States and Canada, as the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission regulates them in this country, have been given up, the 
British government apparently having decided that such a joint 
body would help promote reciprocity in trade, whereas the last 
election in Canada condemned the idea of reciprocity. Former 
Chairman Knapp, of the Interstate Commerce Commission, and 
the chairman of the Canadian commission, held a number of con- 
ferences on this subject last year. 

All of the independent steel and iron companies in Alabama 
and Tennessee have decided to apply to the Interstate Commerce 
Commission for reductions in freight rates. They claim that 
the railways of the South, particularly the Louisville & Nashville 
and the Southern Railway, are maintaining high rates so that 
the United States Steel Corporation may continue to command 
the markets of the North and West to the detriment of the 

companies in the South. The principal point at issue is the 
freight on iron from the Birmingham and Tennessee districts to 
Ohio river points. In 1906 and the early part of 1907, the rail- 
ways advanced freight rates on iron to Ohio river points $1 
a ton. At first, when iron was selling at $15 a ton, the railways 
advanced the freight rate 50 cents a ton, and then, when the price 
of iron advanced to $20 a ton, the railways, according to these 
steel men, imposed a further charge of 50 cents. No objection 
was made to these advances at the time, the iron and steel com- 
panies doing a profitable business and having no objection to the 
railway sharing in that prosperity. 

The activities of the Southern Railway in promoting agricul- 
ture in all its branches throughout the states traversed by the 
company's lines, have been frequently noticed in these columns. 
Speaking of the success of this work, an officer of the road 
tells us that on the occasion of one of the educational excursions 
in southern Virginia some time ago, an agent of the land and 
industrial department of the road took the names and addresses 
of a large number of farmers attending the lectures ; and on 
sending out a circular letter, a year later, he received replies 
from 48 of these men, almost everyone of whom told of specific 
benefits which he had derived from listening to the lectures. 
There is no doubt that much improvement is accomplished which 
cannot be measured. The United States agricultural department 
at Washington reports increases in the average yields per acre 
of all crops reported on in each of the states traversed by the 
Southern Railway Lines, and the officers of the railw-ay feel 
justified in believing that their agricultural instruction trains are 
to be credited with some of this improvement. 

The Long Island Railroad Company has issued a circular 
showing that 9,046 buildings were erected on Long Island (ex- 
clusive of Long Island City and old Brooklyn) during 1911. Of 
this number 7,429 were dwellings, 820 stores, 44 factories and 
753 miscellaneous. The total shows an increase of 529 over the 
previous year, and compared with the number of structures put 
up in 1905 — when the road first started to make compilations of 
building operations — it indicates a gain of over 50 per cent. For 
the benefit of prospective homeseekers and others, the circular 
contains a map showing where the residential sections are lo- 
cated, where factories can be built, where the best summer resorts 
are found, where farms are under cultivation, and where golfers, 
fishermen and huntsmen may find these pleasures. On September 
8 last, the Long Island completed its first year's operation of 
trains to and from New York City through the Pennsylvania 
Railroad's East river tunnels. During that period the Long 
Island took about six million passengers to or from the Pennsyl- 
vania station in Manhattan, in 87,000 trains. During the year pre- 
vious to the opening of the tunnels there were 137,937 commu- 
tation tickets sold on Long Island, while during the first year 
of the operation of the tunnel route, there were 151,931 tickets 
sold — an increase of 19,994. The Long Island road has spent 
enormous sums of money and is still making large expenditures 
for new cars, new stations and the elimination of grade crossings. 
Work is now under way on the North Side division, which in- 
volves the construction of a new line between Woodside and 
Winfield. and the electrification of the line to Port Washington 
and Whitestone Landing, together with the abolition of many 
grade crossings 


The commission has suspended until May 11 the proposed 
advances (amounting to about 10 per cent.) on bituminous coal 
made by the railways in western Trunk Line Association terri- 

Commissioner Prouty has been elected chairman of the commis- 
sion, to succeed Chairman Clements. This is in accordance with 
a rule adopted last year that the term of office of the cliairman- 
ship should be limited to one year and be filled from year to year 
by different members in the order of seniority in service. 

The iron and steel manufacturers of the Youngstown district 
of Ohio have filed a complaint with the Interstate Commerce 
Commission attacking the rate of 56 cents a ton on iron ore 
from Ashtabula harbor, the rate of $1.35 a ton on coke from the 
Connellsville district, and the 70-cent rate on coal from the 
Pittsburgh district. 



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Vol. 52, No. 2. 

Discrimination by Elevation In Transit Rules. 

IVilliam H. Suifcrn Grain Co. v. Illinois Central et al. Opin- 
ion by Commissioner Prouty. 

A rule which provides that grain may be unloaded into ele- 
vators at Cairo, 111., and reshipped at the balance of the through 
rate, the railway company paying the elevator company three- 
fourths of a cent per hundred pounds, but which does not pro- 
vide for any elevation allowance to grain dealers at Decatur, 
III, discriminates against Decatur, and the discrimination is 
ordered discontinued. (22 I. C. C, 178.) 


The Washington railway commission has issued a general dis- 
tance tariff reducing distributive freight rates to and from 
Seattle, Tacoma, Spokane, Everett, Bellingham, Aberdeen, Ho- 
quiam, Chehalis, Centralia, Wenatchee, Pasco, Kenewick, North 
Yaquima and Walla Walla, effective May 1, by amounts ranging 
from 10 to 31 per cent. 

The Louisiana Railway Commission, after an investigation of 
express rates within the state e.xtending over the past year, has 
issued an order requiring many reductions in the present rates. 
The commission prescribes a maximum distance scale of mer- 
chandise rates, and also orders several changes in the rules gov- 
erning express shipments, effective March 1. 

The Board of Public Utility Commissioners of New Jersey 
has ordered all roads operating in that state to provide facili- 
ties for the use of drinking water by passengers on trains, and 
the order says that the arrangement made in some other states 
by railway companies, by which passengers can obtain individual 
paper cups without cost by applying to conductors, brakemen or 
porters, recommends itself to the board. 

The Illinois railway commission at a meeting on January 3 
denied a petition of the Mine Rescue State Commission of Illi- 
nois, asking the elimination of the $25 minimum tariff rate for 
the movement of mine rescue cars within the state. Representa- 
tives of the railways present opposed the elimination of the mini- 
mum as establishing a precedent which might be applied to other 
kinds of cars, but stated that the roads should be allowed to 
treat each case individually and to handle the mine rescue cars 
free if emergency required. The commission at this meeting es- 
tablished a rating of double first class on aeroplanes in the 
Illinois classification on the petition of the Illinois freight com- 

The Jilississippi Commission on January 3 ordered the dis- 
continuance of its freight classification, which has been in 
force for many years, and th^ adoption by the railways, for 
intrastate shipments, the same classification as that now used 
by them on interstate business, namely, Southern classifica- 
tion No. 38. One of the three commissioners voted against 
the resolution, and it is said that on January 15 the present 
commission goes out of office and that this change in classifi- 
cation may then be rescinded. The effect of the change on 
some commodities will be to raise the rates, while on others 
there will be a reduction; and, of course, every shipper whose 
goods have to pay a higher rate will clamor for the reversal 
of this action. 

The Indiana Commission announces that on February 8 a 
conference and inquiry will be held on the subject of rails; 
and railway managers, engineers and other officers interested 
in rails, including purchasing agents, are notified to be pres- 
ent. Rail manufacturers may appear if they wish to do so. 
The commission hopes that the railways and the railmakers 
will act together harmoniously to secure the best rails. 
The preamble to the notice says that the commission is ad- 
vised that the rails now being put in use are inferior to the 
"lighter grades" heretofore used, meaning, presumably, 
smaller sections. It is understood that the commission will 
seek the aid and counsel of the American Railway Engineer- 
mg Association. 

On complaint against the discontinuance of the use of the 
Pennsylvania station at Jersey City by the New York, Susque- 
hanna & Western, the Board of Public Utility Commissioners 

of New Jersey made an investigation and came to the conclu- 
sion that while considerable inconvenience to the public would 
be caused by the abandonment of this station by the N. Y. S. & 
W., the board could not compel the Pennsylvania Railroad to per- 
init the N. Y. S. & W. to continue to use and occupy its Jersey 
City station, and the board could not force the New York, 
Susquehanna & Western to employ condemnation proceedings 
to establish a permanent foothold in the Pennsylvania passenger 
terminal. The board disapproves of the action of the New 
York, Susquehanna & Western but has no jurisdiction in the 

Annual Report. 

The New Y'ork State Public Service Commission, First dis- 
trict (New York City), has made its fifth annual report. 
During the year 1911 the commission has awarded subway 
contracts to the amount of $29,000,000, which, with the con- 
tracts awarded m previous years and not yet completed, 
make nearly $50,000,000 worth of work now going on. The 
commission has made substantial progress on the execution 
of the city transit programme as agreed upon with the Board 
of Estimate of the city. It recommends a law providing 
that reorganized companies shall be required to get ap- 
proval of new securities, as is now the case with solvent 
companies; also that the courts be prohibited from reviewing 
the commission's orders by certiorari. It is recommended 
that a bill be passed providing a method of exempting self- 
sustaining rapid transit bonds issued after January 1, 1910. 

An appropriation of $1,000,0(X) for the elimination of grade 
crossings is asked for. Applications for approval of issues of 
stocks and bonds during the past year, in cases other than reor- 
ganization, have aggregated $79,914,177. There are now 97 oper- 
ating and lessor transportation corporations subject to the juris- 
diction of the commission, with an aggregate capitalization of 

The per capita expenditure of the public of New York City 
for 1910 is estimated at $16.35 for transportation, $6.68 for 
gas and $5.32 for electricity, a total of $28.35, and the ex- 
penses of the commission in supervising such public utilities 
were $377,000, a per capita expense of eight cents. 

A chapter is devoted to service facilities, the principal im- 
provements effected during the year being pointed out. 


The Missouri supreme court has sustained the validity of a 
law of that state requiring railway companies to maintain pas- 
senger service on Sunday on branch lines of a certain minimum 

The government has filed in the United States supreme 
court at Washington an appeal from the lower court in the 
case of the Interstate Commerce Commission, the Federal 
Sugar Refining Company and others against the Baltimore 
& Ohio and the Central of New Jersey. This is a suit con- 
cerning alleged discriminatory allowances by the railways 
for lighterage at eastern termini on westbound shipments of 

The opinion of the Supreme Court delivered by Justice 
McKenna says that under federal law before a common carrier 
can accept freight for transportation it must publish its rates 
and regulations. Congress having exercised its pow-er to regu- 
late interstate commerce in this w'ay, the state was precluded 
from legislating on the same subject. It was manifestly a con- 
flict of power between the federal and the state authorities, and 
in that case the state should give way. The case was reversed 
and remanded. 

The Supreme Court of the United States this week handed 
down a decision invalidating the law of the state of North Caro- 
lina which requires common carriers to accept for transportation 
freight offered at any regular station of the carrier and to trans- 
port it. The decision was in the case of the Southern Railway 
against Reid. The statute provides a penalty for each day that 
the carrier holds the goods after receiving them and before for- 
warding them. The Supreme Court of North Carolina had held 
it to be constitutional. 

January 12, 1912. 



Hatltttati (Biiicen^, 


Executive, Financial and Legal Officers. 
David Z. Cowden has been appointed tax attorney of the 
Southern Pacific, with olfice at San Francisco, Cal., succeeding 
Jere T. Burke, deceased. 

H. E. Bissell has been appointed right-of-way and claims agent 
of the Grand Trunk Pacific, with office at Winnipeg, Man., suc- 
ceeding George H. Pope. 

Lucius Laudie has been appointed auditor of the Salt Lake & 
Mercur, with office at Salt Lake City, Utah, succeeding P. E. 
Long, resigned to go into other business. 

S. B. Haupt. general manager of the Susquehanna, Blooms- 
burg & Berwick at Watsontown, Pa., has been elected also 
president, succeeding J. H. Cochran, deceased. 

H. M. Watkins, auditor of freight accounts of the Oregon- 
Washington Railroad & Navigation Company at Portland, Ore., 
has been appointed assistant auditor of the Union Pacific, witli 
office at Omaha, Neb. 

N. M. Leach, traffic manager of the Texas & Pacific, with office 
at New Orleans, La., has been appointed also assistant to the 
president of the International & Great Northern. During the 
period of the receivership of the latter road Mr. Leach was its 
traffic manager. 

L, Delano, assistant to general superintendent of transpor- 
tation of the Atlantic Coast Line at Wilmington, N. C, has been 
appointed assistant to the president, with office at Wilmington, 
succeeding W. R. Sullivan, whose resignation has already been 
announced in these columns. 

E. T. Jeflfery, president of the Denver & Rio Grande, has been 
elected chairman of the board, with office at New York, suc- 
ceeding George J. Gould. Benjamin F. Bush, president of the 
Missouri Pacific, has been elected also president of the Denver 
& Rio Grande, with office at St. Louis, Mo., succeeding Mr. 
Jeffery. A photograph of Mr. Bush, and a sketch of his career 
were published in the Railway Age Gazette of April 21, 1911, 
page 944. 

The real estate and tax departments of the Missouri Pacific- 
Iron Mountain system having been consolidated, J. M. Seibert, 
general agent in the passenger department at St. Louis, has been 
appointed real estate and tax agent, with office at St. Louis, and 
E. S. Cronk, land agent at St. Louis, has been appointed assistant 
real estate and tax agent. 

S. S. Butler, whose appointment as assistant to the vice-presi- 
dent in charge of traffic of the St. Louis & San Francisco Lines 
in Te.xas and Louisiana, with office at Houston, Tex., has been 
announced in these columns, was born August 25, 1875, at Mur- 
freesboro, Tenn. He received a high school education in his 
native town, and began railway work November 1, 1890, with the 
Texas & Pacific at Dallas, Tex., remaining with that company 
for ten years. On November 1, 1900, he went with the St. Louis 
& San Francisco at Dallas as a soliciting agent, and was then 
consecutively traveling freight agent, commercial agent and gen- 
eral agent, having been appointed to the latter office, with head- 
quarters at Ft. Smith, Ark., on April 1, 1907. He was appointed 
general Eastern agent, with office at New York, on October 1, 
1909, from which position he was promoted as above, effective 
January 1. 

Operating Officers. 

William Osborne has been appointed superintendent of the At- 
lantic Northern & Southern, with office at Atlantic, Iowa. 

W. M. Cowhig has been appointed superintendent of trans- 
portation of the Southern Railway, with office at Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

S. L. Racey, chief despatcher of the Green River division of 
the Denver & Rio Grande at Helper, Utah, has been appointed 
chief despatcher of the Salt Lake division, with office at Salt 

M. D. Rice, roadmaster of the Nevada-California-Oregon Rail- 
way, has been appointed assistant superintendent, with headquar- 
ters at Lakeview, Ore. 

A. M. Parker. 

Lake City, succeeding H. H. Hoover, resigned to accept service 
with another company. W. .'K. Nash succeeds Mr. Racey. 

.\lexander MacDonald Parker, whose appointment as su- 
perintendent of the Allegheny division of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, has been announced in these columns, was born 

on June 25, 1870, at 
Carlisle, Cumberland 

county. Pa., and was 
educated at Dickinson 
College. He entered 
the service of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad in 
1888 as a rodman, in 
which capacity and 
subsequent higher ones 
he was engaged for sev- 
eral years on survey 
work. In 1891 he was 
transferred to the as- 
sistant engineer's office 
on the Philadelphia di- 
vision, and was later 
transferred to the prin- 
cipal assistant engineer's 
office at Altoona. In 1892 
he was appointed assist- 
ant supervisor of the Phil- 
adelphia division at Lan- 
caster, and four years 
later was transferred in 
the same capacity to the Philadelphia yard. He was ap- 
pointed supervisor at Tyrone in 1897, and subsequently served 
in the same capacity on the Frederick, the Schuylkill and the 
New York divisions, becoming assistant to the principal as- 
sistant engineer in 1903. He was made principal assistant engi- 
neer in 1905, and upon the organization of the Hudson division 
at New York in 1909, Mr. Parker was appointed superintendent, 
which position he held until his recent appointment as super- 
intendent of the Allegheny division, with office at Oil 
City, Pa. 

Charles S. Krick. whose appointment as superintendent of 
the Manhattan division of the Pennsylvania Railroad has 
been announced in these columns, was born on March 16, 

1866, at Reading, Pa. 
He was educated at the 
public schools and at 
Carroll Institute, Read- 
ing, and graduated from 
La Fayette College in 
June, 1887. The follow- 
ing month he entered 
the service of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad as 
rodman on the Schuyl- 
kill division, and was 
later transferred to the 
Altoona office. From 
December 14, 1890, to 
May, 1895, he was as- 
sistant supervisor, first 
at Tyrone, then at Mid- 
dletown, and later at 
Philadelphia, and was 
then appointed super- 
visor of the Schuylkill 
division. He was later 
transferred to the Mid- 
dle division and then to 
the Pittsburgh division. In January, 1903, he was made as- 
sistant engineer of the Eastern & Susquehanna division, and 
later was transferred to the Philadelphia Terminal division. 
Mr. Krick was appointed principal assistant engineer of the 
Philadelphia, Baltimore & Washington in January, 1906, and 
in April of the following year he was made superintendent of 
the New York Terminal division. On January 1, 1912, when 
the Hudson division and the New York Terminal divisions 
were combined to form the Manhattan division, he was ap- 
pointed superintendent of that division. 

C. S. Krick. 



Vol. 52, No. 2. 

E. M. Switzer has been appointed superintendent of safety of 
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, with office at Chicago. (See 
item in General News Section.) 

Oliver T. Boyd, general passenger agent of the Hudson & 
Manhattan, has been appointed assistant general manager, 
with office at New York City. 

H. H. Hoover, chief despatcher of the Denver & Rio Grande 
at Salt Lake City, Utah, has been appointed chief despatcher of 
the Southern Pacific, with office at Ogden, Utah. 

F. G. Bement, formerly trainmaster of the Grand Trunk at 
Durand, Mich., has been appointed inspector of transportation 
of the Pere Marquette, with office at Detroit, Mich. 

G. H. Hammond has been appointed superintendent of termin- 
als of the Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie at Duluth, 
Minn., and Superior, Wis., with headquarters at the latter place. 

The Southern Railway announces that on January IS, the 
general direction of the operations of the departments of main- 
tenance of way and structures, maintenance of equipment and 
transportation will be trasferred to and directed by the chief 
engineer of maintenance of way and structures, the general 
superintendent of motive power and equipment, and the general 
superintendent of transportation, respectively, and the general 
superintendents of each district will report to and be governed 
by instructions issued by them. Questions relating to operation 
will be reported by general superintendents to the vice-president 
and general manager, as heretofore. The general superintendent 
of motive power and equipment will control and give direction 
to the inspection, care and use of coal for all purposes. The 
superintendent of transportation will direct the distribution of 


Traffic Officers. 

W. H. Winnfield,, soliciting freight agent of the St. Louis & 
San Francisco at Dallas, Tex., has resigned. 

J. V. Styers has been appointed assistant general freight agent 
of the Bessemer & Lake Erie, with office at Pittsburgh, Pa. 

R. J. Ross has been appointed commercial agent of the New 
York Central lines and fast freight lines, with headquarters at 
Winnipeg, Man. 

S. G. Nethercot, chief of tariff bureau of the Chicago & North- 
western, has been appointed assistant general freight agent, with 
office at Chicago. 

B. S. Barnes has been appointed acting foreign freight agent 
of the Erie Railroad with office at New York City, succeeding 
T. J. Skidmore, resigned. 

P. O. Lee has been appointed traveling freight agent of the 
Georgia Southern & Florida, with headquarters at Cordele, Ga., 
succeeding H. W. Watson, resigned. 

C. R. Strickler, agent of the Delaware, Lackawanna & West- 
ern at Des Moines, Iowa, has been appointed general agent of 
the Lackawanna Fast Freight Line, with headquarters at Peoria, 

Harry C. Hilbourne has been appointed general agent of the 
passenger department of the Chicago Great Western, with office 
at Chicago, succeeding F. P. Lasier, resigned on account of 

Volney E. Huff has been appointed freight solicitor of the 
Star Union Line of the Pennsylvania Lines West and the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad, in connection with the Indianapolis, Ind., 

R. B. Rawlins has been appointed traveling freight and pas- 
senger agent of the El Paso & Southwestern system and the 
Morenci Southern, with office at El Paso, Tex., succeeding H. L. 
Haynes, Jr., resigned. 

William D. Corfield has been appointed division freight agent 
of the Philadelphia & Reading, the Perkiomen Railroad and the 
Stony Creek Railroad, with office at Philadelphia, Pa., succeeding 
J. J. Bergen, deceased. 

N. M. Leach, traffic manager of the Texas & Pacific, with office 
at New Orleans, La., has been appointed also general traffic man- 
ager of the Opelousas, Gulf & Northeastern. (See item under 
Executive, Financial and Legal Officers.) 

C. R. Carlton, city ticket agent of the Pennsylvania Lines 
West at Dayton, Ohio, has been appointed traveling passenger 
agent, with headquarters at Atlanta, Ga., succeeding J. M. Harris, 
promoted. C. L. Tipton succeeds Mr. Carlton. 

James Robertson, assistant general freight agent of the Duluth, 
South Shore & Atlantic and the Mineral Range Railroad at 
Duluth, Minn., has been appointed also assistant general pas- 
senger agent, succeeding James Maney, promoted. 

T. L. Bingham has been appointed agent of the Western Tran- 
sit Company and the Rutland Transit Company, steamship lines 
of the New York Central, with office at St. Louis, Mo., succeed- 
ing J. G. Pullinger, resigned to accept service elsewhere. 

H. S. Duval, traveling freight agent of the Southern Railway 
at Albany, Ga., has been transferred to Valdosta, Ga. H. W. 
Watson succeeds Mr. Duval, with office at Albany, and W. C. 
Plant has been appointed freight soliciting agent, with office at 
Memphis, Tenn. 

The following appointments have been made on the Raleigh 
& Charleston : E. D. Kyle, freight traffic manager ; C. B. Ryan, 
general passenger agent ; R. I. Cheatham, assistant freight traffic 
manager; L. E. Chalenor, general freight agent; G. S. Rains, as- 
sistant general freight agent. 

T. G. Ratcliff, chief clerk to the traffic manager of the Gal- 
veston, Harrisburg & San Antonio, at Houston, Tex., has been 
appointed commercial agent of the Houston East & West Texas, 
with office at Houston, succeeding J. B. Gibson, resigned to be- 
come agent of the Frisco Refrigerator Line. 

C. J. Longbotham, general agent in the freight department of 
the Chicago Great Western at Duluth, Minn., has been appointed 
general agent in the freight department, with office at St. Paul, 
Minn., succeeding J. N. Storr, resigned to engage in other busi- 
ness. R. A. Bishop, agent at Winona, Minn., succeeds Mr. Long- 

W. F. Mundee has been appointed commercial freight agent of 
the Seaboard Air Line, at Jacksonville, Fla., with office at 
Jacksonville. R. H. Dozier, commercial agent at Jacksonville, 
has been appointed contracting freight agent at Jacksonville, re- 
porting to the commercial freight agent, and C. I. Malone has 
been appointed contracting freight agent, with office at .Atlanta, 

Edward Eden, traveling freight agent of the Canadian Pacific, 
the Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie, the Canadian Pa- 
cific Despatch and the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic at Chicago, 
has been appointed agent of these lines, with headquarters at 
Omaha, Neb. His territory, comprising the state of Iowa, parts 
of Minnesota and South Dakota, and Omaha, Neb., remains the 

E. B. Reynolds, soliciting agent of the Louisville & Nashville 
at Memphis, Tenn., has been appointed a traveling freight agent, 
with office at Memphis. B. H. Wallace succeeds Mr. Reynolds. 
H. T. Drane, soliciting agent at Selma, Ala., has been appointed 
traveling freight agent, with office at Macon, Ga., succeeding 
C. L. Whaley, resigned, and Robert C. Gucker succeeds Mr. 
Drane, with office at Selma. 

J. E. Branch, traveling freight agent of the St. Louis & San 
Francisco Lines at Atlanta, Ga., has been appointed commercial 
agent, with office at Jacksonville, fla., succeeding M. M. Hogan, 
resigned, and F. G. Roberts, soliciting freight agent at Atlanta, 
succeeds Mr. Branch. S. R. Carson succeeds Mr. Roberts. 
J. E. W. Fields, chief rate clerk at Houston, Tex., has been ap- 
pointed assistant to the general Eastern agent, with office in 
New York. 

H. F. Harden, soliciting freight agent of the Cincinnati, New 
Orleans & Texas Pacific at Cincinnati. Ohio, has been appointed 
traveling freight agent, with office at Indianapolis, Ind., succeed- 
ing L. E. Banta, transferred. W. S. Logan succeeds Mr. Harden. 
B. Q. Gasner has been appointed traveling freight agent, with 
headquarters at Cincinnati, Ohio, succeeding J. W. Piatt, trans- 
ferred, and A. H. Fulkerson has been appointed traveling freight 
agent, with office at Jacksonville, Fla., succeeding W. E. Hurley, 

G. N. Thomas, traveling freight agent of the Wabash at Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., has been appointed general agent, with office at Pitts- 

January 12, 1912. 



burgh, succeeding R. E. Lawrence, deceased, and D. E. Gilbert, 
contracting agent at Pittsburgh, succeeds Mr. Thomas. W. D. 
Stubbs, general agent, with offices at Seattle, Wash., and Port- 
land, Ore., having resigned to go into other business, F. H. 
Wegener, traveling freight and passenger agent at Seattle, has 
been appointed general agent at Seattle, and C. A. Pettibone, 
traveling freight and passenger agent at Portland, has been ap- 
pointed general agent at Portland. 

The territory east of Alpha, N. J. (with exception of Newark, 
N. J.), on the Lehigh Valley, will hereafter be under the direct 
supervision of the general offices at New York. O. F. Johnson 
has been appointed traveling freight agent, with headquarters 
at New York, in charge of the territory east of Alpha, N. J. 
(not including Newark), and will assume such other duties as 
may be assigned to him by the general freight agent. A. B. 
Walmsley, division freight agent at Newark, has been appointed 
commercial agent at Newark. The jurisdiction of O. M. Barres, 
division freight agent at South Bethlehem, Pa., has been ex- 
tended to include the Mahanoy & Hazleton division, Penn Haven 
Junction, Pa., to Mount Carmel, including Beaver Meadow 
branch, Highland branch, Ashland branch, and Quakake branch, 
Pottsville branch. Lizard Creek Junction, Pa., to Pottsville, and 
adjacent territory on connecting roads. H. E. Dengler, division 
freight agent at Hazleton, Pa., has been appointed commercial 
agent at Hazleton. W. T. Grier, coal freight agent, has been 
appointed general coal and freight agent, with office at New 
York, and S. A. Story has been appointed through freight agent, 
with office at Buflfalo, N. Y. 

Engineering and Rolling Stock Officers. 

See item regarding duties of officers on Southern Railway 
under Operating Officers. 

W. F. Hart has been appointed chief engineer of the Mem- 
phis, Dallas & Gulf, with office at Nashville, Ark., succeeding 

A. M. Van Auken, resigned. 

John Fletcher, superintendent of telegraph of the Canadian 
Pacific at Vancouver, B. C, has been appointed to the new 
position of telegraphic superintendent of traffic. 

Samuel G. Thomson, assistant engineer of motive power of the 
Philadelphia & Reading, has been appointed acting superintendent 
of motive power and rolling equipment with office at Reading, 
Pa., succeeding Howard D. Taylor, resigned. 

C. W. Cross, superintendent of apprentices of the New York 
Central & Hudson River at New York, and G. W. Good, super- 
visor of piece work, also with office at New York, have been 
transferred to Chicago, where they will have jurisdiction over the 
New York Central Lines west of Buffalo. 

T. Rumney, general mechanical superintendent of the Erie 
at New York, has been appointed assistant second vice-president 
of the Rock Island Lines in charge of the mechanical department, 
with office at Chicago, succeeding W. A. Nettleton, general 
superintendent of motive power, resigned. 

William Schlafge, mechanical superintendent of the Erie Railroad 
at Jersey City, N. J., has been appointed general mechanical su- 
perintendent, with office at New York, succeeding T. Rumney, 
resigned, to go to the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific. A. G. 
Trumbull, mechanical superintendent at Cleveland, Ohio, has been 
transferred to Jersey City ; E. S. Fitzsimmons, master mechanic 
at Hornell, N. Y., has been promoted to mechanical superintend- 
ent at Cleveland ; L. R. Laizure, master mechanic at Cleveland, 
has been transferred to Hornell, and J. A. Boyden, general fore- 
man at Hornell, has been promoted to master mechanic at Cleve- 

W. N. Spangler, supervisor of signals of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad at New York, has been appointed inspector of signals 
in the office of the signal engineer at Philadelphia, Pa., and 

B. F. Oler, supervisor of signals at Camden, N. J., succeeds 
Mr. Spangler. E. K. Post, supervisor of signals at Media, Pa., 
succeeds Mr. Oler, and W. I. Bell, assistant supervisor of sig- 
nals at Altoona, Pa., succeeds Mr. Post. P. A. Rainey, assistant 
supervisor of signals at Harrisburg, Pa., has been transferred 
to the middle division at Altoona, succeeding Mr. Bell, and E. G. 

Bauman, foreman at the Jersey City terminal on the New York 
division, succeeds Mr. Rainey. L. E. Carpenter, supervisor of 
signals at Williamsport, Pa., has been appointed supervisor of 
signals on the Philadelphia terminal division, with office at West 
Philadelphia, succeeding C. E. Goings, transferred to the office 
of the signal engineer. J. H. Broadbent, supervisor of signals 
on the Allegheny division at Kittanning, Pa., succeeds Mr. Car- 
penter on the Williamsport and Susquehanna divisions, and B. F. 
Dickinson, assistant supervisor of signals at Jersey City, suc- 
ceeds Mr. Broadbent. E. M. Hatton, acting assistant supervisor 
of signals on the Baltimore division, has been appointed assist- 
ant supervisor of signals on the New York division, succeeding 
Mr. Dickinson. 

John Moore James, whose appointment as superintendent 
of motive power of the Western Pennsylvania division of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad has been announced in these columns, 

was born on September 
10, 1875, at Wellsville, 
Ohio, and was educated 
in the public schools of 
his native town and at 
the Ohio State Univer- 
sity. He entered the 
service of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad as a ma- 
chinist apprentice in the 
Altoona shops in 1893, 
and was appointed as- 
sistant foreman of car 
inspectors at Washing- 
ton, D. C, in May, 1899. 
The following January 
he was made foreman 
of the Anacosta shops 
of the Philadelphia, 
Baltimore & Washing- 
ton, and in May of the 
same year he was pro- 
moted to general fore- 
J. M. James. ""an at Washington. 

He was appointed gen- 
eral inspector of the Buffalo & Allegheny Valley division in 
Octol)er, 1900, and became assistant engineer of motive power 
of that division in January, 1902. The following December 
he was appointed master mechanic at the Olean, N. Y., shops, 
and in November, 1908, was transferred in the same capacity 
to the Buffalo division. He was again transferred on May 1, 
1911, as master mechanic to the West Philadelphia, Pa., shops, 
which position he held at the time of his recent appointment 
as supermtendent of motive power of the Western Pennsyl- 
vania division, with office at Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Purchasing Officers. 

Adolph Butze, general purchasing agent of the Grand Trunk, 
with office at Montreal, Que., whose retirement on January 1, 
under the pension rules of the company, has already been an- 
nounced in these columns, was born in October, 1845, at Quincy, 
111., and was educated in the public schools of his native town. 
Mr. Butze, after serving in the Civil War, entered railway serv- 
ice in 1868, and was for some time in the employ of the Wabash. 
In 1885 he went to the Missouri Pacific in the purchasing de- 
partment, and two years later was made private secretary to 
the general manager of the Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville. 
Mr. Burtze up to the time of his retirement had been in the service 
of the Grand Trunk for the past 16 years, liaving been appointed 
general purchasing agent of that road in 1896. 


William F. Beyreiss, advertising agent of the Queen & Cres- 
cent Route, with office at Cincinnati, Ohio, died at tliat place on 
January 4. 

Francis S. Jones, freight solicitor of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road at Jamestown, N. Y.. and previous to that superintendent 
of the Jamestown, Chautauqua & Lake Erie, died on January 
1 at Jamestown, at the age of 61 years. 



Vol. 52, No. 2. 

^qmpment an^ §^np^ltt^. 


The Virgixi.\n Railway has ordered 9 mikado locomotives 
from the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 

The Central Vermont has ordered three switching locomo- 
tives from the Lima Locomotive and Machine Company. 

The Minneapolis, Red Lake & Manitoba has ordered 1 ten- 
wheel locomotive from the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 

The Chic.\go, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha has ordered 
10 locomotives from the American Locomotive Company, in 
addition to the 5 switching locomotives mentioned in the Railway 
Age Cacellc of December 22. 


The Baltimore & Ohio is making inquiries for 36 passenger 

The Grand Trunk is making inquiries for 500 automobile 
cars and 500 refrigerator cars. 

The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western has ordered 200 
hopper cars from the American Car & Foundry Company. 

The Chicago & North Western has ordered 550 thirty-ton 
40-ft. refrigerator cars from the Haskell & Barker Car Company. 

The Elgin, Joliet & Eastern has ordered 250 Williamson gon- 
dola cars and 250 hopper cars from the Pullman Companj-, and 
250 hopper cars from the Standard Steel Car Company. 

The Western Live Stock Express, Chicago, has ordered 100 
double-deck stock cars, the bodies to be built by the Whipple Car 
Company and the steel underframes and trucks by the Bettendorf 
Axle Company. An option has been taken on an additional 100 
double-deck stock cars. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad has ordered 1,000 class H 22 coke 
cars from the Pressed Steel Car Company, 1,000 class H 21 coke 
cars and 200 class H 22 coke cars from the Cambria Steel Com- 
pany; 1,000 G. R. A. gondola cars from the American Car & 
Foundry Company, and 800 class H 22 coke cars from the Stand- 
ard Steel Car Company. 

The New York Centr.\l Lines have ordered 50 coaches and 
10 smoking cars from the American Car & Foundry Company, 
35 combination passenger and baggage cars from the Standard 
Steel Car Company, 15 baggage cars from the Pressed Steel Car 
Company, and 25 coaches and 20 smoking cars from the Barney 
& Smith Car Company. The New York Central & Hudson 
River will receive 50 coaches, 15 baggage cars, 30 combination 
passenger and baggage cars, and 20 smoking cars ; the Lake 
Shore & Michigan Southern will receive 10 smoking cars and 5 
combination passenger and baggage cars ; the Cleveland, Cin- 
cinnati, Chicago & St. Louis will receive 25 coaches. This com- 
pany is still negotiating for 2 combination mail and baggage cars 
and 2 combination passenger, mail and baggage cars. 


The Southern Railway has ordered 3,000 tons of rails from 
the Maryland Steel Company. 

The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy has ordered 1,200 tons 
of bridge material from the American Bridge Company. 

The Delaware & Hudson is reported to have ordered 12,000 
tons of open hearth rail from the Bethlehem Steel Company. 

The Great Northern is reported to have ordered 38,000 tons 
of rails, divided between the United States Steel Corporation, 
the Lackawanna Steel Company, and the Cambria Steel Company. 

General Conditions in Steel. — The operations of the steel 
mills have not increased since the first of the year, which had 
been expected from the heavy orders received in November and 
December. The explanation appears to be that the new orders are 

for immediate delivery, but will be spread over a period of sev- 
eral months. The principal feature of interest in the steel trade 
at present is the activity in fabricated structural steel for build- 
ings and bridges, in which the railways are figuring prominently. 
President Farrell, of the Steel Corporation, expects the mills to 
operate at full capacity in the near future. 


The j\lissouri Pacific plans to erect automatic block signals 
during the present year on the line from Shefiield, Mo., to Leeds, 
four miles ; and from Independence, Mo., to Kansas City South- 
western Junction, five miles. 

The Southern Railway will put up automatic block signals on 
the line from Denim, a point about three miles north of Greens- 
boro, N. C, to Charlotte, N. C, a distance of about 97 miles. 
This entire stretch is double track, with the exception of five 
miles just south of Concord, N. C, which is single track. The 
signals w'ill be of the three-position, upper quadrant type with 
the Railway Signal Association standard type A spectacle. There 
will be 116 signals. 

The Gray-Thurber cab signal and automatic train stop, which 
has been in use experimentally on the Pennsylvania Lines west 
of Pittsburgh, was tested at a public exhibition on December 29, 
with satisfactory results. Messrs. Gray and Thurber have been 
making experimental runs since the beginning of December. The 
tests are made on one of the westbound tracks of the main line 
of the Fort Wayne, between Jack's Run and Glenfield, about 5 
miles. This apparatus not only gives an audible signal in the 
cab of the locomotive and applies the brakes, but also shuts off 
steam. The electric circuits connecting the engine apparatus 
with the roadside apparatus, are run through the rails of the 
track and are controlled by means of an insulation between the 
locomotive and the tender, or between one pair of wheels of the 
locomotive and the rest of the engine. 

Railway Equipment in New Zealand. 

It is now the policy of the New Zealand government to make 
all its own rolling stock, even though it is admitted that it costs 
about one-third more to do so than if such equipment were im- 
ported from England or the United States. The present styles 
of locally made rolling stock conform to American patterns rather 
than British. On account of the narrow gage of New Zealand 
railways, 3 ft. 6 in., the locomotives and cars must be built much 
narrower than those intended for use on American railways, and 
this has led to some original local designs for economy of space. 
The chief mechanical engineer of the New Zealand railways, 
A. L. Beattie, whose position corresponds with that of super- 
intendent of motive power on American railways, is a member of 
the American Railway Master Mechanics' Association, and is a 
strong advocate of American models for locomotives and cars. 
Mr. Beattie tells me that were it not the present government 
policy to make its own equipment, he would favor importing all 
the rolling stock for New Zealand railways from the United 
States, as American-built equipment previously bought has given 
much more satisfaction than that bought in England. Out of 478 
locomotives now in use on the New Zealand railways, 109 were 
built in the United States and about 300 in England, the re- 
mainder having been built in New Zealand during the last four 
or five years, chiefly according to American designs modified to 
suit local conditions. Out of 1,166 cars used on the New 
Zealand raihvays. about 100 were American built. The only im- 
ported parts of the present locally made equipment consist of the 
steel tires or rims for the wheels and the larger steel castings. 
The chief local workshops for making this equipment are at 
Addington, a suburb of Christchurch. There is a large use here 
of machine tools and lathes, mostly from the United States, and 
much attention is paid to the latest American improvements, with 
a view to their introduction here. Westinghouse airbrakes are 
used, and the Pintsch system of car lighting. There are five 
separate Pintsch gas works manufacturing oil gas. the amount 
used by the government railways in 1910 being 8,270,930 cu. ft, 
costing about 50 cents per 100 cu. ft. The cars are now nearly 
all fitted with incandescent mantles. Acetylene gas is used for 
locomotive headlights.— Jl/i"W/fr of Railways for New Zealand. 

January 12, 1912. 



Street mechanical stokers, designed by Clement F. Street, 
Schenectady, N. Y., have been specified for the nine mikado loco- 
motives just ordered by the Virginian Railway from the Baldwin 
Locomotive Works. 

C. E. Tripp, of the Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, 
Boston, Mass., has been made chairman of the board of directors 
of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., succeeding Robert Mather, deceased. 

The Isthmian Canal Commission will receive bids until 
January 24 on cast iron car wheels, and until January 25 on 
automatic signal material, for the relocated line of the Pana- 
ma Railroad. (Circulars 671 and 669, respectively.) 

C. E. Knickerbocker, member American Society Civil En- 
gineers and lately resigned as chief engineer of the New 
York, Ontario & Western, has gone to the MacDonald Con- 
struction Company, New York, in charge of railway construc- 

Judge Elbert H. Garry, chairman of the United States Steel 
Corporation, New York, has resigned his position as chair- 
man of the board of directors of the Allis-Chalmers Company, 
Milwaukee, Wis. It has just been made known that Judge 
Gary also resigned from the directorate of the American 
Steel Foundries, New York, some time ago. 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works, Philadelphia, Pa., has 
bought 320 acres of land at Calumet, Ind., near Indiana Har- 
bor, upon which it will immediately begin the erection of a 
plant with a capacity of building 10 locomotives a week. Ad- 
ditions will be made later which will increase the capacity to 
30 locomotives a week, and will give employment to 5,000 

James A. Scully, work superintendent of the Whiting Foundry 
& Equipment Company, Harvey, 111., and George E. Jones, super- 
intendent of outside erection and complaint adjustment of the 
Whiting company, have resigned their positions and have organ- 
ized Scully, Jones & Co., Chicago, to make and sell foundry 
equipment and supplies, machinists' supplies and railway appli- 

D. F. Lillis has been appointed Eastern sales agent of the Grip 
Nut Company, Chicago, with headquarters in New York. Mr. 
Lillis has been engaged in railway work for about 20 years, and 
has been chief clerk to four presidents of the Lake Shore & 
Michigan Southern. Later he was secretary to J. F. Deems, 
until recently general superintendent of motive power, rolling 
stock and machinery of the New York Central lines. 

The Standard Railway Equipment Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., 
and the Monarch Pneumatic Tool Company, St. Louis, Mo., 
will in future keep their respective orders and business trans- 
actions separate. The Standard company will receive all orders 
for roof materials and carlines, and the Monarch company will 
receive all orders for pneumatic tools. P. H. Murphy is presi- 
dent of the Standard company and William Miller is president 
of the Monarch company. 

The ScuUin-Gallagher Iron & Steel Company, St. Louis, 
Mo., made a new record during December for low cost of 
production and maximum tonnage in plant No. 2. This com- 
pany has recently ordered a 45-ton pouring crane from the 
Alliance Machine Company, Alliance, Ohio, and a turbine air 
compressor from the Ingersoll-Rand Company, New York, 
to use exhaust steam capable of throwing 4,000 cu. ft. of air 
per minute at 100 lbs. pressure. 

J. G. White & Company, Inc., New York, have just purchased 
124 miles of 12-in. steel pipe to be used in building a natural gas 
line in California. The pipe will weigh approximately 11,000 tons, 
and, with transportation, will cost approximately $600,000. Quo- 
tations were asked from British, German and French manufac- 
turers, and the best foreign price was that of a British firm, 
which, exclusive of duty and freight, was approximately double 
that at which the contract was placed with the National Tube 
Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

W. O. Jacquette has resigned as vice-president of Manning, 
Maxwell & Moore, Inc., New York. Mr. Jacquette has made no 
plans for the future, but for the present will make his head- 

quarters at 165 Broadway, New York. Charles L. Lyle, hereto- 
fore manager for Manning, Maxwell & Moore, at St. Louis, 
Mo., has been made western manager for the Niles-Bement- 
Pond Company, New York, with office at St. Louis. Mr. Lyle 
was connected with the Niles-Bement-Pond Company until some 
nine years ago, when he left to go with Manning, Maxwell & 

George \V. Fowler, for many years sales manager of the Gar- 
wood Electric Company, New York, and W. J. Warder, Jr., 
formerly chief engineer and superintendent of Roth Brothers, 
Chicago, and later with the Westinghouse Electric & Manufac- 
turing Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., have resigned to enter the sales 
department of the Crocker-Wheeler Company, Ampere, N. J. 
A. K. Selden, Jr., for some years in charge of the design of 
motors for the Electro Dynamic Company, New York, has re- 
signed to enter the engineering department of the Crocker- 
Wheeler Company. 

Morris E. Ward, general sales agent of the Chicago-Cleveland 
Car Roofing Company, Chicago, died in Chicago on January 7 
of a complication of diseases at the age of 68 years. Mr. Ward 
served for three years in the Civil War, and later was associated 
with several newspapers in various parts of the West. In 1874 
he became city editor of the Denver Nezvs, and, later city editor 
of the Omaha Republican. For seven years he was railway edi- 
tor of the old Chicago Times, after which he was for three years 
connected with the Allen Paper Car Wheel Company, and for 
three years with the Wickes Refrigerator Company. He had 
been general sales agent of the Chicago-Cleveland Car Roof- 
ing Company for 18 years. 

The Bureau of Associated Geological Engineers, with main 
office at 131 State street, Boston, Mass., and a branch at 331 
Fourth avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa., an association that has en- 
gaged in geological engineering, has recently entered the rail- 
way field, specializing in examinations of mineral properties 
and the possibilities of mining and quarrying developments 
along the lines of the various railways, reporting on the most 
favorable localities for obtaining water supplies, and on the 
geological conditions bearing upon the stability of bridge and 
other foundations. The managers are Myron L. Fuller and 
Frederick G. Clapp, both former members of the United 
States Geological Survey. 

The Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, 
Pittsburgh, Pa., has received an order for the complete equip- 
ment of three rotary converter sub-stations and one trans- 
former sub-station from the Kansas City, Clay County & St. 
Joseph Railway Company. The transformer junction station 
will contain three 750 kva., 25 cycle, 6,600-33,000 v. transformers. 
Each rotary converter sub-station consists of six 185 kva., 25 
cycle transformers, 33,000 v. primary to rotary converter second- 
ary voltage, and two 500 kw. 25 cycle, 1,200 v. direct current ro- 
tary converters. The road runs from Kansas City, Mo., to St. 
Joseph, with a branch from Kansas City to Excelsior Springs, 
with a total mileage of 80 miles. 

Richard T. Crane, president of the Crane Company, Chi- 
cago, died at his home January 8. Mr. Crane's death was 
sudden; his illness had not been considered serious. Mr. 
Crane was born in Paterson, N. J., in 1832, and worked in 
machine shops in Paterson, New York and Brooklyn, N. Y., 
until he was 23 years old, when he moved to Chicago. An 
uncle, Martin Ryerson, gave him a small piece of land on 
which he started a brass foundry. His brother, Charles S. 
Crane, subsequently joined him, and the machine manufac- 
turing company of R. T. Crane & Brother was formed. This 
concern later grew into the Northwestern Manufacturing 
Company, and after that into the Crane Brothers Manufac- 
turing Company, from which it evolved into the Crane Com- 

Charles I. Young, of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufactur- 
ing Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., died on January 6. Mr. Young 
graduated from Princeton LIniversity in 1883. He started his 
business career with the Edison Machine Works at New York, 
and later became superintendent of the Edison Illuminating Com- 
pany, New York. In 1886 he went with the Westinghouse com- 
pany. Due to an electric shock of 2,500 v., received in 1888, he 
was incapacitated for work for the three years following. In 
1891 he again became associated with the Westinghouse company, 
and while he was physically weak and partially dependent on the 



Vol. 52, No. 2. 

help of another, he retained all his mental faculties, and his 
knowledge of the electrical business from the beginning fitted 
him splendidly for work in the sales department as advisory en- 
gineer, first in the ofiice at Philadelphia, Pa., later in the export 
department, and finally at East Pittsburgh, Pa. As instructor 
in the commercial training department in the sales organization 
he achieved remarkable success. 


Gage Glass Protectors. — The Ashcroft Manufacturing Com- 
pany, New York, has published a small folder on the Ashcroft 
gage glass protectors, consisting of malleable iron frames. 

Fans. — The American Blower Company, Detroit, Mich., has 
published "Fact Bulletin" No. 3, giving the present standing of 
several suits which are now being carried on between this com- 
pany and other fan manufacturers. 

Mechanical Stokers. — The E. R. Allen Foundry Company, 
Corning, N. Y., has issued a pamphlet devoted to the Elliott me- 
chanical stoker, describing and illustrating its method of auto- 
matically taking care of coal, fire and ashes. 

Atlantic Coast Line. — The passenger department of this 
company has published a useful little folder entitled What to 
Say in Spanish and How to Say It, giving brief, selected vo- 
cabularies on many of the most common subjects. 

Southern Railway. — The land and industrial department of 
this company has published a small illustrated folder on the 
activities of the Southern Railway in the good roads move- 
ments along its lines. Interesting results are given. 

Pennsylvania. — The freight department of this company has 
published a small, useful little booklet on the essentials of soil 
fertility, which gives a good deal of information on the proper 
method of preparing soil to obtain the best results. 

Pneumatic Tools. — The Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company, 
Chicago, has issued bulletin No. 34 C, devoted to Chicago pneu- 
matic tandem gasolene-driven compressors. This company has 
also issued a booklet on compressors for air and gas. 

Compressors. — The IngersoU-Rand Company, New York, has 
published form No. 3211 on Imperial type X, duplex, steam- 
driven compressors, in which detailed descriptions are given and 
many advantages enumerated. Diagrams and dimension tables 
are included. 

Northern Pacific. — The passenger department of this com- 
pany has published a very attractive 25-page booklet on the 
Bitter Route Valley in Montana, in which are described the 
great productivity and diversity of resources and the climatic 
attractions of this region. Brief accounts of several small towns 
are included. 

Journal Boxes. — The Locomotive Equipment Company, De- 
troit, Mich., has published in bulletin J-1 facts about the New- 
comb journal box, in which ten definite advantages are clearly 
and concisely given. Some interesting results of tests are in- 
cluded to substantiate these claims. Illustrations and diagrams 
are included. 

Locomotive Cranes. — The Browning Engineering Company, 
Cleveland, Ohio, has just published an unusually attractive and 
useful catalog descriptive of the various types of Browning loco- 
motive cranes and the many different uses to which the cranes 
and their various attachments are adapted. In addition to illus- 
trating and describing briefly a few of the more important details 
of construction the book contains many excellent photographs 
showing locomotive cranes, clam shell buckets, electric lift 
magnets, wrecking cranes, railway ditchers, revolving steam 
shovels and pile drivers in actual use in various large plants. 
These photographs include illustrations of methods of using 
cranes for the lifting of all sorts of heavy objects, in car build- 
ing yards and steel plants, in trestle building, for handling and 
breaking up scrap, loading and unloading cars and boats, hand- 
ling timber, in building wrecking, and in various kinds of exca- 
vation work, as well as for many other purposes too numerous to 

BatlttJUt^ (flottdlrudtatt. 

New Incorporations, Surveys, Etc. 

Atlantic Coast Line, — The Haines City branch of the Third 
district has been opened for business from Haines City, Fla., 
south to Crooked Lake. 

Canadian Northern. — The Brandon Maryfield-Lampman sec- 
tion is open for business between Brandon, Man., and Ceylon, 
Sask., 232 miles. 

The Neepawa-Beulah section is open for business between 
Neepawa, Man., and Beulah, 81 miles. 

The Hudson Bay Junction-Le Pas sub-division is open for 
business between Hudson Bay Junction, Sask., and Le Pas, 
Kewatin, 87^ miles. 

The Sturgeon River sub-division is open for business between 
North Battleford, Sask., and Edam, 38 miles. 

Train service on the Oak Point sub-division has been extended 
from Oak Point, Man., to Gypsumville, 92 miles. 

The Delisle-MacRorie line is now in operation between Delisle, 
Sask., and MacRorie, 46 miles. 

The Calgary section has been extended from Kindersley, Sask., 
to Alsask, 44 miles. 

The Thunderhill branch has been extended from Pelly, Sask., 
to Preeceville, 38^ miles. 

An extension on the Shellbrook-Crooked Lake line has been 
opened for business from Shellbrook, Sask., to Blaine Lake, 36 
miles, and from Shellbrook to Big River, S6J/2 miles. 

Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound. — According to press 
reports this company has about completed work on the line to 
Coeur d'Aline, Idaho, and is negotiating for the right of way 
with the Wallace-Spokane Company, which holds the franchise 
privileges over the government and state lands between Coeur 
d'Alene and Wallace by way of the Fourth of July canyon. 

Delaware, Lackawanna & Western. — The new line between 
Lake Hopatcong, N. J., and Slateford Junction, Pa., 29 miles, 
has been opened for business. 

This company will build a new line from Clarke's Summit, 
Pa., to Hallstead, to reduce the distance between the two points 
from 38 to 35 miles, and to eliminate curves and heavy grades 
between Scranton and Binghamton. Contracts will be let in 
ten sections. The work will include building a concrete bridge 
near Nicholson, to replace the present tunnel at that point. 

Detroit & Mackinac. — Train service has been put in operation 
on the Rogers City branch from Calcite, Mich., north to Rogers 
City, 3 miles. 

Erie Railroad. — This company during the past year built 42 
miles of second track between Leavittsburg, Ohio, and Marion. 
Arrangements have been made for completing an additional 11 
miles during January. W. J. Harahan, vice-president, New York. 
(July 14, p. 104.) 

Iowa & Southwestern. — An officer writes that work has re- 
cently been finished on the line from Clarinda, Iowa, southwest 
via Colorado Springs to Blanchard, on the Wabash Railroad, 
17H miles. The company expects to develop a traffic in live- 
stock, lumber, coal, grain and merchandise. W. S. Farquhar, 
president ; C. B. Judd, chief engineer, Clarinda. 

Liberty- White. — This road has been extended from Kaigler, 
Miss., to Bridges, 3 miles. 

Lynchburg-Danville & Carolina. — Incorporated in Virginia 
with $25,000 capital, and office at Amherst, Va. The plans call 
for building from a point on the Chesapeake & Ohio near Lynch- 
burg, Va., south to the Virginia-North Carolina State line, near 
Milton, N. C, about 70 miles. T. O. Troy, president; W. P. 
Read, secretary, both of Amherst ; A. B. Carrington, R. A. James 
and W. R. Fitzgerald, all of Danville; J. E. Bowman, E. Meeks 
and L. B. Davies, all of Amherst, are directors. 

Memphis Railway Bridge & Terminal Company. — See Mem- 
phis, Tenn., under Railway Structures. 

Northern Pacific. — Bids are now being asked for, it is said, 
to build the Point Defiance line from Tacoma, Wash., to Tenino. 
Work on the line had been held up for some time owing to the 

January 12, 1912. 



delay in securing the necessary franchises. (November 10, 
p. 975C.) 

Ohio & Kentucky. — This road has been extended from Ma- 
lone, Ky., to Liberty Road, ZVz miles. 

Oklahoma-North Western. — This company was incorporated 
last year with $100,000 capital to build from Oklahoma City, Okla., 
into the northwestern section of Oklahoma. It is said that finan- 
cial arrangements have been made. John W. Shartell, of the 
Oklahoma Railway Company, Oklahoma City, is said to be back 
of the project. 

Oregon Short Line. — On the Idaho division the following 
branches have been opened for business : Paris branch, from 
Montpelier, Idaho, to Paris, ^Yz miles; North Side branch, from 
Rupert west to Bliss, 73 miles ; Oakley branch from Burley west 
to Oakley, 22 miles; Caldwell branch Caldwell to Wilder, 11 

Pecos Valley Southern. — This road has been extended from 
Balmorhea, Tex., to Toyahvale, 3J^ miles. 

Pembroke, Red Springs & Northern. — Incorporated in North 
Carolina with $75,000 capital to build from Red Springs, N. C. 
to Pembroke, about 12 miles. The incorporators include W. J. 
Johnson, J. D. McLean, J. L. McMillan and J. G. Williams, all 
of Red Springs. 

Peninsular Railway (Electric). — Construction work is soon 
to be started on the extension from Palo Alto, Cal., into San 
Mateo county. The work includes putting up a concrete viaduct 
over San Francisquito creek near Palo Alto. 

Portland & West Coast Railroad & Navigation Company. — 
Application has been made at Bay City, Ore., for a franchise. 
The company has already been granted permits to build through 
Sheridan, Willamina, Bentley, Tillamook, Dolph and Hebo. It 
is understood that the company will build a hydro-electric power 
plant. W. F. Pries, C. M. Hendrickson and J. H. Upton are in- 
corporators. (November 3, p. 932.) 

QuANAH, Acme & Pacific. — An officer is quoted as saying that 
work will be started soon on an extension from Paducah south- 
west on about SO miles. (September 22, p. 576.) 

Roaring Fork. — Work has been finished on the line from 
Roaring Fork, Va., to Pardee, 4H miles. 

Seaboard Air Line. — On the Fifth division the Plant City 
branch has been extended from Bradley Junction, Fla., to Agri- 
cola, 5 miles; and the Sarasota branch has been extended from 
Sarasota south to Venice, 19 miles. 

Seaboard Air Line. — See Norlina, N. C, under Railway 

Wichita Falls & Northwestern. — Train service is now in 
operation on the Fifth division, between Hammon, Okla., and 
Leedy, 19 miles. 

Winnipeg, Salina & Gulf. — Application has been made in 
Kansas to issue bonds. The company plans to build from Omaha, 
Neb., southeast to Oklahoma City, Okla., with another line from 
Kansas City, Mo., to Des Moines, N. Mex. H. L. Miller, presi- 
dent ; C. C. Whitehead, secretary. The headquarters of the com- 
pany are at Salina, Kan. (June 23, p. 1675.) 


Bells, Tex. — J. J. Maloney, of Dallas, has been awarded the 
contract for building a new passenger station for the Missouri, 
Kansas & Texas and the Texas & Pacific. 

El Paso, Tex. — Work is to be started at once on a reinforced 
concrete freight house for the Texas Pacific, to cost about $75,000. 

Hamilton, Ont. — The Toronto, Hamilton & Buffalo is plan- 
ning to make improvements to include extensions to the freight 
sheds and yards at Hamilton. 

Harrisburg, Ore. — Permission has been granted to the Oregon 
Electric to build a bridge over the Willamette River, near Harris- 

Kingsville, Tex. — The St. Louis, Brownsville & Mexico, ac- 
cording to reports, will enlarge its repair shops at this point and 

order a large amount of new machinery in addition to erecting a 
new passenger station. 

Los Angeles, Cal. — The Pacific Electric, it is understood, will 
put up new shops at Dominguez, about 13 miles from Los Angeles. 
The estimated cost of improvements is $250,(KX). 

Memphis, Tenn. — The Memphis Railway Bridge & Terminal 
Company has applied for a charter in Tennessee to build a bridge 
across the Mississippi river at Memphis, to be used by the Rock 
Island Lines. J. T. Harahan, former president of the Illinois 
Central, is one of the incorporators. Plans for the improvement 
are being prepared by the Rock Island, and will include terminal 
yards and freight houses, as well as large freight warehouses 
in the city, involving an expenditure of several million dollars 
in all. 

Nicholson, Pa. — See Delaware, Lackawanna & Western under 
Railway Construction. 

Norlina, N. C. — The Seaboard Air Line has bought land at 
Norlina, it is said, as a site for shops. It is understood that the 
plans include a change of line between Raleigh and Durham. 

Oakland, Cal. — The Oakland & Antioch, with headquarters 
at San Francisco, is said to be making plans for putting up a 
station and terminal buildings on property recently secured at 
Fortieth and Opal streets, in Oakland. 

Palo Alto, Cal. — See Peninsular Railway under Railway 

Philadelphia, Pa. — The Philadelphia & Reading will build a 
new station at Falls of Schuylkill soon. The building will cost 
about $25,000. 

Pine Bluff, Ark. — The machine and boiler shops of the St. 

Louis Southwestern were destroyed by fire on January 1, with 

a loss of about $80,000. It is expected that the shops will be 

Port Huron, Mich. — The Pere Marquette station and office 
building was destroyed by fire on January 2, with a loss of about 
$20,000. The building may be rebuilt. 

Seymour, Tex. — The Gulf Texas & Western and the Wichita 
Valley are preparing to build a new union station. 

Toronto, Ont. — The Canadian Pacific is building a 16-story 
office building in Toronto, with a frontage of 75 ft. on King 
street and 125 ft. on Yonge street. Several floors are to be 
occupied by the railway for its own offices, and others are to 
be rented. 

Villa Rica, Ga.— The Southern Railway is building a new 
station at Villa Rica. 

ViNCENNES, Ind. — The Indiana railway commission has ordered 
the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern, the Chicago & Eastern 
Illinois, the Vandalia, and the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & 
St. Louis to submit plans for the improvement of the union 
station by March 1. 

Winfield, Kan.— The St. Louis & San Francisco has notified 
the Kansas railway commission that it will build a new pas- 
senger station at Winfield. 


The government of Paraguay has granted a concession to 
Conde dos Nacimientos & Company for the construction and 
operation of a railway from Asuncion to Santo del Guaira. 

On November 9, 1911, the minister of public works of 
Ecuador and Julian Fabre, manager of the Franco-Dutch 
Company, signed a contract in virtue of which the govern- 
ment of Ecuador grants to M. Fabre a concession to build 
and operate a railway, which leaving the port of Bolivar on 
the Gulf of Guayaquil is to pass through Cucnca and termi- 
nate at some navigable point on the upper Amazon. This 
line will undoubtedly be very important when once it is built, 
because in addition to its international significance it will 
cross four of the richest provinces of Ecuador and thus stim- 
ulate production and traffic, and give to them an outlet to 
the Atlantic ocean. The Franco-Dutch Company estimates 
the cost at about $40,000,000. 



Vol. 52, No. 2. 

Bailttta^ Wmanciid Nettie. 

Baltimore & Ohio.— The New York Public Service Commis- 
sion has approved the proposal for the acquisition of the 215 
outstanding minority shares of the Statcn Island Rapid Tran- 
sit by the B. & O. All the rest of the stock is now owned by 
the Baltimore & Ohio. 

Boston & Lowell. — Stockholders have voted to increase the 
capital stock from $7,399,400 to $7,679,400, the additional 
stock to be sold to provide for additions and betterments. 

Boston R.\ilro.\d. Holding Co. — See New York. New Haven & 

Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh. — The New York Public 
Service Commission, Second district, has authorized this com- 
pany to issue $1,229,375 4 per cent, equipment trust bonds. 

Camino, Placerville & Lake Tahoe. — See Placerville & Lake 

Chesapeake & Ohio. — The IVall Street Journal says that this 
company will probably sell to its bankers in the near future 
about $3,000,000 equipment trust notes. 
See also Pere Marquette. 

Colorado & Southern. — This company, which owns nearly all 
of the stock of the Colorado Springs & Cripple Creek Dis- 
trict, has leased the road of the C. S. & C. C. D. to the Flor- 
ence & Cripple Creek, which is owned by the Cripple Creek 

Colorado Springs & Cripple Creek District. — See Colorado & 

Cripple Creek Central. — See Colorado & Southern. 

Denver & Rio Grande. — In connection with the retirement of 
George Gould as chairman of the board of directors, and the 
election of B. F. Bush as president, mentioned in our "Elec- 
tions and Appointments" columns, Mr. Gould issued a state- 
ment which says, among other things, that Mr. Jeffery (for- 
merly president and now chairman of the board) will con- 
tinue to have direct charge of the finances of the D. & R. G. 
and will, of course, exercise general supervision over the af- 
fairs of the company. 

Florence & Cripple Crbek. — See Colorado & Southern. 

Minneapolis & St. Louis. — In a circular sent to stockholders. 
President Newman Erb says in part : 

The Minneapolis & St. Louis was for 15 years up to Jan- 
uary 1, 1910, able to pay dividends regularly on its preferred 
, stock, and for about four years dividends upon its common 
stock. It has terminals in Minneapolis and St. Paul, which 
about two years ago were appraised by experts at approxi- 
mately $7,300,000, or an amount exceeding 30 per cent, of the 
funded debt of that company. These terminals are capable, 
with moderate development, of meeting the requirements of 
the company for many years to come. 

"The western terminus of the road at Le Beau, So. Dak., on 
the Missouri river, has no Western connection ; on the south 
the Iowa Central at Albia connects with the Wabash Rail- 
road, which, while interchanging traffic on friendly terms, has 
other connections to serve as well. Under these conditions the 
properties were dependent almost solely upon the development 
and prosperity of the immediate territory served, were highly 
competitive and without proper advantage of their L560 miles 
as a connecting link to territory beyond their own termini. 
Notwithstanding these adverse conditions, the gross earnings 
have been steadily increasing, exception being limited to two 
unusual crop failures recently. 

The extension to the international Canadian boundary now 
contemplated will enable the company to add to its tonnage the 
business to and from the Canadian Northwest. A connection 
is contemplated with the Missouri, Kansas & Texas at or near 
Moberly, Mo., which will make your properties a north and 
south line from Canada to the Gulf, adding still more tonnage 
movement without any corresponding increase in the overhead 
or terminal charges. The extension to the Canadian border 

will take about 18 months to build. The connection with the 
M. K. & T. will be, it is intended, provided through trackage 
contracts. Arrangements are also under consideration for 
making the Peoria line, by a very modest amount of new con- 
struction and by connections at Peoria, an east and west line 
to Omaha. Tlie gross earnings per mile of the properties for 
the past fiscal year were $5,570. With $1,000 additional rev- 
enue per mile through the extensions proposed, and with oper- 
ations upon a normal ratio of cost, say, 70 per cent., we should 
more than meet all fixed charges and dividend requirements 
for the whole capitalization, the outstanding preferred stock 
being only $4,100 per mile and the common stock about $10,000 
per mile. 

"The financial provisions now being made will leave the prop- 
erties free of all floating debt, with a reasonable amount of 
working capital. The new "first mortgage and extension' 
bonds will be a first mortgage upon 229.6 miles of existing 
road and a general lien upon all the other properties. They 
will also be a first mortgage upon the extensions. When pay- 
ment of dividends is resumed on the preferred stock the price 
at which you are permitted to subscribe for the securities will 
yield /'/z per cent, per annum." 

New York Centr.\l & Hudson River. — See Rutland Railroad. 

New York, New Ha\'en & Hartford. — This company has sold 
through J. P. Morgan & Co.. New York, $30,000,000 1-year 
4 per cent, notes dated January 15. The notes are being of- 
fered to the public by Lee, Higginson & Co., Boston, Mass., 
at par. The company has maturing within the next two 
months $22,000,000 1-year notes and $7,290,000 other obliga- 

Governor Foss, of Massachusetts, in an address to the legis- 
lature, says in part: "The Boston Railroad Holding Com- 
pany is wholly indefensible, and I now demand that the con- 
stitutional power of the Commonwealth be exercised to dis- 
solve it. If the two railways are not parallel or competing, 
then there is no objection to a consolidation of these proper- 
ties, the principal condition being that the two lines shall be 
physically connected and thus provide for through passenger 
and freight service," 

[Physical connection would mean presumably a tunnel under 
Boston between the North and South stations.] 
See also Rutland Railroad. 

New York & Harlem. — The directors have declared a dividend 
of 7 per cent., payable January 23. It is for the purpose of re- 
turning to the stockholders, prior to the sale of the stock to 
the New York Central, the amount of special franchise taxes 
which were held up some years ago pending a settlement with 
the Metropolitan Street Railway Company, lessee, of a dispute 
as to which corporation was responsible for the state tax. As 
a consequence of this dispute the New York & Harlem sus- 
pended dividends out of the rental of the street railway from 
October, 1908, until October, 1910. When the dividend was 
resumed it was at the rate of 3 per cent. 

Pere Marquette. — Newman Erb and associates are said to be 
negotiating for the control of the Pere Marquette, and rumor 
says that the Chesapeake & Ohio may possibly eventually buy 
control of the Pere Marquette. 

Placerville & Lake Tahoe. — This road was sold to the trustee 
of its mortgage bonds for $62,715. The Camino, Placerville 
& Lake Tahoe has been incorporated with $100,000 stock to 
take over the property. 

RuTL.vND Railroad. — The United States circuit court has denied 
an injunction to restrain the N. Y. C. & H. R. from transfer- 
ring the remainder of the majority stock of the Rutland to the 
New York. New Haven & Hartford pending an action brought 
in the L'nited States circuit court asking for a receiver for 
the Rutland. (Dec. 1, page 1150.) 

San Pedro. Los Angeles & Salt Lake. — A special meeting of 
stockholders has been called for voting on the question of 
retiring the $60,000,000 authorized first mortgage bonds, of 
which $48,835,000 are outstanding ; to make a new mortgage 
to secure an authorized issue of $70,000,000, and to authorize 
the directors to issue bonds at their discretion under this mort- 
gage. The road is controlled jointly by the Harriman Line 
interests and Senator Clark. 

January 19, 1912. 



Including the Railroad Gazette and the Railway Age 

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LONDON: Queen Anne's Chambers, Westminster. 

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The address of the company is the address of the officers. 

Saml'el O. Dunn, 

Bradford Boardman, 

Managing Editor. 
Roy V. Wright 
B. B. Adams 

E. T. HowsoN 
G. L. Fowler 
William Forsyth 
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H. H. Simmons 

R. E. Thayer 
F. W. Kraeger 
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S. W. Dunning 
Clarence Deming 

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Entered at the Post Office at New York, N. Y., as mail matter of the 
second class. 

Volume 52. 

Janu.^ry 19, 1912. 

Number 3. 



Editorial Notes 79 

Nominated for the .Ananias Club 80 

Some Questions in Railway Equities 81 

Intelligent Agitation of the Grade Crossing Problem 81 

A Novel Plan for Changing Railway Control. 82 



The Steel Passenger Cars in the Odessa Wreck on the St. Paul 84 

Lignite Fuel for Locomotives 89 

Daily Statement of Transportation Expenses on the Milwaukee 93 


Report of the Massachusetts Railroad Commission 86 

Charles A. Prouty 86 

Convertible Railway Bonds; by William Z. Ripley 87 

Conference Conxmittee Methods in Handling Railway Legislation on 

Mechanical Matters; by C. A. Seley 90 

New York Public Service Commission's Annual Report 92 

The Mimeograph for Railway Printing 94 

Imperial Taiwan Railways 94 

Foreign Railway Notes 92 



Editorial Notes 95 

Maintenance Work in 1911 96 

Uniform Specifications for Tie Production 96 


Improved Maintenance Methods in 1911 97 

Erection of Rock Island Bridge Over Iowa River, Columbus Junc- 
tion, Iowa 101 

New Seattle Terminals; Oregon-Washington Railroad & Naviga- 
tion Co 103 


Abstract of Engineering .\rticles Since December IS 100 

Committee Appointments: American Railway Bridge & Building 

Association : 100 

The Use of Section Motor Cars on the San Pedro, Los Angeles & 

Salt Lake 101 

Wood Preservers' Convention 108 


mendation that the federal government buy all the telegraph 
lines of the country and operate them in connection with the 
postoffices has made three mistakes. First, he neglected to secure 
the co-operation of the president, and so has alienated friends 
iu a cause which cannot get along without all the friends that 
can be got hold of. Second, he is careless of his facts. Govern- 
ment telegraphs which give such marvelously low rates are not 
profitable ; the British lines have been maintained in part by large 
issues of government bonds, a burden on the tax payer. It is, 
probably, a mistake of fact, also, to assume that we have in this 
country many postoffices where there ought to be a telegraph 
office, to accommodate people now needing it. The telephone has 
met this need, and met it better than the telegraph could do. 
Thirdly, he is behind the times. His proposition to economize 
In* having one person tend the postoffice and the telegraph office 
has been forestalled by the Western Union in its consolidation of 
telegraph and telephone offices. The Western Union is striving 
to make this improvement efficiently and economically, being kept 
alert by a lively competitor, the Postal Telegraph Company. A 
government bureau, possessing a monopoly, would lack this 

OUBJECT to final revisions by the electrical department of 
•^ the company, which are not likely to change much the 
original computations, the extension of electric service over the 
New Haven's four tracks from Stamford to New Haven (39.75 
miles) is now clearly in sight and ordered by the company's di- 
rectors. Unless unlocked for financial obstacles should ensue 
it seems reasonably certain that the end of the present year will 
find electric service with complete exclusion of steam on the 
73 miles between the Grand Central station and New Haven, and 
applied to both passenger and freight traffic. The total cost of 
the extension, including a considerable purchase of electric 
freight engines will be about $7,000,000. The electric passenger 
service between New York and Stamford has been operated at 
a considerable loss as compared with steam, but due largely to the 
maintenance of the "mixed" service and the use of the power 
in practically one direction only from the Cos Cob station. With 
the extension to New Haven operated the official forecast iutlines 
great economies over steam from unification of service, econo- 
mies in the case of engines, extensive service in two di- 
rections without a new power house, large economies in switch- 
ing and obvious economies in fuel. The end of the year 1913, 
and very likely a date earlier will see these forecasts tried out 
Meanwhile it is to be recalled that the New Haven electric 
plan includes also the 74 miles of track of the New York, West- 
chester & Boston. With a mileage of about 150 miles thus 
under electric operation and a trackage of about 4 times those 
figures, the magnitude and significance of the New Haven's elec- 
tric enterprise are apparent. President Mellen's prophecy of a 
few years ago that results would also be "revolutionary" of 
steam business on high traffic lines will await ulterior demon- 

"T^HE great advantage of increasing the capacity of locomotives 
••■ without increasing the weight is becoming quite generally 
recognized as the limits of weight are being approached. Any 
such increase in capacity means greater ton-mileage with a com- 
paratively small increase in operating expense. Advantage is be- 
ing taken of the different devices which make far greater fuel 
and steam economy, and the weight of various parts of the 
locomotive is being reduced to a minimum, in order to increase 
the size and steaming capacity of the boiler. It is, therefore, 
strange, when a road has gone to considerable expense to thus 
improve the condition of its power, to hear a motive power 
officer enthusiastically exclaim: "Those new engines are great! 
Why, they can pull over that heavy grade on the X Y Z division 
with 100 tons more than our standard engines and blow-oflF 
steam all the way." The strange part is to find that 'iDlowing- 



Vol. 52, No. 3. 

oflt steam" is not intended as a figure of speech, but that it is 
literally true that in some instances the engineers are allowed 
to do it a considerable amount of the time. Although on many 
roads emphasis is constantly being laid on the rapid rate at 
which coal is wasted when this process is going on, it seems 
almost impossible to control it. Various suggestions have been 
made from time to time as to how the popping of the safety 
valves can be reduced to a minimum. These range from the at- 
tachment of a shrill whistle to the pop valve to placing the 
valve underneath the engineer's seat box. The most practical 
device thus far used seems to be a clock attachment, such as 
was described in a recent issue of the Railway Age Gaseite, 
which records the actual time that the valve blows-off. while 
the engine is making a trip. Conditions on some roads are such 
that radical steps should be taken to check this evil. 

* TTENTIOX is called in a bulletin issued by the bureau of 
J\ explosives of the .'American Railway Association to the need 
for the exercise of the greatest vigilance on the part of railway 
men to guard against a common and dangerous practice which 
vitally affects the public safety. It has come to the attention of 
the bureau that many users of explosives, and especially miners 
ignorant of the English language or of the requirements of the 
federal laws, are in the habit of including packages of explosives 
in baggage checked in the usual way on passenger trains or in 
packages of household furniture shipped by freight. The law 
strictly forbids concealed shipments of explosives, or their trans- 
portation on passenger trains in any circumstances. Explosives 
must be packed in their regular shipping containers, which must 
be correctly marked and accompanied by proper shipping orders. 
The penalties provided for violations of the statute are severe, the 
maximum being a fine of $2,000, or imprisonment for 18 months, 
or both. In some instances it is reported that miners have taken 
kegs of blasting powder, and even packages of loose sticks of 
dynamite mixed with blasting caps, all wrapped in loose paper 
packages, into smoking cars. Washtubs and barrels supposed to 
contain only household goods have been found to contain loose 
powder and sticks of dynamite. Many violations of the law of 
this kind have been reported, and in several cases convictions 
have been secured. The bureau of explosives deserves credit for 
having already brought about a wholesome improvement in the 
conditions attendant upon the transportation of explosives and 
other dangerous articles. Such reckless handling as is described 
above is peculiarly difficult of detection, and the efforts of Chief 
Inspector B. W. Dunn and his assistants can only be made suc- 
cessful by the heartiest sort of co-operation on the part of the 
railway companies. Many roads are rendering material assistance 
by giving the subject wide publicity among their own employees, 
without whose constant watchfulness. little can be accomplished. 

IF the assumptions by Mr. Gardiner, in his letter printed on an- 
other page, are correct, he might well be justified in asking 
"who would be left to oppose government ownership?" The 
facts, however, fail to bear him out. Mr. Gardiner's first as- 
sumption that the largest part of railway mileage of the coun- 
try was built for securing profit from building and not profit 
from operation is a very broad statement— probably entirely too 
broad. In the South it is more nearly true, probably than in 
any other part of the country, however. Mr. Gardiner's experi- 
ence is that a railway needs 5 per cent, of its actual value to 
put into the property each year for improvements, and his con- 
tention is that railways built and financed as they have been in 
the past will not be able to put this amount into the property 
each year for improvements, because they will not be able to 
raise new capital. The obvious answer is that railways have 
been able to raise new capital to make very extensive permanent 
improvements to their property. Let us take the Southern Rail- 
way. On June 30, 1900, it was capitaliEed, exclusive of equip- 
ment trust certificates, but inclusive of securities of lease-hold 
estate at $49,306 per mile operated. At the end of June, 1910, 

the company was capitalized at $63,683 per mile operated, com- 
puted on the same basis. This is an increase of capitalization of 
2.9 per cent, per year, on capitalization, as against Mr. Gardiner's- 
estimated necessary S per cent, on actual cost. Moreover, the- 
Southern Railway is largely an aggregate of lines built and 
financed very much on the plan suggested by Mr. Gardiner with 
numerous first lien mortgages and stock, consisting largely of 
the capitalization of hoped-for profit. Notwithstanding this, the 
Southern Railway has been able to spend the necessary sums- 
from capital account for permanent improvements and to raise 
these sums by the sale of securities not a first direct lien on the 
rails. Furthermore, the Southern Railway has now facilities 
sufficient to handle not only any reasonable increase in traffic 
that may be expected, but (with the exception of equipment) 
even three or four times the traffic that is being carried on most 
of its lines at present. As to motive power, with a sharp re- 
turn to prosperity, and largely increased shipments, especially 
through the West — the railways might quite possibly find them- 
selves badly in need of more locomotives and possibly cars, but 
the car surplus and shortage report of the American Railway 
Association, printed this week, in our news section, hardly con- 
firms this surmise, as far as cars are concerned. Mr. Gardiner 
speaks of a return to prosperity measured by an output by the 
steel plants of 90 per cent, of capacity. The United States Steel 
Corporation is now operating at about 89 per cent, of capacity,, 
and some of the more important independent companies at 85 per 
cent, of capacity. Nevertheless, there is a surplus of freight cars- 
of over 100,000. Mathematicians can prove conclusively that a 
baseball cannot lie curved by a pitcher, but the fact remains that 
curves are easily pitched. It might be possible to so twist fig- 
ures as to show that the railways of the United States cannot 
possibly raise the capital needed for improvement during the 
next ten years, but the same method used ten years ago would 
have shown the same thing, and one is inclined to trust experi- 
ence rather than hypothetical figures. It is not because Mr. 
Gardiner's views are those of a shipper, but are those of a. 
theorist that we question tliem. 


I X an article entitled, The Truth about Railway Accidents, 
* published in the Railway Age Gazette of December 8, page 
1166, numerous false statements regarding the railways of the 
United States, made by Charles Edward Russell, in an article 
entitled. Speed, published in the Hampton-Columbian Magazine 
for October, were exposed. We have secured information from, 
the Interstate Commerce Commission completely refuting cer- 
tain of the assertions made in the article referred to with ultra- 
positiveness. The assertions referred to appear in the following 
sentences : 

"Various gentlemen connected with the operating, publicity and press 
agent departments of our national slaughter houses will make, of course,, 
the usi:al perfervid protests at my statement that only thiee railways in 
the United States use the absolute block. To save them needless excite- 
ment, I may observe here that I do not get my information about this- 
from the press bureaus, but from the office of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission, which is a much better source. Operating departments have 
now become so large and so complicate'd that sometimes the worthy young: 
gentlemen employed in them do not know what is what on their own 

The Railway Age Gazette knew that the statements above 
quoted were untrue, and it did not believe that the Interstate 
Commerce Commission had given out any such misinformation 
as was attributed to it. We, therefore, wrote to Judson C. 
Clements, chairman of the commission, inquiring about the 
matter, and received from him under date of December 22 a 
letter, in which he said in part : 

"In order to guard against any possible erroneous statement in answer- 
ing you I wrote to Mr. JRussell, asking him for the source of his informa- 
tion, and under date of November 15 I received an acknowledgment from 
him, in which it was stated: 

" 'T hardly have need to assure you of my desire to assist you in every 
way in my power; but in view of the nature of the interests antagonized' 
by that article you will not think it either strange or improper if I ask. 

Januasy 19, 1912. 



concerning the purpose of the inquiry and what use is intended of the 

'*To this I replied that the purpose of my inquiry was to obtain in- 
formation upon which to base a reply to a letter received from you, but 
I have heard nothing further from him. 1 now write to say that I am 
unable to locate any utterance emanating from the commission justifying 
the statement of Mr. Russell quoted by you." 

Subsequently to writing the above, Mr. Clements continued 
his investigation with results which are set forth in the following 
letter written by him to the Railu'ay Age Gazette on January 12 : 

".Again referring to the correspondence which originated with your letter 
of November 2, quoting from an article by Charles Edward Russell entitled 
'Speed.' I have to say that effort has been made to locate the source of 
Mr. Russell's information. 

"Mr. Russell declines to give the name of the one by whom the state- 
ment was made and I can therefore only say tnat it was never made by 
the commission, and was not made by any person by authority of the 
connuission, or by any person who was authorized to speak for the com- 

*'I may add that the information which we have relative to operation 
of block signal systems on our railways indicates that the statement in 
Mr. Russell's article, that only three railways in the IJnited States use 
the absolute block, is very inaccurate and incorrect." 

Mr. Clements' letter indicates with sufficient clearness the 
"shorter and uglier word" w-hich in similar circumstances a 
former president of the United States would apply to the author 
of "Speed." We hereby nominate Mr. Russell for life member- 
ship in the .A.nanias club. We note that the Hampton-Columbian 
Magazine has been revived and that the leading article in its 
January issue is signed by Mr. Russell. We, therefore, also 
nominate the Hamf'ton-Columbian Magazine for life member- 
ship in the same organization. We know of no man and no 
publication that so thoroughly merit a high place on its roster 
jind the most distinguished honors of its own peculiar kind tltat 
it can bestow. 


'T'HE New York Central in 1898 took a step by which it in 
•*• effect became a proprietor of the Lake Shore property. 
The Lake Shore had been paying 6 per cent, dividends on its 
$50,000,000 of outstanding stock. The New York Central offered 
the Lake Shore stockholders what was tantamount to a guar- 
anteed dividend of 7 per cent. It offered, that is to say, in the 
ratio of 2 to 1 its own 3^4 per cent, debenture bonds for Lake 
Shore stock. To the Lake Shore stockholder the plan was at- 
tractive. It increased his return by 1 per cent. It substituted 
the pledge of a strong dividend paying corporation for the, at 
least theoretical, uncertainties of the dividend of another cor- 
poration. And, as additional security, the Lake Shore stock 
surrendered was to he held as collateral for the guarantee. But 
there was another inducement to the e.xchange of Lake Shore 
stock for "New York Central-Lake Shore collateral trust" deben- 
tures not now coiTimonly remembered. It was announced at the 
time that the large Vanderbilt holdings of Lake Shore had 
joined in the plan, thus not only practically assuring New York 
Central control of the Lake Shore, but placing the non-assenting 
stockholder in the position of a minority share owner, with 
attendant risks — a risk which the experiences of minority 
stockholders in other railways had shown to be considerable. 
The plan went through with substantial success — at least from 
the New York Central viewpoint. Holders of about $45,000,000 
of Lake Shore stock surrendered their shares in exchange for 
about $90,000,000 of the collateral trust bonds. Holders of 
about $5,000,000 of stock did not surrender it, and in the outcome 
have shown that they had superior wisdom or courage or both. 
For the Lake Shore dividend, based inoreover, on earn- 
ings, has been raised to 18 per cent., when the New York 
Central has needed the money. The Lake Shore shareholder 
who entered into the scheme proposed has had to content 
himself with 7 per cent., while he has .seen the non-assenting 
holder draw 18. The New York Central has, in a sense, 
penalized its coadjutors and rewarded the outsiders. The 
coadjutors have seen their own holding — measured in double 
the market price of their bonds— selling at about 165, while the 

outstanding Lake Shore stock has beeil cpioted far up and ih- 
delinitely in the hundreds. Based on market price, the profits 
of the New York Central are obviously very great. Calling 
Lake Shore stock 400, the shares for w-hich, in par of the bondsi 
$90,000,000 was paid, show a net profit for the New York Central 
of the same amount. 

The case cited raises questions in equities and ethics. A^'' 
suming that the New York Central had fore-knowledge of the 
Lake Shore earning power and of its own policy of using that 
power for dividends, how far was it justified in driving so sharp 
a bargain with the old shareholders? It may be said that it 
was dealing with a corporation and interests technically, at least, 
extraneous to itself and that it was acting in the interest of its 
own shareholders. But, on the other hand, it may be urged 
that its relations with the Lake Shore as a "Vanderbilt road" 
were not only fiduciary, but intimate, if not controlling, and 
certainly such as to give it the "inside knowledge" that induced 
the exchange of stock for bonds. It may be contended also that 
the caveat emptor principle applies to the case, that the Lake 
Shore stockholders took their chances, and that they neglected 
due study of thfeir property and estimate of its value and fu- 
turities. This line of reasoning is partly justified by the theory 
of fear inspired by the perils of minority stockholding. The ques- 
tion is now mainly academic, as well as the ulterior question 
as to how reparation could be made if a wrong has been done. 
The New York Central has now sent a circular to the collateral 
trust bondholders asking them to exchange their bonds for a 
new second mortgage security as a legal condition precedent to 
the consolidation of the two companies. A study in investment 
mentality will be affordedly the spirit in which the bondholders 
receive the proposition. 

The consent of three-quarters of the bonds is legally required 
for the consolidation. Assuming that consent to be obtained, 
there is beyond another question in the railway equities. Wliat 
terms can be demanded successfully by the holders of the out- 
standing $5,000,000 of Lake Shore stock for surrender of their 
shares? The rule of morals in such cases is that there should 
be compulsion on neither side — that on the part of the absorbing 
corporation there should not be a "freeze-out," nor on the part 
of the outstanding stockholders the "strike" for an exorbitant 
price. In practice, such cases usually get to the courts for an 
appraisal as a matter of the stockholder's constitutional right. 
And in the Offield case the United States Supreme Court has 
maintained the power of a state to determine the conditions— 
under appraisal — for condemnition of minority shares. The 
minority Lake Shore interest in this instance represents a mar- 
ket value of some $20,000,000 or more — enough by its magnitude 
alone to excite keen interest in the final adjustment of the 


P DVVARD S. CORNELL, secretary of the National Highways 
•'— ' Protective Association, speaking of recent records of fatal- 
ities at highway grade crossings, says, according to the New York 
Herald, that it is useless to make good roads, so long as the old 
grade crossing exists. Indeed, with the better road surface the 
speed of vehicles is likely to be higher, increasing the danger. 
Automobiles, running faster than horses have, no doubt, 
been caught by trains at crossings, when the slower moving 
horse would have escaped. Mr. Cornell has given voice to a 
very significant suggestion. The good-roads propaganda is 
becoming popular in all of the older states. New York State has 
appropriated millions for roads (four and a half millions in three 
years), while for the elimination of grade crossings, the need of 
which was recognized years ago, only an average of $79,149 yearly 
has been appropriated during the past fourteen years. No one 
can deny the economy of good roads for the farmer, but the 
farmer (in the legislature) should take care to economize 
with equal discretion in all directions. It . is important for 
him to safeguard his life at railway crossings as well as to 




Vol, 52, No. 3. 

cheapen the cost of carrying his grain to market; and the point is 
specially pertinent when, as sometimes happens, the tax money 
which he is spending on good roads is found to benefit pleasure 
riders in automobiles more than it eases the pull on the front 
draw bar of the farmer's wagon. Such heavy financial burdens 
as those of good roads and safe railway crossings should be 
made to bear as equitably as possible on all those whom the 
iniprovenicnt benefits. 

Another significant utterance on the grade crossing question 
is that in the report of the New Jersey Public Utilities Com- 
mission, given in our last issue, page 58, to the effect that cities 
and towns ought to bear a share of the burden of the necessary 
improvements in order to keep the sentiment of the citizens alert, 
intelligent and conservative. The universal tendency to shove tax 
burdens off upon somebody else is particularly persistent in the 
case of a burden so discouraging as this one. and public officers 
can do no better service to the people than to call attention to 
the cold realties of such problems. There has been a movement 
in New Jersey aiming to compel the abolition of all grade cross- 
ings at the expense of the railways alone, the state and the 
towns paying nothing. The railways, being forced to add new 
main tracks and to improve grades and ease curves, without 
waiting for the slow movements of city councils, have done mil- 
lions of dollars' worth of work in this direction already, reliev- 
ing the cities, only to be rewarded by having their taxes in- 
creased ; but there can be no equity in forcing them to go 
further, .^ny favoring of the public in this direction must be 
made up in another, by deferring needed reductions of fares or 
freight rates. There is no way to get around the fact that the 
public must ultimately bear the principal share of the burden, for 
the railways derive their income from the public. As the New 
Jersey board suggests, we shall do well to consider the situation 
in those countries where the railways are owned and operated 
by the state. With public ownership the elevation of tracks is 
a public charge in its entirety. 

Still another clear declaration is that of Governor Dix, of 
New York, who says : 

"The increasing frequency of accidents at grade crossings, the peril and 
inconvenience to which the public are subjected at such crossings, the 
increasing traffic upon both the railways and highways, urgently demand 
that liberal appropriations should be made to carry on the work of eliminat- 
ing such crossings. There are in this state, outside of the city of New 
York, upwards of 8,500 such crossings, a great proportion of which are a 
constant menace to the safety of the public." 

"Liberal"' appropriations in New York must mean a large sum. 
Massachusetts, with less than one-fourth as many crossings as 
New York, spent over $500,000 yearly for twenty-one years. 
This out of the state treasury. The cities and towns have spent 
large sums also, and the railways twice as much as state, cities 
and towns combined, the total expenditures since 1890 aggre- 
gating about $35,000,000. The New York legislature cannot do 
justice to the Governor's recommendation by making an appro- 
priation after a perfunctory half hour's discussion ; the need is 
for a careful study of the whole state budget, with a view to 
eliminating every unnecessary expenditure, thus making possible 
a large appropriation for crossings. With the increase of electric 
interurban railways, and (with the improvement of such rail- 
ways) the growth in frequency and speed of electric cars, the 
grade-crossing problem is becoming larger instead of smaller, 
and legislatures, courts and people are bound to deal with the 
question most seriously. Hitherto there has been good ground 
for the assertions of Commissioner G. W. Dickinson, of Michi- 
gan, in his report to the commissioners' convention at Wash- 
ington last October : "The public has been appealed to in vain. 
Commissions have recommended legislative action, only to have 
their recommendations ignored . . . The spirit of 'taking 
the chance' seems to have become almost habitual. . . . 
Some states permit the establishment of grade crossings. The 
public agrees that something ought to be done, but when it 
comes to bearing a fair share of the expense the public demurs, 
or loses interest." The grade-crossing problem is no summer- 
school campaign. It is still full of difficult questions. 


IN an article in McClure's Magacine for January, William W. 
Cook, one of the foremost authorities in this country on cor- 
poration law, outlines and advocates a novel plan for bringing 
all the railways of the United States under a single control. His 
sceme, he believes, would have all the advantages of both public 
and private ownership and management, and none of the dis- 
advantages of either. 

lie proposes the organization under a federal charter of a 
holding company with an authorized capitalization of $25,000,- 
000,000. On such of its stock as should be sold to the public 
from time to time the government would guarantee dividends of 
3 per cent. This, he thinks, would make the stock marketable at 
par, like government bonds. He says that ten large systems now 
practically control the railway transportation of the country. 
These are the Pennsylvania Railroad, the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford, the New York Central & Hudson River, the 
Southern, the Union Pacific, the Chicago & North Western, the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, the Northern Pacific, the Great 
Northern and the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe. He estimates 
the market value of their stock at $2,844,484,526. By raising this 
sum, by the sale of its stock at par, the holding company could 
buy all the stock of the railways named and make itself the 
recipient of their dividends aggregating $151,818,393 per year. 
After paying 3 per cent, dividends on its outstanding capitaliza- 
tion, amounting to $85,334,535, the holding company would have 
left as its profit the diff'erence, $66,483,858. "This large profit," 
Mr. Cook states, "could be applied to improvements or be con- 
sumed by a reduction in rates. In either case it would be a 
great saving to the people." 

He proposes to capitalize the holding concern for the large 
sum of $25,000,000,000, because he estimates that "about $15,- 
000,000,000 vi'ould be needed to secure all the existing railway 
stocks and pay for the existing railway bonds as they became 
due; and the remaining $10,000,000,000 would be issued from 
year to year to pay for future extensions and improvements." 
He would have the 25 original directors of the company named 
by Congress in its charter, their appointments being for life, and 
would empower them, with the approval of the president of the 
United States, and, perhaps, with that of the United States 
senate, also, to appoint their successors. 

Mr. Cook thinks his plan would eliminate "Wall street domi- 
nation," and the financial manipulation, unfair discrimination, 
etc., which he regards as great evils in railway management now, 
without producing the political complications and inefficient 
operation which he believes would result from government 
ownership. He assumes that under his scheme the operation 
of the individual railways would stay in the same hands as now, 
and would, therefore, continue to be efficient. 

The twenty-five men who would compose the board of the 
holding company would be the keystone, and determine the 
success or failure of Mr. Cook's plan; for by voting the holding 
company's stock they would choose the directors of the operat- 
ing companies; the directors of the operating companies would 
choose the executive officers of the railways ; and upon the kind 
of executive officers who were appointed and the incentives they 
were given to do good work would depend how rates would be 
made, how economically and efficiently the properties would be 
run and what their earnings would be. Mr. Cook assumes the 
roads would continue to earn and pay their present dividends. 
But, of course, if they were ill managed they might not earn 
even 3 per cent. ; in which case the government would have to 
raise by taxation the money to make good its dividend guarantee. 

Is it probable, then, that the board of the holding company, 
chosen as suggested, would be so composed as to be competent 
to supervise honestly and wisely the operation, improvement and 
extension of the gigantic railway system of the United States? 
The first board would be elected by Congress. Most of the men 
who have the capacity and experience to equip them for directors 
are now connected with the railways either in that capacity or 
as executive oflScers. But if Congress adopted Mr. Cook's plan 
it would be primarily with the object of changing the influences 

January 19, 1912. 



now governing railway management ; and to accomplish this it 
would be apt to select men unlearned and unskilled in railway 
affairs. Indeed, it is not undue harshness, in view of the past 
history of public affairs in this country, to assume that they 
would be chosen for political rather than business reasons. If 
the first directors were chosen for such reasons so probably 
would their successors be. It is not likely that the directors of 
the holding company would select directors of the operating 
companies who would be essentially different from or superior 
to themselves. And if the directors of the operating companies 
were not good business men, and were not chosen because they 
were such, they would not be likely to select the executive offi- 
cers of the railways regardless of political considerations and 
solely because of their experience and skill as railway men. If 
the executive officers were not chosen and retained or dismissed 
solely for business reasons the efficiency with which the railways 
were operated would deteriorate, which would result in poorer 
service or higher rates or reduced net earnings, or, perhaps, all 
of them. 

Instead of having all the advantages and none of the dis- 
advantages of both private ownership and government owner- 
ship, it would seem that Mr. Cook's plan would have few of the 
advantages and most of the disadvantages of both. There are 
many things to criticise in the existing method of selecting, and 
in the personnel of the directors of the roads of the United 
States. Too many of them live remote from the railways to 
whose boards they belong, and do not know their needs or the 
public sentiment along them. Too many are men of such large 
and varied affairs that they must perforce perform their direc- 
torial duties perfunctorily. Too many are mere dummies of 
large interests in Wall street. But a large proportion of the 
members of most boards do have the knowledge and experience 
needful for their duties. Furthermore, directly or indirectly, 
they represent and are responsible to the stockholders, or at 
least to the dominant stockholders ; and, therefore, they have a 
strong incentive to cause the roads to be operated skillfully, and 
may be turned out if they do not. The process of eliminating 
incompetent directors is sometimes painfully and wastefully 
slow ; but it usually works itself out. Similarly, under govern- 
ment ownership the owners of the railways could call those who 
were charged with the duty of operating them to an accounting; 
although the difficulty they would encounter in doing so would 
be greater than that met by the present owners, and for this 
and other reasons under government ownership the managers 
would be likely to be given less opportunity for and incentive to 
good management than they have now. 

Who, under Mr. Cook's plan, would be able to call the board 
of the holding company to an accounting if it did not satisfac- 
torily perform its duties? Not the stockholders, because they 
would have nothing to do with choosing or removing the direc- 
tors. Not the public through Congress or any other branch of 
the federal government, because after the first directors were 
appointed the board would be self-perpetuating. Mr. Cook 
would rely entirely on public sentiment to hold the directors up 
to intelligent and energetic work. But only in the long run does 
public sentiment pass wise and favorable judgment on the con- 
duct of men who are handling large affairs. Seldom are the 
qualities that make a great administrator and those that win 
popularity combined in the same person. Furthermore, public 
sentiment in many cases influences the acts both of public men 
and of business men only because of their fear that if they dis- 
regard it the result will be their retirement, or legislation that 
will harm their business. Under Mr. Cook's scheme the directors 
of the holding company, who would be quasi-public men, could 
not, if they chose to defy public opinion, be punished or removed 
except, perhaps, by some slow and uncertain process of impeach- 

On the whole, Mr. Cook's plan will not appeal to many public 
men, or to many business men, as one that would satisfactorily 
solve the railway problem. Probably its solution is to be found 
only in either efficient private management under wise public 
regulation, or public ownership. i,'.^ 

ST^Uevi^ to the Sdttor. 


SroKANE, Wash., December S, 1911. 

To THE Editor of the Railway Age G.\zette : 

I have just read, in your issue of December 1, page 1140, an 
article credited to J. W. James, purporting to tell of "real life in 
the train despatcher's office" and showing up in vivid language 
the behavior of a supposed despatcher who was neglectful of his 
duty and ungentlemanly in his conduct toward the operators. 

I desire to protest against the statements made in this article. 
I cannot believe that Mr. James correctly reflects conditions as 
they really exist. In all of the offices in which it has been my 
pleasure to labor I never yet have discovered a force of train 
despatchers who carried so lightly the responsibilities placed 
upon them. A quarter of a century ago I began as an operator 
and assistant despatcher on the Boston & Lowell at Boston. 
Since that time I have worked in the transportation departments 
of important railways at Lincoln, Minneapolis, Des Moines, Buf- 
falo, Kansas City and Spokane; and I can testify that in none 
of these offices have I seen anything even approaching the non- 
sense related in the story you print. 

The only redeeming feature of this document is its concluding 
sentence, which expresses vividly the contempt in which train 
despatchers are held by various other employees. The responsi- 
bility for this, I think, lies principally on those who are con- 
stantly harping on their demand that train despatchers be in- 
cluded as a part of the official staff. It seems to me that instead 
of doing good for train despatchers, this claim, maintained by 
some of our old friends, has worked to the detriment not only 
of the service, but of the individual as well. No man who has 
his heart properly in his work cares a rap whether he be called 
employee or officer. The result to be attained is to furnish 
satisfactory transportation to the railway's customers. In the 
selection of officers to direct the affairs of railways, train des- 
patchers have no claims on the management that are superior to 
the ambitions and hopes of any other body of men, the chief 
consideration being always fitness for the position to be filled. 
The despatcher who sets himself with determination to satisfy 
his employer and to give the public good service will have no 
need of an organization to fight for him ; chairmen of industrial 
committees will find themselves without an occupation. 



Laurel, Miss., January 12, 1912. 

To THE Editor of the Railway Age Gazette : 

I have read with interest the several letters from railway offi- 
cers published recently in the Railway Age Gazette in relation to 
present conditions and future prospects of American railways, 
and it occurs to me that perhaps your readers may be interested 
in the observations of a shipper. 

It seems to me that if careful thought be given to the subject, 
the conclusion must be reached that there is little prospect thai 
stockholders will hereafter receive any large benefits from their 
railway investments. 

My experience with railway operations in connection with our 
lumber manufacturing business, also my acquaintance with rail- 
way properties particularly in the South, convinces me that on an 
average, money must annually be provided to the extent of over 
S per cent, of the actual value of the road for use in permanent 
improvements to the property. 

Some of these improvements are : extension and enlargment 
of terminals, new and larger stations, double tracking and ele- 
vating tracks, additional side tracks, elimination of grade cross- 
ings, heavier rails and reduction of grades, additions to equip- 

The last item usually is cared for with equipment notes, fall- 
ing due annually, which are quite different from long time bonds. 



Vol. 52, No. 3. 

and must be liquidated out uf earnings, and is not included in my 
estimate for cost of permanent improvements. 

Referring to the history of railway construction in this country, 
it is well understood that the largest part of railway mileage now 
in existence was constructed for the purpose of securing profit 
from building and not for profit to be derived from operating. 
As a result of this policy, the first bonded indebtedness placed 
on the roads was enough to cover the entire cost of construc- 
tion and equipment. An equal amount of stock was also issued 
which represented the promoter's equity or profit. If the road 
was well located and profitable as an operating proposition, the 
stock rapidly advanced in value, and if highly profitable, addi- 
tional bond issues were laid on the road; the total capital stock 
and bonds represented the value of the road based on its earn- 
ing capacity, and not on the actual cost of the property. 

This method of early financing operates at present to prevent 
issuing additional first lien securities on the roads for the pur- 
pose of securing funds to pay for the improvements mentioned 
above, which are necessary to maintain the railways at a proper 
standard of efficiency and to meet the requirements of stnt'.' and 
national commissions. The difficulty with most roads in secur- 
ing additional money, by using long time bonds, is that, as 
above stated, practically all the roads have already issued such 
obligations to such an extent that the security for further issues 
on the same property is not deemed adequate by investors and 
consequently second mortgage bonds and the usual refunding 
bonds sell at such a large discount, if taken at all, that the ronds 
cannot afford to issue them. Nor is it expedient to issue capital 
stock to provide funds for the above mentioned purposes. Fre- 
quently the stock is quoted below par or the issue of additional 
stock would reduce the value of that outstanding to below par. 

The experience, during many years past, is that production of 
cominodities and railway tonnage double every ten years and it 
is reasonable to expect that hereafter railway traffic should in- 
crease at about the above ratio. Practically everything produced 
is transported by rail, and production therefore will be confined 
to the capacity of the railways to handle tonnage. 

During the past three or four years, addition to railway equip- 
ment has just about been offset by loss from retirement of worn 
out cars and engines, so that as relates to equipment there has 
been no improvement. As to the other items mentioned in the 
beginning of this letter, the railways are rapidly falling behind 
in providing them and to such an extent that should there be a 
revival of general business throughout the country during the 
next twelve months and should there be the increase in the vol- 
ume of tonnage hoped for and expected by many (say to a basis 
of 90 per cent, of capacity of the steel plants), there will be such 
congestion of traffic and delay in transportation, with consequent 
forced extension of bank credits, that interest rates will reach 
prohibitive figures, similar to what occurred during the early 
part of 1907. 

Congestion of traffic will largely increase operating costs and 
reduce operating income so that the railways will be unable to 
make improvements from operating profits or to secure funds 
from the sale of securities. 

Prohibited from advancing rates to pay for increasing opera- 
ting costs and with no prospect of saving any profit from opera- 
tions to invest in improvements and with nothing but second or 
third class bonds or short time notes to sell, it will be impossi- 
ble for the railways to secure sufficient funds for permanent im- 
provements to increase their capacity to the extent necessary to 
handle the average annual increase of tonnage. It is imperative 
that the facilities for railway transportation be rapidly and vastly 
increased, or stagnation in business will result and to such an 
extent that the people will suffer financial loss. Should such con- 
gestion of traffic occur and continue for any great length of time, 
the dissatisfaction on the part of shippers will be so great that 
Congress will be appealed to for relief and with the demand 
that the government own and operate the roads. 

When increased operating costs and the cost of such improve- 
ments as are absolutely necessary to be made have absorbed all 
of the net earnings of the roads, leaving nothing for dividends. 

stockholders will be anxious to exchange their stocks and bonds 
for three per cent, government bonds. 

Inability to secure further advances in wages will cause rail- 
way employees to favor government ownership. 

Lack of adequate transportation facilities will cause shippers 
to favor government ownership. 

Who will be left to successfully oppose the movement towards 
government ownership? George s. g.ardixer. 

President, Eastman, Gardiner & Co. 


The rear-end collision on the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
at Odessa, Minn., on December 12 was so destructive to the 
modern steel Pullman sleeper that considerable interest has been 
taken in the matter of the behavior of the cars, and we have ob- 
tained soine illustrations of the wreck which show very clearly 
the condition of the equipment after the collision. Ten persons 
in the sleeper were killed and 11 injured. Passengers in the 
other portions of the trains were not injured. The dining car. 

Fig. 1 — Locomotive and Steel Sleepers — Left Side. 

which was next to the sleeper, was not damaged beyond the 
kitchen, and that portion was not occupied. 

The passenger train was made up of a Pacific type locomotive 
having a total weight with tender of 303,350 lbs. and one bag-' 
gage car, one combination mail and express car, one coach, and 
one tourist sleeper. At the rear was a sleeping car built by the 
Pullman Company having its usual design of steel underframe, 
but with a 14, in. steel plate side and wooden inside finish. Next 
to this was a steel dining car of the same construction, built by 

Fig. 2 — Locomotive and Steel Sleepers -Right Side. 

the Pulhnan Company. These two cars were the only ones 
which were seriously damaged. 

The conditions of the collision were roughly as follows : 
The manual block system is in operation at Odessa, the system 
extending from Junction Switch to Appleton, a distance of 20.6 
miles. Two signal operators are maintained at Odessa, but there 
is no operator in the tower from 1 :30 a. m. to 8 a. m. For some 
reason the operator when he vacated his place at 1 :30 a. m. left 
the signal at "stop." The engineer of the passenger train, the 

January 19, 1912. 



"'Columbian" flyer, when it arrived at 3.32 n. m., observed the 
signal and stopped at the station. The flagman apparently ut- 
terly failed in his duty to go back and signal any approaching 
train, or to throw the switch to the passing track. 

The train despatcher believing that the passenger train had ad- 
vanced near the next station east, Appleton, gave orders to the 
following section of the train to proceed from Junction Switch 
to Appleton at regular speed. This second train was. tlierefore, 
running at high speed when it approached Odessa station and at 
4:25 a, m. collided with the first section, which had just begun to 
move forward, and had proceeded about 30 ft. The second 
section was composed of a Pacific type locomotive of the same 
weight as the one on the first section and six loaded 30-ton 
special refrigerator cars 46 ft. long, each weighing 69.000 lbs., 
■empty. Four cars were loaded with silk, and two cars with fish. 

The general construction of the underfranie and superstructure 
of the sleeping car and dining car were illustrated in the Roikcuy 
Age Gazette of February 24, 1911, page 359. The underfranie 
was the same as that which has been used in a large number of 
steel sleepers built by the Pullman Company, having center sills 
in the form of fish belly girders, 26 in. deep at the center, at- 
tached to a steel casting which forms the double body bolster 
and the platform and draft sills, the rolled portion of the center 
sill ending where it is riveted to the inner lugs of this casting. 

The action of the cars at tlie time of the collision appears to 

Fig. 3 — Steel Dinmg Car and Front of Steel Sleeper. 

Tiave been as follows : The heavy locomotive, running at high 
speed with six heavily loaded freight cars, plunged into the rear 
of the sleeper, which was the smoking compartment, and split- 
ting open the car entered as far as the rear of the steam cylin- 
ders. Although the car had wooden inside finish which was 
badly splintered no fire occurred, and this must be attributed to 
the use of steam heating and electric lighting, which do not re- 
quire live flame in the light or live coal in the heater as in the 
old style methods. The cast steel bolster and platform at this 
end were lirciken and split apart as far as the center plate. This 
must have tended to raise the rear of the sleeper and depress 
the forward end, so that the pressure of the collision tended to 
raise the dining car underfranie above that of the sleeper, pro- 
ducing a telescopic eflfect which is roughly illustrated in the sketch, 
showing how the six-wheel trucks were driven together and how 
the dining car entered the sleeper for one-third of its length. 

The two underframes in this portion of the collision sliding 
past each other, were not very badly damaged, and the platform 
casting, the steel bolster and the center sills at the front end 
of the sleeper were almost intact, those of the dining ear being 
in the same condition. The roof of one-third of the sleeping 
car was thrown clear up on top of the dining car and the sides 
of the sleeper split and spread apart, as shown clearly in the 
illustration. The almost complete destruction of the sleeping 
■car and the cushioning effect of its telescoping with the dining 

car absorbed so much of the impact of the collision that little 
damage was done to the remainder of the passenger train. Even 
the front end of the dining car retained its vestibule and buf- 
fers, and the platform, body bolsters and underframe at that 
end, without material injury. No one was injured in the cars in 
front of the dining car. Doubtless the fact that the first sec- 
tion was moving slowly made the collision less destructive than 
it would have been if the train had been standing with brakes 

The damaged cars have been inspected by engineers inter- 
ested in the design of steel passenger equipment, and various sug- 
gestions have been made as to further improvements in this class 
of equipment. The manifest weakness of the roof, as shown by 
its complete collapse in the collision with the dining car, has 
suggested stronger construction in that part of the car so as to 
make the resistance at the end plate more nearly proportional 
to that of the end sill. Very little, if any, criticism can be made 
of the strength of the center siils in these cars, as those under 
both dining car and sleeper are bent scarcely any and were not 
broken. It is evident that with this very strong construction the 
effect of telescoping in high speed collisions must be very disas- 
trous, as the upper frame of the car is weak compared with the 
underframe ; when they are in collision and telescope the weaker 
portion must suffer severely, and the illustrations of this wreck 
show the extent to which damage of this kind takes place in 
the strongest of modern steel equipment. 

Some lessons are to be learned also in regard to the cost of 
repairs of steel equipment when badly damaged in this way. 
The sides of the sleeping car are so completely bent and warped 
out of shape, and the inside finish so destroyed, that there is 
scarcely any salvage, the steel center sills being about the only 


nno onn ono 

Fig, 4 — Diagram Showing Position of the Rear Cars After the 
Odessa Wreck. 

part which would not require renewal or heavy repairs. Tlie 
',s in. steel plates forming the sides of the car and the steel 
angles forming the side sills are so badly distorted that it is 
doubtful whether it will pay to attempt to use them for renewals. 

It will be remembered that the type of construction here in- 
volved is that which utilizes the long steel plate girder under 
the windows as a portion of the structure for carrying the load, 
and the side sills are made unusually light. If another type of 
car having heavy side sills had been used the same amount of 
destruction and distortion would have occurred, and the labor 
required to restore the side sills to normal condition would 
have been even greater. It must be concluded, therefore, that in 
accidents of this kind none of the various types of steel pas- 
senger car construction of equal weight have any particular ad- 
vantage over wooden equipment so far as resistance to impact 
is concerned, and there is not much difference in the cost of 
repairs of the heavier parts of the construction. The trucks 
were driven along under the cars and were not very badly dam- 
aged. They were bunched together as shown in the sketch, as 
is usually the case in such collisions. These two steel carl 
weighed about 75 tons each, and the underframe end construe 
tion was sufficiently strong to resist the impact found in ordi- 
nary passenger train accidents without serious damage or loss 
of life. 

Passenger car design may be further developed so that some 
greater strength in the end construction may be obtained with 
the present weight of steel, but little can be gained by adding 
weight to the section to get additional strength, as cars so con- 
structed as to resist the impact which resulted in the collision 
here illustrated would be so heavy that the railways could not 
afford to provide the motive power for hauling present passenger 



Vol. 52, No. 3. 

traffic in them. Besides, the expense involved in the construc- 
tion alone of such heavy cars would be very nearly prohibi- 

It will be remembered that in the wreck on the Pennsylvania 
Railroad near Fort Wayne, Ind., a steel car was in collision 
with a wooden dining car, telescoping the steel car, and the posi- 
tion of the cars was similar to that shown in our illustration. 
Fig. 3. At that time there was considerable discussion as to the 
relative strength of wood and steel cars, and the popular impres- 
sion was that a demonstration had been made of the superiority 
of wooden construction. It is hardly necessary to point out that 
in the collision referred to, as well as in the one here described 
on the St. Paul, the dining car underframe entered the steel 
car above the sleeper underframe. In each case it was simply 
the collision of a strong, stiff underframe with a light super- 
structure, and the effect of such collisions must be the same in 
either case. 



The railway commissioners of Massachusetts, F. J. Macleod, 
G. W. Bishop and Clinton White, have sent to the legislature 
the forty-third annual report of the commission. Two new rail- 
way corporations have been organized in the state during the 
year, the Hampden and the Southern New England. The length 
of the railways in the state, at present, is 2,111 miles. Following 
the usual statistics a discussion of the general field of the board's 
duties is given, beginning with a statement, filling two or three 
pages, devoted to nothing but a list of things that the board, 
by direction of the legislature, has had to do in connection with 
other boards. For example, in considering the proposition for 
subways in the city of Boston, the board acted conjointly with 
the Boston Transit Commission ; on the question of a proposed 
tunnel between the North and South stations in Boston, the 
board sat with the Board of Harbor & Land Commissioners, the 
Boston Transit Commission, and the Metropolitan Park Com- 
mission ; an examination of the property of the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford was made by the railway commissioners, the 
ta.x commissioner and the bank commissioner, acting together; 
and so on. This statement is followed by notes on a dozen 
other propositions referred directly by the legislature to the 
commission. One of the subjects dealt with in this way was 
that of fenders and wheelguards for street cars ; and a discus- 
sion of this subject takes up 40 pages of the report, the com- 
missioners, in person or by proxy, having visited a half dozen 
European cities, and a score of cities in America. The Board 
does not recommend any further legislation on this subject. The 
roadbed and tracks of the electric lines and the surfaces of high- 
ways are so far from perfect that in many situations the best 
fender or wheelguard will do no good, while under favorable 
conditions the poorest device will very often produce good 

A brief chapter is given to the subject of electrification of 
steam railways in the vicinity of Boston, on which the joint 
board, which studied the subject, disagreed. No action has been 
taken by the legislature. The present report holds that within 
the Metropolitan district electrification "is bound to come in the 
near future," and calls attention to the fact that one of the prin- 
cipal obstacles to this is the unsatisfactory condition of the re- 
lations between the Boston & Providence and the New York, 
New Haven & Hartford, lessee of the B. & P., the lessee being 
bound to make all improvements, while such improvements 
eventually become the property of the lessor. 

The board has approved certain new securities issued by the 
Boston, Cape Cod & New York Canal Company, and in connec- 
tion with the construction of the Cape Cod Canal, has authorized 
temporarily the use of a railway grade crossing, a section of 
the Woods Hole branch of the New Haven road having been re- 
located to accommodate the canal. 

Cliarles Azro Prouty, as announced in our columns last 
week, has been elected chairman of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission for the ensuing year. Mr. Prouty succeeds 
Judson C. Clements, in accordance with the plan announced last 
year, following the resignation of Martin A. Knapp to become 
presiding judge of the new Commerce Court, that a new chair- 
man would be elected each year in the order of the commis- 
sioners' length of service. After Mr. Clements, Mr. Prouty is 
the ranking member of the commission in point of seniority. He 
was appointed in 1896, and has served continuously ever since, 
always bearing a most prominent part in the numerous activities 
of the commission. 

It has been an open secret that he had been selected for ap- 
pointment as one of the judges of the Commerce Court at the 
time of its organization, but that he preferred to remain "on the 
firing line" in the performance of the more arduous and multi- 
farious duties of the commission. 

Personally, without doubt one of the best-known and most 
popular of the commissioners, Mr. Prouty has been generally 
regarded by both railway men and the representatives of the 
shippers as one of the very ablest of the members of that body. 
A man of unusual natural parts, tireless energy, keen insight into 
men and matters, he has acquired a remarkably comprehensive 
knowledge and understanding of railway and commercial affairs, 
and enjoys a power of logical and forceful reasoning, which, with 
his universally recognized unswerving honesty have commanded 
the highest respect for his opinions even on the part of those who 
may often have disagreed with his conclusions. 

The same qualities have also made him a powerful factor in 
bringing about a better understanding between the transportation 
and the shipping interests, while very strongly influencing the 
character of the work of the commission. He has written the 
opinions in many of its most important and far reaching de- 
cisions, including some that have involved the most strenuous 
controversies. Among the more recent of these may be men- 
tioned particularly the opinion in the eastern general rate ad- 
vance case last year, most of the long series of decisions growing 
out of the transcontinental rate cases, and the opinion in the 
Southeastern rate case. The latter two cases are now before the 
supreme court. He has also been one of the most active and in-, 
dustrious of the commissioners in traveling about the country 
hearing important cases. During the early years of his connec- 
tion with the commission he had much to do with the crim- 
inal branch of its work, and conducted many of its investigations. 

Mr. Prouty is a lawyer by profession, and one of the most 
distinguishing characteristics of his work has been the clear and 
logical reasoning, as well as the remarkable literary quality, dis- 
played throughout his opinions. His capacity for absort^ing in- 
tricate details and the analytical powers which he brings into play 
in separating the salient facts from the non-essentials during the 
progress of a hearing, coupled with his wonderful memory, have 
often aroused the admiration of those who have observed him in 
action ; while his shrewd, dry humor and a certain pleasing 
quaintness in his rugged personality have done much to relieve 
the strain and expedite the proceedings of a complicated case. 

Members of the Interstate Commerce Commission have been 
selected for appointment with a view to giving representation to 
the different sections of the country. Mr. Prouty in this respect 
represents the New England and northeastern states. He is a 
native of Newport, Vt., where he was born October 9. 18S3, and 
where he now maintains his permanent residence. He was grad- 
uated from Dartmouth College in 1875. and taught school for 
several years before he was admitted to the bar in 1882. He 
practiced law at Newport from 1882 until 1896, and meanwhile 
was a member of the lower house of the Vermont legislature in 
1888, and was reporter of the supreme court of the state from 
1888 to 1896. In December of the latter year he was appointed 
a member of the Interstate Commerce Commission, and has 
since been regularly reappointed on the e.xpiration of his term. 

January 19, 1912. 




Professor of Economics, Harvard University. 
The convertible bond, so called, has come into e.xtraordinary 
favor since 1901. Such a bond, as its name implies, may under 
a specific contract as to time and ratio be exchanged for cap- 
ital stock. Securities of this character combine the double as- 
surance of a first lien on assets at the start, and participation in 
growing profits, when success of the enterprise has become cer- 
tain. Such bonds were common in the highly speculative period 
after the Civil War. The St. Paul 7's of 1873 are a good ex- 
ample. The most widely known convertibles, however, were those 
of the Erie road. Daniel Drew and "Jim" Fisk used them 
to good effect in their classic contests with Commodore V'ander- 
bilt for control of that property. They were a necessary ad- 
junct to the reckless stock market speculation of the period. 
The plan was simple. Having quietly secured authorization by 
stockholders for a large issue of convertible bonds, Drew would 
create the appearance of a shortage in the supply of outstanding 
Erie stock. Other speculators having sold short would cover at 
high prices, Drew supplying them by selling shares which he did 
not yet possess, but which were borrowed for the purpose. And 
then, when Vanderbilt, who was seeking control of Erie, and 
all other dealers who were covering their commitments at high 
prices based upon a calculated shortage, had become loaded up 
with agreements to buy. Drew would convert his bonds into stock, 
flood the market, break the price and close out all his contracts 
for delivery at large profits. The scandals of the time so elo- 
quently described by Charles Francis Adams in his Chapters of 
Erie, gave a bad repute to this class of security, which lasted for 
many years. 

Revival of interest in convertible bonds seems commonly now- 
adays to be associated with periods of financial distress. They 
are not, however, storm signals like short-time note issues, as 
already described. But they are apt to be resorted to in a time 
when an added fillip to investment in railways seems to be needed. 
In the same period of 1893 several strong companies made use of 
them. Some of these were really expedients for selling new 
stock at par for improvements ; although the old shares were 
being quoted at a discount. In other words the combined se- 
curity of a bond with a fixed rate of return, and of the specula- 
tive chance of added profit upon conversion when the stock rose 
above par, enabled the company to secure new capital at more 
favorable rates than it otherwise could have done. 

The ne.xt period of activity in convertible bonds was associ- 
ated with the great consolidations about 1901. The most notable 
instance was the $100,000,000 issue of the Union Pacific in order 
to finance the purchase of the Southern and Northern Pacific. 
Other important companies like the Pennsylvania and the Bal- 
timore & Ohio resorted to the same device in 1902. The prime 
motive in adding the conversion privilege at this time, seems to 
have been to overcome the prejudice against bonds secured, not 
by a direct lien upon real property but upon securities of other 
roads to be purchased with the proceeds. In other words many 
of the issues of this period of active consolidation were collateral 
trust bonds, elsewhere described. As such they needed some 
privilege, or opportunity for peculiar profit, in order to dispose 
of them on favorable terms. 

Subsequent appearances of convertible bonds on a large scale 
have been principally associated with the two financial depres- 
sions of 1903 and 1907. At both times large companies like the 
Atchison and the New Haven have seen fit to add the conver- 
sion privilege to their new bonds, in order to make effective ap- 
peal to investors. Where weaker roads have been forced to 
resort to short time notes, the stronger ones have used con- 
vertible bonds. At other times as in 1905, the issues of bonds 
of this class by roads like the Erie, the Pennsylvania, the New 
Haven and the Atchison, have assumed large proportions. There 
can be little doubt that bonds of this sort have steadily risen 
in general favor in recent years. 

There appear to be no less than four substantial reasons for 
the popularity of the conversion privilege. The most substantial 
one is the successful appeal which it makes to the investing pub- 
lic. To assured interest return, it adds a speculative chance of 
participating in future profits as they accrue. That was the 
main reason for its extended use in the early days of railway 
construction. And since 1900, with the active competition of in- 
dustrial and mining securities with railway bonds, it has been 
found by experience that the addition of the right of conversion 
is necessary to insure a successful flotation. A second factor is 
found in the nature of the security behind many of these new 
convertible bonds. The majority of them are either debentures 
— that is to say, carrying no prior lien on specific assets, but 
rather a general obligation of the company as a going concern, 
or else collateral trust bonds, based upon the deposit of other 
securities of controlled roads. The more or less imperfect 
character of the security in either case, renders the conversion 
right necessary as an offset. In the third place, the reason which 
made "convertibles" simply invaluable to Daniel Drew in the 
70s, is still not without significance. In several notable cases, 
the control of railways by particular financial interests has been 
menaced or lost by unexpected operations upon the stock ex- 
change. The Louisville & Nashville in 1902 was ruthlessly torn 
from the Belmonts by a clever ruse incident to the issue of a 
large amount of new stock. The Illinois Central was likewise 
deprived of its long-standing independence despite a substantial 
concentrated minority control. And the contest for the Northern 
Pacific culminating on May 9, 1901, clearly demonstrated the need 
for ownership of a positive majority of all classes of outstanding 
share capital, in order to assure control. The final victory of the 
iMorgan-PIill party over Union Pacific interests was determined 
by its power over retirement of the large issue of preferred 
stock. Yet the law does not contemplate control of com- 
peting lines by actual majority ownership with favor. A 
device whereby control may be practically assured, as in the Penn- 
sylvania dominance of outlying properties, without an actual 
majority ownership of shares, is consequently welcome. A large 
issue of convertible bonds may aid in the solution of such a 
problem. It constitutes a reserve which may be drawn upon by 
the existing management in case more stock is needed in an 
emergency. This feature has undoubtedly in several cases led 
to the addition of the conversion privilege to new bond issues. 

The final and most fundamental advantage of convertibility as 
applied to funded debt— an advantage bound to make it of con- 
tinuing importance in future— is that it affords opportunity for 
gradually transforming fixed charges into contingent ones. 
Funds raised by the sale of ordinary bonds permanently saddle 
a heavy burden of prior liens upon earnings ahead of the capital 
stock. These charges must be paid whether earned or not. This 
was the great lesson enforced by the bankruptcies of 1894. Yet 
on the other hand, of course, the security is so great that capital 
may be obtained at low rates of return. This latter advantage 
would not follow an issue of new stock to finance improvements, 
particularly in the case of companies whose share capital stands 
at a premium, and whose rate of dividends is high. When the 
St. Paul in 1906 financed its Pacific coast extension by an issue 
of new 7 per cent, stock at par, it was virtually paying a higher 
rate for the capital needed than the new enterprise could 
possibly earn for some time. As a device for distributing 
surplus earnings of the parent company, it might be most ef- 
fective. But regarded as a means of financing a new line, it was 
certainly expensive. 

The convertible bond seems to answer the purposes of a com- 
pany thus situated, more satisfactorily than either straight bonds 
or stocks. For it enables the new capital for the incipient and 
uncertain stages of the enterprise to be had on a funded-obliga- 
tion basis. And thereafter, as the earning power of the exten- 
sion emerges, the fixed charges become transformed into con- 
tingent ones, with the progress of conversion of bonds into stock. 
And this process of conversion is automatic in its action. The plan 
in short is that of an automatic sinking fund. As profits grow 


Vol. 52, No. 3. 

the price of the capital stock rises, until on passing the price at 
which exchange may be effected, tlie profit in conversion leads to 
the freer exercise of the privilege. The ultimate outcome is a 
corporation freed of the incubus of a heavy funded debt, yet 
with net earnings demonstrably sufficient to support its capital 
stock. The prime instance of the successful application of such 
methods to a great enterprise, is the financing by the Pennsylvania 
Railroad of its great New York terminals in 1902 and 1905. The 
expedients of the New York Central in raising funds for sim- 
ilar purposes by means of stock and debentures seem clumsy and 
expensive by contrast. The great strength of the Union Pacific 
under the Harriman regime, viz., its low percentage of fixed 
charges to net earnings despite extensive borrowings for develop- 
ment and speculative purposes, has resulted largely from its 
successful use of convertible bonds as a means of raising new 

Certain disadvantages of convertible bonds remain to be men- 
tioned. Common stockholders not infrequently regard them as a 
violation of their rights. In a sense the convertible bond holder 
is a share holder with a preference both as to earnings and lien 
on assets, whose rights are intervened between the ordinary 
stockholder and his property. The ordinary bond holder is not 
thus regarded as an intruder, his interest rate being both mode- 
rate and fixed. Strenuous protest from shareholders is not un- 
likely to arise, as in the case of the Atchison issue of 1905. 
Moreover, it sometimes happens that convertible bonds instead of 
being automatically eliminated by rising quotations for the stock 
to the conversion point, may remain outstanding as bonds for a 
long period and may block the way to further borrowing on 
favorable terms. And yet, while outstanding as bonds, they may 
be entitled to all the privileges of the stock. This embarrassment 
occurred in the Pennsylvania financing of 1909. With large 
amounts of unconverted bonds outstanding, further needs of the 
company were met by putting forth new stock, the right to sub- 
scribe to it by being confined to shareholders. This addition of 
new stock obviously withheld the shares from rising in price 
to the conversion point, and still further postponed the time at 
which the convertible bold holder might with profit exercise his 
privilege. This difficulty was met by the New Haven in a sim- 
ilar case of about the same date, by extending the privilege of 
subscription to new shares to stock and convertible bond hold- 
ers alike. Unless specifically provided for by contract in ad- 
vance, however, the convertible bond holder may have his privi- 
lege of exchange at a profit indefinitely postponed by such emis- 
sions of new capital stock 

Still other disadvantages obtain. Tlie convertible bond fluctu- 
ates widely in price, often following closely the movement of the 
stock quotations. Large profits have been made, and likewise 
heavy losses, by persons who in reality sought investments stable 
in price. Such bonds are speculatively handled on the exchanges, 
being often "sold short" just like stocks. Moreover the opera- 
tions incident to conversion or redemption may be complicated. 
Ordinary investors may not understand them. Instances are not 
wanting, as in the case of St. Paul bonds of 1893 convertible into 
preferred stock, not at maturity, but within ten days after any 
dividend date, where many holders failed through ignorance to 
take advantage of their rights at the proper time. And finally 
in some cases, the bond convertible into stock at a ratio below 
par may be open to all the disadvantages of the issue of shares 
at a discount. Thus in 1903, and again two years later, the Erie 
road issued bonds to finance the purchase of the Cincinnati. 
Hamilton & Dayton road (afterward abrogated) and for pur- 
poses of improvement, convertible within ten years into common 
stock at $50 and $60 per share respectively. The low market 
price of the stock at the time did not indicate much hope of 
exercise of the privilege; but if it ever occurs it will in effect 
violate the general prohibition by New York state of the issue 
of capital stock below par. A special act of the legislature 
rushed through in the closing days of a preceding session had 
amended the law by permitting conversion of bonds to take place, 
"at not less than the market value." The danger of a resort to 

expedients for watering stock is too apparent to need further 
comment. In practically all other cases, the privilege of conver- 
sion is fixed at par or above, sometimes, as in the case of the 
Delaware & Hudson 4s, at as high a figure as 200. In conclusion, 
it goes almost without saying, that an increase of capital stock 
must always be authorized in connection with an issue of con- 
vertible bonds, sufliicient in ainount to cover the requisite num- 
ber of new shares after the exchange of bonds for stock has been 

A peculiar modification of a bond, in order to give it a specu- 
latively attractive character, occurred in the case of the Oregon 
Short Line Participating Bonds of 1904. These securities, to the 
amount of $36,500,000 were based upon a deposit by the Union 
Padfic interests of their holdings of Northern Securities stock. 
In other words, they were not ordinary but merely collateral 
trust bonds ; and the participating clause was added in order to 
overcome this disability and assure their successful flotation. In 
addition to a guaranteed 4 per cent., these bonds were to re- 
ceive annually a supplementary interest, equal to whatever divi- 
dend in excess of 4 per cent, might be declared upon the North- 
ern Securities stock which underlay them. A peculiar compli- 
cation arose in this connection. Dividends upon Northern Se- 
curities stock being held back by litigation, threatened to pour forth 
in mass upon its termination, while in the meantime the regular 
4 per cent, had to be paid from other sources. Were the par- 
ticipating bonds to share in all excess dividend above 4 per cent., 
when all these back dividends appeared at once, the Oregon 
Short Line would be a heavy loser. A provision for retirement 
at 102^ pointed the way of escape. It enabled the company to 
release the underlying collateral, upon the dissolution by decree 
of the Supreme Court dissolving the Northern Securities Com- 
pany. This was effected in 1905. 

Car trust certificates or equipment trust bonds are highly 
specialized liens upon particular items of railway property. .A 
company having mortgaged all of its tangible assets, and being 
unable to issue new capital stock, is in dire need of new cars 
and engines. There are practical as well as legal objections to 
direct loans based upon the acquired rolling stock as collateral. 
A round-about plan is in use, which practically amounts to bor- 
rowing the equipment, instead of the money ; and paying for it 
gradually as surplus revenues permit. An independent syndicate 
is formed, which purchases the desired rolling stock, as in 1903 
on the Pennsylvania system some 13,000 freight cars. Or it may 
be one of the great railway equipment companies enters into the 
agreement. The cars are then leased to the railw-ay for a short 
term of years, under an agreement providing for interest and 
gradual payment of principal. Only upon the final payment does- 
actual title to the property become vested in the railway. In 
the meantime, it would appear to have no equity in the property. 
The lease thus made is then assigned to a trustee, and "car trust 
certificates" are issued and sold to investors. The requisite in- 
terest upon these bonds of course are derived from the rentals 
paid to the trustee by the railway company under the terms of 
the agreement. This cumbersome process seems to be an out- 
growth of the inelastic character of the mortgage bonds of the 
railway already outstanding. The deed of trust itself is a highly 
complicated instrument, providing for repairs, maintenance and 
replacement of the property, and its final delivery at maturity. 
Bitter e.xperience of former years, as upon the Erie in the 70s 
where car trust certificates at maturity found the rolling stock 
completely worn out, have compelled the most elaborate safe- 
guards against fraud. Recently the process seems to have been 
simplified somewhat by the abandonment of the terminology of 
a lease contract. Despite the complexity of such operations, the 
volume of equipment trust obligations has enormously expanded 
in recent years. While the total funded debt of American rail- 
ways between 1898 and 1907 increased by about 60 per cent., 
equipment trust obligations increased over eight fold. The total 
outstanding in 1908 was $344,000,000. While not a large propor- 
tion of the total funded indebtedness, the rate of increase in 
recent vears has been notable. 

January 19, 1912. 




The cost of Iowa coal for locomotives on tlie Chicago & North- 
western in western Nebraska and Wyoming is $5.20 per ton. 
The Northwestern has been gradually developing the use of 
lignite in the district west of Long Pine, Neb., the lignite 
coal fields being in the neighborhood of Lander, Wyoming. The 
cost of lignite in that region is about $2 per ton, and it has 
an analysis about as follows : 

Fi.\ed carbon 37.73 

\'olatile combustible 38.66 

Ash 2.21 

Moisture 2 1 .4 1 

-Sulplnir 4.24 

The railway now lias 21 Pacific locomotives in that region 
which are equipped with special spark arresters for use when 
burning lignite coal. These engines have cylinders 20 in. by 
26 in., a grate area of 46.55 sq. ft., driver 63 in. in diameter, and 
the total heating surface is 2119.7 sq. ft. The smokebox is 70 in. 
in diameter and 86 in. long, which permits a large area of baffle 
plates and netting ; but the principal features of the locomotive 
which enables it to burn lignite successfully are the gyrus spark 
arrester and the annular exhaust nozzle. These were developed 
by the American Locomotive Company in co-operation with the 
Chicago & Northwestern, and are here illustrated in detail. 

The annulus of the exhaust nozzle has an outside diameter of 
8 in. and an inside diameter of 7 in., and there is a side opening 
in the partition wall of the exhaust base which causes a uniform 
distribtuion of the gases and sparks through the gyrus. The gyrus 
is a large cast iron barrel surrounding the exhaust nozzle, shaped 
like a truncated cone with the small end down. The diameter 
of the flanges is 32 in. at top, 22 in. at the bottom. This barrel 
is.built up of 16 vanes, 205^ in. long under the flanges, and these 
vanes have on their outer surface seven curved ribs, which act 

as deflectors and retard the escape of the sparks. The floor of 
the smokebox is covered with firebrick 3 in. to 6 in. thick and 
there is a 3/16 in. sheet iron jacket to protect the front end. 
The usual baffle plate in front of the tubes is covered with No. 12 
netting, which gives the sparks an initial abrasion and throws 

Details of the Gyrus Spark Arrester. 

tlieni toward the brick floor. A flat deflector plate laid 10 in. 
from the floor at the front end and 27 in. at the rear end, tends 
to keep the sparks down until the exhaust draws them forward 
and into the gyrus, where they finally make their escape to the 
stack in a fine state. 

Sr/cA end Cement ^ U- ^ ->J 

Gyrus Spark Arrester Applied to Locomotive Smoke Box. 



Vol. 52, No. 3. 


Mechanical Engineer, Rock Island Lines. 

The regulation of the railways by means of administrative 
bodies divides itself naturally into two general classes. The one 
has to do with that feature of the regulation in which is in- 
volved a conformity with the law as interpreted by the courts, 
and the other with the administration of the physical and as dis- 
tinguished from the legal. The first of these has to do mainly 
with the prevention of discriminations and other abuses, while 
the second touches the railways in the matters of every-day life, 
and the influence extends down into every portion of the service. 
As the speaker is not a lawyer, it is not his purpose to cover 
more than one phase of the subject wherein the engineer has 
been useful in shaping the details of legislation. 

The laws which regulate the various functions of the railways 
are administered mainly under the control and direction of the 
Interstate Commerce Commission. Many of these require elab- 
orate codes of rules and explanations for their proper under- 
standing and administration, and the inquiry naturally arises as 
to how these rules and instructions which have to do with tech- 
nical details were originally derived. Surely it would be difficult 
to find a department of the government dealing with more 
diverse subjects and on which there must be a multitude of 
questions arising from the various subjects covered by the regu- 
lation which the commission is empowered to direct. One 
might expect to find a very competent staff of legal, account- 
ing and engineering talent in connection with such a depart- 
ment of the government, and there may be, but the mechanical 
engineer is not strongly in evidence. 

It is self-evident that without the expenditure of great sums 
of money and a great deal of time the government cannot obtain 
the services of a body of experts which can compare in ability 
with those already in the service of the railways; and, second, 
that even if they could obtain such a body of experts, to bring 
these men to the point which has been reached by the railways' 
through so many years, would take another long period. As a 
result, it becomes peculiarly an act of good citizenship on the 
part of the railways to place their expert knowledge at the 
service of the government. 

Some two years ago the idea was advanced that inasmuch as 
it was clearly evident that public policy required the enacting 
of laws and regulations further controlling the activities of the 
railways it might be well if the men engaged in the practical 
operation of the roads would interest themselves in the form 
which the statutes proposed to be enacted should take, not with 
a view to necessarily making them less comprehensive, but with 
the idea that the intrusion of practical thought in their forma- 
tion might result in their being workable to a certain degree. 
At that time this was considered a very radical view; nor was 
it completely formulated in the first instance. This policy 
developed a further field of co-operation, in the fact that under 
most of the legislation covering physical regulation there was in- 
volved the formulation of rules and standards for the govern- 
ment of the carriers, and in these formulations the experience of 
practical men would be just as valuable, and in fact more so. 
than in the consideration of the primary law itself upon which 
the regulations were based. 

Acting on this theory, during the Sixty-first Congress it was 
the policy of the roads whenever any bill was under considera- 
tion relating to railway operation to present before congressional 
committees, men who from their knowledge and experience could 
tell such committees exactly what the proposed legislation meant 
and what the effects thereof would be. There is no question 
as to the necessity for this procedure. As an illustration, it is 
a matter of record that it was necessary for one of these wit- 
nesses to explain to a committee that the water in a locomo- 

•Part of an address delivered before the engineering students of the 

University of Illinois, January 4, 1912. 

tive boiler was not contained in the tubes; and to this co-opera- 
tion between congressional committees and witnesses for the 
railways may be attributed the fact that such legislation affect- 
ing the physical operation of railways, as passed the Sixty-first 
Congress, was intelligent and of a character that it was possible 
to enforce without testing the matter in the courts. Under some 
of these statutes it was necessary to formulate certain standards 
and rules, notably the standards of United States safety ap- 
pliances, and the rules for locomotive boiler inspection. The 
first of these was under consideration before any of the others. 
There was serious danger that the United States safety appliance 
standards would be formulated without due consideration as to 
practicability and difficulty of enforcement, and for some time 
there was very serious question as to whether any co-operation 
or assistance from the railways would be accepted on the part 
of those responsible for the formulation of such standards. 
However, after this principle was established the proceedings 
were rapidly conducted, and the benefits of such an arrange- 
ment were so manifest that in every case which has occurred 
since that time not only has this co-operation been welcomed, 
but in many cases has been sought by the representatives of the 
departments of the government charged with the enforcement of 
the laws. 

United States safety appliances have been referred to ; these 
are the ladders, handholds, sill stops, running boards, etc., on 
railway cars and locomotives. The Master Car Builders' Asso- 
ciation, a representative body, had for years illustrated and 
described consistent arrangements of these appliances in its pro- 
ceedings as standards, and, if all railways had fully complied 
with the requirements of these standards on their rolling stock 
it is not likely that the recent legislation on that subject would 
have been enacted. It is a fact that the standards of the 
M. C. B Association are not obligatory on the railways, but its 
practice in respect to the safety appliances was satisfactory to 
the Interstate Commerce Commission for many years as com- 
plying with the law. The labor organizations engaged in rail- 
way transportation developed a feeling that this was not suf- 
ficient and succeeded in persuading congress to pass an act direct- 
ing the Interstate Commerce Commission to prescribe the num- 
ber, dimensions, location and manner of application of these 
various appliances, so that they would be uniform as nearly as 
possible on all cars. 

The standards were to apply on all cars built after July 1, 1911, 
and the commission was authorized to name the time limits in 
which equipment built before that date should be changed to com- 
ply. The latter equipment, including about two and one-half mil- 
lions of freight cars, was by far the most important feature, as 
it would be comparatively easy to change drawings and specifi- 
cations for new equipment not yet built. To go over every old 
car and make the necessary changes to comply with a set of 
rather rigid requirements involved enormous expense, both direct 
and indirect. The secretary of the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission asked for a committee from the railways to assist in 
compiling the proposed standards for new cars, and when this 
work was done the Interstate Commerce Commission had a hear- 
ing at which these proposed standards were submitted in the 
usual form with opportunity for argument. 

The railways present by their representatives at once took the 
ground that the matter was not in shape for a hearing and final 
determination ; that while they could comply with _the require- 
ments on new cars, that the rigidity of the standards should be 
modified, variations allowed, and that liberal time should be 
granted for changing the older cars. Some little time was taken 
in discussing the details, but it all proved that the position of the 
railways was correct and the hearing was adjourned to permit of 
a conference committee handling of the matter. This committee 
consisted of fifteen members, five railway mechanical men, five 
Interstate Commerce Commission inspectors and five labor or- 
ganization chiefs, representing the locomotive engineers, firemen, 
conductors, trainmen and switchmen. The conference lasted 
several days with much argument and mutual concession and set- 

January 19, 1912. 



tied the matter entirely save two or three points on which no 
agreement could be reached. These and the agreed points, to- 
gether with the respective arguments, were submitted to the 
Interstate Commerce Commission in a second hearing, and an 
order was issued under which the railways are now working. 

The labor organizations were also not satisfied with the in- 
spections of locomotive boilers, as made by the railways ; at 
least they apparently could not understand why the engine crews 
were generally blamed in case of boiler explosions, and they de- 
termined to have a federal boiler inspection law. Several bills 
were introduced in Congress, but by intelligent presentation of 
information and records of the roads' methods of inspection and 
tests at the committee hearings the more radical and unreason- 
able bills were successfully opposed. It was, however, recog- 
nized by the railways that they could not consistently oppose 
reasonable regulation in the matter, and conferences were held 
with those interested to determine the essentials of a reason- 
able boiler inspection law. The Master Mechanics' Association 
had reported a set of minimum rules applying generally to all 
locomotives based on general practice. These were considered 
together with methods of administration, force and the scope of 
their duties, etc., and the present law was framed to include 
these considerations and was not opposed by the railways. 

The law provided that the Interstate Commerce Commission 
should formulate and issue the rules under which the railways 
should inspect, test and report their boilers. The five railway 
mechanical men who had conducted the safety appliance negotia- 
tions met with the boiler inspectors of the commission and the 
labor organization representatives and agreed to the code of rules 
which by order of the commission now regulates our boiler in- 

I will not weary you with the detail of all the routine neces- 
sary in those negotiations ; of the calling of a general meeting of 
the railways to settle preliminaries, of the authorizing of the 
conference committee to represent all the roads, of the reporting 
to the general meeting for approval of the results reached in 
conference before they are submitted to the commission, and the 
final discharge of the conference committee, so far as that sub- 
ject is concerned after the commission's order has been issued. 

Recently the post office department asked for a conference 
with the roads in regard to formulating specifications for the 
construction of steel full postal cars and for the uniform arrange- 
ment of the equipment of both full postal and apartment cars. 
The matter was taken up by a general meeting of the roads who 
again authorized the conference committee of mechanical officers, 
reinforced by a couple of mail traffic managers, to represent 
them, which they did, first ascertaining the scope and extent of 
the general features desired to be covered. The committee, as- 
sisted by the engineers of the car building companies, who cheer- 
fully gave of their experience and knowledge, then formulated 
a specification for steel full postal cars. After the specification 
was completed and unanimously concurred in by all members of 
the committee and by the assisting engineers of the car build- 
ers, it was referred to and approved by a general meeting of the 
railways. It was then submitted to the committee of the post 
office department and thoroughly discussed in an extended con- 
ference. It will doubtless take some little time to entirely settle 
the matter, as the specification is very complete and voluminous. 
The post office department committee found it rather difficult to 
understand and assimilate the engineering portions of the speci- 
fication relating more particularly to the strength of the struc- 
ture, as section moduli was a term not ordinarily used in post 
office transactions. They were surprised that we could not give 
them direct comparisons of the strength of wooden and steel cars 
and had hoped that we could help them to arrive at a single 
standard of design. The specification was printed in the Novem- 
ber 24 issue of the Raihvay Age Gazette, pages 1049 to 1051, and 
there were editorial references in the issues of November 17 and 
December 1. 

The work of the committee had to include several important 
considerations. First, the post office department had accepted 

several designs of steel postal cars, none of which had been 
demonstrated as a failure. Hence, it was obvious that the speci- 
fication should be broad enough to include all of the designs. 

Second, the specification, in order to be authoritative, should 
have the approval of all the designers of the various types in- 
cluded, and also of the users of the cars who by experience in 
handling and maintaining them could judge of their suitability 
to the service and the general results of the designs in normal 
operation as well as in repairs and wrecks. We were fortunate 
in having the unanimous approval of all the engineers and of the 
railways back of our specification. 

Third, due regard must be paid to the evolution of steel car 
construction in the future, and the form of the specification 
should not be such as to bar progress in design and improve- 
ment in materials. 

Fourth, Congress may pass one of the several steel passenger 
car bills that have been introduced, and doubtless the postal car' 
specification would be studied as to its application to other type* 
of steel passenger equipment cars. 

It is admitted that as the postal car is generally placed next 
to the engine it is in a place of greater hazard than are other 
cars in the train in the case of a head-end collision, and we 
agreed to furnish a greater measure of strength in the end fram- 
ing to minimize the danger of telescoping. Aside from this, 
however, we do not feel that the structure of a postal car should 
necessarily be stronger than that of other types of cars and the 
best results can be obtained by having consistent strength 
throughout the train. 

The public has gained some very erroneous opinions about the 
strength of steel cars. If they were in fact so strong as to resist 
deformation in a severe wreck it must be apparent that they 
would pass the shock along to the contents of the cars, human 
and otherwise, in dissipating the stored energy. It has been 
amply demonstrated by experience in several wrecks that the 
amount of damage and injury is greatly lessened by providing a 
yielding resistance in the end of the car, such as the folding up 
of the vestibule or platform or partial failure of the end con- 
struction. If these parts are so strong as to resist failure, the 
shock will be transmitted until it is dissipated at a greater risk 
to life and the contents of the cars. 

Tlie principal advantages of steel passenger car construction 
are the absence of splintering and less danger of fire from exter- 
nal causes in case of wreck. Danger has been feared when both 
wooden and steel cars are used together in trains, but a wooden 
sleeper has been known to telescope a steel sleeper, and a prom- 
inent lumber association has spread broadcast photographs show- 
ing how well a wooden dining car in an otherwise steel train 
had withstood injury in a severe wreck. The truth is that 
wreck conditions are seldom so similar as to permit direct com- 
parison, and, while the wooden cars are the result of an evolu- 
tion covering several decades, the steel car is of very recent 
origin, and, that we can reasonably expect improvements in 
design, reduction in weight, and cost as has been the case in de- 
velopment generally of equipment, machinery and other struc- 

The postal car specification provides that the underframe is 
to be calculated on an assumed end shock equivalent to 400,000 
lbs. static load, which will take care of very heavy switching 
and service conditions, but not of extreme collision shocks, which 
should be dissipated by end failure. Thus it will be seen that the 
duties of the conference committee have been so varied as to 
require a considerable range of practical information as well as 
technical and engineering knowledge. The handling of these 
questions in the conferences required skill in debate and argu- 
ment suited to the caliber and character of the people with whom 
issue is raised. 

As the conference committee represented all of the railways, 
the members must of necessity take the broad view and not just 
that of their own little or big road, as the case might be. The 
personnel of the committee included the highest officers in the 
mechanical departments of such railway systems as would 



Vol. 52, No. 3. 

practically represent all sections of tlie country, and while the 
time necessarily devoted to these protracted conferences was a 
heavy tax, both on the individual and to his company, yet the 
results obtained have been so satisfactory as to justify the ex- 
penditure of time and the methods employed. 

It cannot be too strongly emphasized that the amount of work- 
committed to the various governmental agencies through legis- 
lation is vastly in excess of the capacity of the present organ- 
ization of such agencies to perform satisfactorily. The ad- 
ministration of such vast interests, which should be committed 
to men of first rate ability in some cases, and in others to 
men of thorough technical equipment, is left to the tender 
mercies of men who, however well meaning, have not the equip- 
ment necessary for the effective administration of their offices, 
nor under tlie conditions with regard to compensation which 
now exist can these agencies hope to secure men of the type 
desired. Under these circumstances, the cordial co-operation of 
the railway administrations is practically essential to prevent 
utter demoralization in the transportation industry. 

That this co-operation has been willingly afiforded is clear evi- 
dence of the desire of the railway corporation to contribute to 
the success of the governmental agencies upon their adminis- 
trative side, and in this respect the railways, which have been 
a mark for every petty politician for so many years, have demon- 
strated the appreciation on the part of their officers of their 
duties as "citizens of no small country." 


The Public Service Commissioners of the state of New York, 
Second district, F. W. Stevens, M. S. Decker, J. E. Sague, J. B. 
Olmsted and W. A. Huppuch, have completed the fifth annual 
report of that commission, and have issued a brief abstract from 
which we take the following data : 

During the year the commission has had presented to it 2,321 
propositions, the work having steadily increased during the four 
years of the commission's existence. The number of formal 
complaints disposed of during the past year was 314, and 1,593 
were conducted by correspondence ; 572 public hearings were 
given, occupying 285 days, nearly 100 days more than in the 
preceding year. 

The railways reporting to the commission had an increase 
of 3.2 per cent, in their gross receipts, but a decrease of 7 per 
cent, in net as compared with the preceding year, though the net 
receipts were 6 per cent, better than in 1909. The electric rail- 
ways reporting to the commission had total receipts of 27 millions 
and net over 10 millions, which last is 50 per cent, greater than 
in 1907. The business of the electric railways grows steadily. 
During the past year they carried 542,695,000 passengers ; increase 
in receipts 8 per cent.; in operating expenses 4 per cent.; and 
in net receipts 15.1 per cent. 

Careful inspection of steam railways has been continued, and 
there has been a decided permanent improvement in roadway, 
equipment and structures. The commission has given consider- 
able attention to the matter of rail breakages, and it is found 
that the total number of breakages for the year ended June 30, 
1911, was 3,228, as against 3.670 for the year ended June 30, 1910. 
As there are probably somewhat more than four million rails 
in the main tracks of the railways of the state, the figures this 
year correspond to a yearly breakage of about one rail in 1,250, 
or one break per year in each 3.8 miles of track. 

Referring to the serious accidents happening on the Lehigh 
Valley at Burdette and Manchester, and on the Buffalo & Sus- 
quehanna at Scio, it is noted that the rails involved were rolled 
by so-called independent steel companies. No conclusion can be 
drawn, however, from this fact, as the records of the commis- 
sion indicate a rate of breakage higher than the average in some 
particular orders made by a number of mills in the country, 
including some of those owned bv the United States Steel Cor- 

poration. The commission has in mind cases where roads have 
on their own initiative removed rails amounting to thousands of 
tons, where excessive breakage was shown by their records, 
rather than run the risk of accidents. 

In relation to the Lehigh Valley accident at Manchester, the 
commission says that a careful study fails to show any failure 
whatever on the part of the railway company to provide reason- 
able and proper safeguards, including first-class track and an 
automatic signaling system, with electric track circuit, and rails 
of ample strength, for which an extra price had been paid, with 
a view to securing superior quality. 

-Attention is called to the fact that a large proportion of rail 
breakage on lines using electric track circuits has been detected 
by interruption of the circuits and the consequent setting of 
signals at "stop," and there appears to be no doubt that a ccn- 
siderable number of accidents have thus been prevented. 

Rear collisions continue to be too frequent and the inspectors 
are trying to secure improvements in signaling and in discipline. 
The inspectors of cars and engines report that on most of the 
roads the boilers, machinery and safety appliances are in much 
better condition than in former years. There is a general tend- 
ency to improve the repair terminals and facilities, to raise the 
standard of inspection and to increase the efficiency of locomo- 
tives. The New York Central has labored under great diffi- 
culties by reason of a strike of employees in its boiler shops. 
Some of the smaller roads have inadequate repair facilities and 
some even have no officer who is sufficiently posted as to the 
importance of maintaining safety appliances in good condition. 
The commission has under its supervision for inspection 8,616 
locomotive boilers. A year ago 208 boilers were below the 
standard of safety, but this number has now been reduced to 
15. In the State Forest Preserve the commission has required 
the use of oil-burning locomotives and there has been only one 
railway fire of importance during the year. 

Twenty-nine crossings of steam railways have been abolished 
during the year and work is in progress on seven others. Since 
1897 the State has appropriated for this work $2,317,607 and 272 
crossings have been eliminated. There still remain about 8,-500 
grade crossings of steam railways, and the commission asks for 
$550,000 from the State treasury for grade crossing work this 

The electric railways supervised by the commission aggregate 
2,722 miles in length. The interurban roads have killed no person 
in a collision this year, a result due to tlie efficiency of motor- 
men, conductors and operating officers. The commission has 
required the improvement of methods of operation. Five persons 
have been killed at grade crossings of electric roads; and the 
improvements in highways and the increase in the number of 
automobiles indicate that this death record will grow larger 
rather than smaller. A majority of these accidents are believed 
to be due to the recklessness of automobile drivers. The com- 
mission has made thorough investigation of street railway condi- 
tions in Syracuse, Albany and Ithaca, resulting in important 

A large part of the report is devoted to gas and electric light- 
ing. Gas meters, which were inspected to the number of 87,893, 
show improvements during the past .three years, though even now 
only 80 per cent, are found correct ; about 6 per cent, were found 

This commission has jurisdiction over telephones throughout 
the State, including both the first and the second districts. 
During the year 424 central offices have been inspected and '"a 
vast number" of defects in operating efficiency have been found. 

One of the victims of the Chinese insurrection was Tuan-fang, 
the general manager of the Canton-Hankow Railway. He had 
been governor of a province, and while in charge of the con- 
struction of this railway was put in command of troops which 
marched against the insurgents. 

Januarv 19, 1912. 




The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, in addition to the 
fuel report which has been used for a number of years, has 
adopted a form for making daily statements of transporta- 
tion expenses, primarily for the use of division and terminal 
superintendents. The reports are made up in the office of 
each superintendent, and copies are supplied to the offices of 
the assistant generai superintendents. 

The fuel report is made in each train despatcher's office 
from the train sheet and' coaling station records. This shows 
for eastbound, westbound and total business the train mile- 
age, ton mileage, average tons per train, pounds of coal con- 
sumed and average pounds of coal per 100 ton miles. These 
reports are made daily, and are combined in the office of the 
fuel inspector into weekly and monthly fuel reports, which 
are serving well to compare economies in fuel consumption 
over the entire systein. The figures are compared with the 
corresponding figures for the same week or month of the pre- 
vious year. 

The clerk in tlie superintendent's office who has charge of 
the daily statement of transportation expenses has access to 
this fuel report, from which he takes the train mileage, ton 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Co. 








AviTWtP E.tprnf«, [HT 1,000 lonmilc 





- • • riv.rt.m.. 







Form for Reporting Operating Costs per Ton Mile. 

mileage and average tons per tram to bt entered on the 
blank under main line revenue freight train statistics. The 
statement of cost includes every item of expense carried on 
station, yard and train pay rolls, together with wages of en- 
ginemen, cost of coal and a proportion of expense of the 
superintendent's office and such items from track rolls as 
pertain directly to transportation: viz., wages of coalheavers, 
pumpers, crossing watchmen, etc. One-half the wages of the 
force in the superintendent's office is charged to this trans- 

porlation account. The items covering enginemen's and 
trainmen's wages are secured from the train sheets by figur- 
ing the exact time that each train is on the road, taking into 
account the difference in rates for through and way freights, 
different classes of engines, and overtime and terminal de- 
lays. The amount chargeable to overtime and terminal de- 
lay is shown separately from road time. The daily cost is 
reduced to a per 1,000 ton mile unit. This unit is not the 
actual cost of performing the service, since it does not con- 

Chicago, Milwaukee &, St Paul Railway Co. 



TbTAL Nuhua or Ca«s Handud n« Yauk, 

SWITCHING service: 

<i«.«rt, r™^™ 

.Snfrhnun T™i.f« T™™. 

VmrA Pr,yi«.mm 

CnKl rJ r«sl (nr Vsrrt Fnfp~.. 

tUpn.! .n,i Inlrrlnrtrinj Op^r^ta™ 

r^l Mnn.« F,>r.-« 

Average Expense per car 



r FascaT Uandlzs, Cab Loads, 
Less Cab Le 




Averagt Expense per ton (or hwidlmg (reighi 



ToUl Tons all Freight handled, 
Total ExpecM all Freight handled. 
Awrage Expense pw twi, all Freight, 

Form for Reporting Yard and Station Costs. 

tani any charge for maintenance of equipment, roadbed and 
structures. The items making up this unit are the ones di- 
rectly under the jurisdiction of the superintendent, so that 
it serves to show accurately fluctuations from day to day, as 
influenced by increases or decreases in the tonnage handled, 
and the adjustment of forces and movement of trains. 

The costs for freight service are kept in four columns — 
the daily total, a daily cost per 1,000 ton miles, an accumu- 
lated total and a cost per 1,000 ton miles for the entire month 
up to and including that day. The accumulated total is car- 
ried forward from day to day throughout the month. 

The statements of cost of passenger train, branch line and 
work train service include only the wages of trainmen and 
enginemen and the cost of coal consumed. The passenger 
and branch line train service costs are reduced to train mile- 
age units, and work train costs to an hourly basis. 

The daily statement of terminal expenses is divided into 
two sections, one covering cost of switching service and 
the other cost of station service. The statement of switching 
service is computed on the basis of the total number of cars 
handled, counting total number of cars in and total number 
of cars out. In includes all items of expense which enter into 
this cost except maintenance, as explained above in connec- 
tion with revenue freight service. Daily and accumulated 
totals and costs per car are carried on the blank. The sta- 
tion service costs are divided into carload and less-than-car- 
load costs. Expenses for station office forces are pro-rated 
between the two classes of business, the proportion for car- 
loads being from 10 to 20 per cent, of the whole office ex- 



Vol. 52, No. 3. 

penses. The expenses for freight house and outside forces 
can ordinarily be distributed directly to the account of less- 
than-carload and carload business, respectively. The cost of 
station service is reduced to a per ton unit. 

These forms have been in use on the Milwaukee for about 
one year, and the management is well satisfied with the re- 
sults which are being secured. When the system was first 
installed it was found that superintendents were apt to com- 
pare costs on different divisions with the idea of keeping 
their figures below those for other divisions on the road. 
This tendency has been discouraged, as it is recognized that 
because of the widely different conditions existing on the 
different divisions the unit costs could not be expected to be 
the same. The desire on the part of the superintendents to 
economize is encouraged as much as possible, and it is 
thought that the data furnished by these blanks is a very ma- 
terial aid to them m recognizing what efforts to economize 
are proving successful. To illustrate: too much tonnage 
may be given the trains, causing them to incur a lot of over- 
time, thus raising the unit cost. Trains may be delayed for 
want of an open telegraph office ; an operator is put on, in- 
creasing the station rolls, but reducing the overtime of trains, 
and, likewise, the unit cost. Terminal delay may be excessive 
because of insufficient yard force, and by making a trial with 
additional yard engines or supervision the result should be 
reflected in the unit cost. 

writer operator in making the stencils and of two boys em- 
ployed in operating the mimeograph and in binding the copies. 
Over three-fourths of the issues of this road for one month were 
found to be of less than 200 copies each. 



A number of railways are finding an important economy, both 
in time and money in the use of the mimeograph for printing 
tariffs, division sheets, tracers, circulars, instructions and many 
other forms, of which a number of copies are desired, but hardly 
enough to justify the expense of a printer's bill. Not only in 
the freight and tariff departments, but in the mechanical, engi- 
neering and other departments also, these machines are becoming 
more and more useful in preparing copies of forms of various 
kinds which would require tedious and expensive work on the 
typewriter to secure the required number, but which would be 
still more expensive if sent to a printing office. Thousands 
of tariffs, supplement sheets, etc., are being issued daily by the 
railways which require but one or two sheets, and of which but 
a few hundred copies or less are needed. To have this work 
done by printing press costs large sums in the aggregate, and the 
amount of this kind of work has been steadily increasing in re- 
cent years. 

On the mimeograph, tariffs and similar matter may be readily 
prepared without going outside of the office and in a short time, 
merely requiring the cutting of a stencil by copying the matter 
on a typewriter, inserting the stencil on the machine and having 
as many copies as are desired run off by an office boy operating 
the machine. 

Many raiKvays have been deterred from adopting this econom- 
ical process by the fact that the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion in several instances has rejected mimeographed tariffs. The 
tariff department of a railway which has made an extensive use 
of the mimeograph, and found that it has resulted in marked 
economy and efficiency, took the question up with the commis- 
sion and was advised that the only objection was to carelessly 
done, illegible work on poor paper which had been submitted for 
filing. To this the commission had registered a decided objec- 
tion, but no prohibition was made against the use of the mimeo- 
graph or gny other printing process provided the tariffs complied 
with the requirements of legibility and satisfactory quality of 
paper. This railway made an exhaustive comparison of the cost 
of printing tariffs by mimeograph and found it to be approxi- 
mately 20 per cent, less than the cost of obtaining excellent work 
by the printing press. The actual expense of printing 500 ten-sheet 
tariffs with cover by mimeograph was found to be $10.99, or 
2}4 cents per tariff complete, including the time of the type- 

The removal of the capital of the island of Formosa from 
Tainanfu, on the coast, to Taipeh, gave Governor Liu Ming 
Chuan an excuse to construct a railway between the capital and 
the coast in spite of the opposition in Peking. In 1889 a twelve- 
mile line connecting Tuatutia and Saitingka was opened to traffic. 
The work was continued until 1893, at which time 62 miles 
were opened to traffic between Hsinchu and the northern port 
of Keelung. At this period the Peking government issued an 
order to suspend further construction work. All the collieries 
were closed, and, with the exception of passenger traffic there 
was little activity in transportation. 

When the Japanese assumed control of Formosa in 1895 they 
found the 62 miles of railway in operation. This line represented 
a cost to the Chinese of appro.ximately $1,360,758, but, owing to 
the opposition of the Peking government, it had not been prop- 
erly maintained. The Japanese decided to reconstruct the road 
throughout and a special survey was made for the extension of 
the existing line. In 1899 the government of Formosa planned 
the construction of a trans-insular line. The estimated expendi- 
ture of the new line was $14,400,000, to be spread over a period 
of ten years. This sum was included in the general development 
budget and the funds raised formed part of the Japanese gov- 
ernment Taiwan public works loan, which was issued for the 
purpose of carrying out various works and the construction of 
railways. The cost of construction was lower than the estimate, 
owing to the fall of wages and a modification of the original route. 

The main line and branches comprise 18 tunnels, aggregating 
over four miles; 28 bridges of over 300 ft. long, totaling over 
six miles. Much of the route lay in mountainous country, pre- 
senting many difficult engineering problems. The estimate of 
$14,400,000 was reduced by $625,000. This makes an average 
cost of about $50,000 per mile for the 271 miles of narrow gage 
line. Such satisfactory progress was made in the construction of 
the main trunk line between Shinchiku and Taokow that about 
247 miles were completed by April, 1908, together with a branch 
line from Daitoku to Tamsui, 14 miles, and another connecting 
Taokan with Kukiyodo, 11 miles, a total of 272 miles. On Octo- 
ber 24, 1908, the line was officially opened to traffic. The results 
for the first year of operation were most satisfactory to the 
Japanese government which guaranteed $12,901,686 of the bonds. 

The report showed that the general condition of the road was 
satisfactory and that there was a balance of $653,695 for just a 
little over one year's operation. The rolling stock consisted of 
54 engines, of which 8 were made in America; 112 passenger 
cars and 826 freight cars, and was valued at $1,319,670. The 
passenger revenue was $615,119; the freight revenue, $755,867; 
miscellaneous receipts, $4,424; total revenue, $1,375,410. Expendi- 
tures were $721,715. The number of passengers carried during 
the year was 2,691,034, and the freight tonnage was 711,930 tons. 
There were 2,756 persons employed on the line and the salaries 
and wages amounted to $281,840. 

Plans have been adopted for the extension of the system by 
two branch lines in the eastern and southern parts of the island. 
The Taito line, about 60 miles long, will run along the southeast 
coast connecting Taito with Karenko, both of which are im- 
portant towns having populations of 4,000 and 2.500 respectively 
The cost of this line is estimated' to be $2,119,986. The work 
was started in January, 1910. The other branch line will be 
about 41 miles long and will start at Kagi, where a bamboo pulp 
factory is located. This line will tap the camphor trees district 
at Mount Ari. The estimated expenditure of this line is $1,- 
326,672. The gage of both these branch lines will be 3.06 ft. 

•.^bst^acted from an article in The Far Eastern Review. 

MnxnUnunt^ ni May ^^rtion. 

VV7E wish to call the attention of our readers to the contest 
"" on track kinks which closes January 25, and to urge that 
contributions be sent in promptly. A description of any novel 
method or device applicable to track work by which a saving in 
time, labor or material can be effected is eligible to this contest. 
In view of the large number of such kinks developed in track 
work in different parts of the country the contributions should 
be numerous and valuable in character. Those descriptive of the 
handling of winter track work, either in terminals or out on the 
line, will be especially helpful. Prizes of $25 and $15 will be 
awarded the best two contributions, and we will pay our regular 
space rates, with a minimum rate of $3, for all others accepted 
for publication. Contributors are urged to send in collections 
of kinks, each of which will be paid for if accepted. All con- 
tributions must be in the hands of the Civil Engineering Editor 
of the Raikvay Age Gaccttc^ 417 South Dearborn street, Chicago, 
not later than January 25. 

lighting and heating all require specialists, while the chief engi- 
neer must be able to intelligently supervise the combined work. 

OIX papers were submitted in the contest on Improvements 
*^ in Maintenance Work During 1911, which closed December 
25, 1911. The judges, L. R. Clausen, division superintendent 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul ; E. D. Swift, engineer mainte- 
nance of way Chicago & Western Indiana, and F. M. Patterson, 
assistant engineer Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, awarded the 
first prize to P. H. Hamilton of the St. Louis & San Francisco, 
Pittsburg, Kan., and second prize to M. Ganley, roadmaster 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, Argentine, Kan. Other papers 
submitted by R. C. White, division engineer Missouri Pacific, 
Little Rock, Ark. ; E. R. Lewis, division engineer Michigan 
Central, Bay City, Mich. ; J. D. Archibald, assistant supervisor 
Northern Central. Baltimore, Md., and F. L. Burrell, general 
foreman bridges and buildings Chicago & North Western, Fre- 
mont, Neb., have been accepted and will be published in this 
and succeeding issues. Probably in no recent year has more at- 
tention been paid to this phase of railway work than in the 
past year. The papers submitted describe simple methods which 
can be put into use on almost any division with good results. 

A LTHOUGH the Wood Preservers' Association is but eight 
** years old, it is one of the strong organizations in the main- 
tenance of way field. It is growing rapidly in strength, having 
during the past year nearly doubled its membership. It has made 
for itself a reputation as an authority on timber-treating, and 
its proceedings are in demand. The convention of this week 
was the best which has been held, and the papers presented are 
an evidence of the interest taken by the members, both in their 
individual work and that of the association. Although the 
timber-treating industry is not confined to the railway field, it 
receives its main application there and the importance to which 
it has grown illustrates the wide and constantly increasing di- 
versity of the work under the supervision of the chief engineer 
of the modern railway. It is not many years since the chief 
engineer had supervision over new construction only and had 
but one assistant, a bridge engineer. In fact, frequently these 
offices were combined. Now the chief engineer of a large rail- 
way has several assistants in charge of different departments, 
some of which are in turn sub-divided. The bridge engineer, 
engineer maintenance of way, signal engineer, architect, super- 
intendent of water service, and superintendent of timber pres- 
ervation have on many roads been required to build up staffs 
to' handle the large amount of work under their supervision, 
larger than that formerly maintained by the chief engineer. The 
erection of a station is a good example of the wide diversity 
of problems met in one engineering project. Such a piece of 
work was a comparatively simple matter a few years ago. Now, 
however, the architect is called in to design the station, the pas- 
senger subways under the tracks are designed by the bridge de- 
partment, the engineer plans the track layout, and the plumbing. 

■"There is no time which so taxes the ability of the main- 
tenance of way officer as a period of weather similar to 
that of the past three weeks, unless it is a series of washouts. 
It is even doubtful if washouts are as severe a test of a main- 
tenance organization as the recent extremely cold weather, ac- 
companied, as it was, by a heavy snowfall, for the weather con- 
ditions have been such that a man could not work without se- 
rious bodily discomfort, and frequently serious injury by freez- 
ing. Coming at a time when the forces are reduced to a mini- 
mum, severely cold weather in many cases finds the maintenance 
forces inadequate to cope with the situation. Conditions are espe- 
cially severe about terminals, and the larger the terminals the 
greater the diflSculty. Switches must be kept open throughout 
the yards, tracks about the engine houses and in coach yards 
must be kept free from ice in spite of the fact that water and 
steam are constantly escaping and freezing, for it is highly impor- 
tant that passenger trains at least be able to leave terminals on 
time. All this work requires constant attention both day and 
night and at such times the roadmaster or the supervisor usually 
spends a large portion of the 24 hours on the track. The same 
difficulties are shared to a somewhat lesser extent by those in 
charge of water service and signals. If passengers complaining 
of delays to passenger trains, or shippers of delay in delivery of 
freight, would realize the efforts put forth by employees in all de- 
partments, and especially of those in the maintenance depart- 
ment, to keep trains moving under the extremely severe weather 
conditions and would more fully appreciate the difficulties under 
which they work, there would be few, if any, complaints. 

TF asked the cost of a work train the average roadmaster or 
* master carpenter will mention the figure given in the gen- 
eral circular covering such work. But this figure may or may 
not be near the actual cost to the railway in a given instance. 
The average maintenance officer will order a work train too 
often rather than not often enough if left to his own judgment. 
For this reason it is very pertinent that he stop to consider what 
really enters into the cost of a train. The price given in the 
general circular usually is an arbitrary figure made to cover 
the average cost on the entire system. The cost varies widely 
on different divisions and on branches of the same division. A 
work train can do less on a busy main line than elsewhere, be- 
cause of the time lost in keeping out of the way of scheduled 
trains ; and it is a cause of delay to extra trains. The resulting 
overtime of train crews is an actual part of the cost of the work 
which the railway has to pay, although it may not be practicable 
to so assign the charges. Again, in times of congestion of traffic 
when motive power is scarce an engine is worth far more than 
in times of light business, because of its greater earning power. 
If an engine can earn $200 a day by hauling revenue freight 
it really costs the road that much to withdraw it for work train 
service. The complicated wage schedules of the train and 
enginemen are often not as fully understood by the maintenance 
men as they should be, and because of this trains are sent back 
and forth over the road, running up mileage without securing 
the greatest results. These and other items enter into the real 
cost of doing the work. The closer the man in charge estimates 
this cost when deciding on the method to be followed the nearer 
will he be able to so do the job as to promote the best interests 
of the company. A roadmaster on a busy double track line, 
handling over SO trains in 24 hours, most of them in the day 
time, called for a work train recently to unload seven cars of 
cinders about a mile out from the nearest siding. His superior 
officer studied the matter and found that a gang of about 30 men 
would be necessary to economically unload the cinders in the 
short intervals during which they could work on the main line. 
He therefore concluded that it would be cheaper to haul them 



Vol. 52, No. 3. 

1)3- teams from tlie adjacent siding. The total t.xpensc incurred 
in this way was less than would have been the cost merely of the 
labor which would have been necessary in handling it with the 
work train. In addition there was no interference with traftic 
on the main line. While the maintenance officer usually does 
not have the data to estimate accurately the cost of a work 
train, he is closely enough in touch with local operating con- 
ditions to arrive at the approximate figure, and should consider 
carefully these possible variations from the average cost. 


IN looking back over 1911 the tendency which stands out most 
most prominently in maintenance of way work is the very 
general efiort to introduce economies. While retrenchment did 
not approach tlie limits reached in 1908, little attempt was made 
to raise the standards of maintenance or to do extensive new 
work. But a small amount of new construction, double-tracking 
and terminal improvement was done. In some cases the usual 
quantities of rail and ballast were not supplied. There were, in 
consequence, smaller forces to handle, which gave the supervising 
officers more time to study possible economies; and probably 
few recent years have witnessed so great an improvement in the 
thrift with which track work has been done. Few radical changes 
were made; the tendency was rather toward comparatively small 
improvements in many directions. The etYort was largely to 
secure greater efficiency from the men through education and 
through more effective organization of the competent groups. 

The idea that a track man is an unskilled laborer has been 
allowed to take root so firmly that it will probably take years to 
remove it from the minds of many, and in the meantime mainte- 
nance work will continue to sufifer. However, there is a growing 
dissatisfaction 'with this attitude which is beginning to make 
itself felt. One evidence of this was the increase in the wages 
of section foremen on many roads during the past year. This 
ought to continue until the wages and conditions of employment 
are such as to induce enough good men to enter this field to 
provide a satisfactory supply of foremen. 

The educational work for employees which was begun on the 
L'nion Pacific over a year ago was carried on actively during 
1911. Last summer the courses were extended to the Illinois 
Central. The effect on the better class of foremen and mainte- 
nance employees seems sure to be beneficial. Many roadmasters 
and master carpenters have continued to hold regular meetings 
of foremen to discuss subjects in connection with their work. 
The keeping of cost data of work under way, and its comparison 
with previous work, has also proved instructive in many cases. 

The most important result of the study of the organization of 
gangs is seen in the tendency to reduce their size. During the 
last few years many have realized that with the increasing ineffi- 
ciency of labor greater supervision is necessary, and that it is 
impossible for a foreman, even with an assistant, to handle prop- 
erly a gang of 75 or more men. One road has materially reduced 
the size of its ballast gangs during the past year and believes 
it has made a very large saving over previous years. The same 
thing has been done with rail-laying gangs, one instance of 
which is described in this issue. Study in this field has only 
begun and there is much room for further advancement. The 
premium system as a method of encouraging the foremen to 
better work was adopted last year on the Rock Island and has 
been continued on other roads. 

There were few important developments in track materials, 
and the increase in the use of higher-priced materials for special 
service, such as screw spikes and manganese frogs and crossings, 
was checked by the curtailment of e.xpenditures. However, there 
was an increase in the use of such standard materials as treated 
ties, tieplates and open hearth as well as Titanium steel for rails. 

In view of the inefficiency of much track labor, the most at- 
tention is being devoted to the development of devices which 
will eliminate much of the work now done by hand. A rail- 
laying car is a prominent example of this kind of development 
last year. It is but the forerunner of a large number of labor- 
saving devices which will find their way into track work. 

1 he introduction of motor cars for maintenance forces has 
increased very fast, and their use has demonstrated their economy. 
Some progress has been made in the adaptation of the motor 
(;n the car to driving power machinery in connection with track 

Among the more interesting developments in handling mainte- 
r.ance work have been the experiment in maintaining automatic 
block signals on double track on the Union Pacific and the con- 
tracting of certain kinds of maintenance work on the Erie and 
Michigan Central, described in recent issues of the Raihi'ay Age 
Gazette. The year was productive of many improvements, and 
w-ith the increased attention now being given to maintenance 
work by operating men. progress in succeeding years should be 


ALTHOUGH many men interested in the railway cross tie 
problem have given the subject careful study, especially 
in connection with the work of the Wood Preservers' Associa- 
tion and the American Railway Engineering Association, there 
are still lines of investigation which have not been thoroughly 
studied, and much is still to be desired in the shape of actual 
results from such investigations. The work of the Wood Pre- 
servers' Association has, of course, been directed almost entirely 
toward methods of treating soft wood ties. The tie committee 
of the American Railway Engineering Association has recom- 
mended tie specifications and has made an attempt to secure 
service records. These records, however, have covered only the 
species of the wood and the treatment as influencing its life, 
and very little attention has been given to methods of cutting 
and handling the ties, which, in many cases, are important factors 
in determining the length of service which the tie will give. 

The preparation of uniform specifications for tie production 
has been suggested at various times, but the number of varying 
conditions to be cojisidered render this very difficult. Some roads 
have lines reaching tie-producing territory and buy all ties from 
local producers along such lines ; others have to buy all ties from 
companies operating on a large scale in another portion of the 
country. Some roads refuse to take certain soft woods under 
any conditions ; others use many soft woods, either treated or 
untreated. Conditions of climate and soil so influence the timber 
that a given species may exhibit quite dissimilar characteristics 
when taken from different sections ; the season during which 
the tree can be cut to make a good tie may vary by several 
months, and the length of time required for freshly cut ties to 
develop incipient rot may also vary considerably. The method 
of handling the ties from the point of cutting to the point of 
delivery also greatly influences their value. They may be cribbed 
on a river bank for months awaiting a favorable stage of water 
and meanwhile developing rot ; they may be rafted down stream 
immediately after cutting, the water soaking out the -sap and 
retarding injurious checking, or they may be hauled out to a 
railway siding, properly piled and loaded direct to cars. 

L'nless ties are properly cut and seasoned before treatment 
their failure in the track may or may not be due to poor treat- 
ment. One of the papers presented at the convention of the 
Wood Preservers' Association cited an instance in which 90,000 
beech ties were found to be in such -bad condition after delivery 
to the treating plant that it was useless to treat them, and their 
first cost was a dead loss. Probably such cases are not common, 
but it would be hard to say how many failures of treated ties 
which puzzle maintenance men are due to some mishandling of 
ties before the treatment was applied. No road can experiment 
with all species grown in all territories and bought under all 
variations of specifications. Each road, however, is constantly 
learning by experience that certain species, cut in certain months 
and handled in a certain way. are giving either good or bad 
results in track. If by co-operation through the associations 
now studying the problem such experiences were exchanged, it 
is probable that certain general requirements in the production 
of ties could soon be made uniform, to the mutual advantage 
of tie producers, tie preservers and the railways. 



St. Louis & San Francisco, Pittsburg, Kan. 

The greatest improvement in the maintenance of way depart- 
ment on this division during the past year has resulted from the 
efforts made to economize and the willingness with which the 
foremen endeavored to help out is encouraging. In the past the 
foremen were not closely restricted in the hiring of men or in 
the use of material and there is no doubt that some injudicious 
foremen were wasteful in using new material where it was not 
fully needed simply because they had it on hand. On this road 
and on others this habit has been overcome by requiring the 
foremen to consult with the roadmasters before making exten- 
sive track repairs. The roadmasters also closely check the fore- 
men's requisitions for material and tools, in this way preventing 
them froin gathering an excessive supply. When a foreman is 
allowed to keep only a sinall supply of material and tools on hand 
he will be inclined to take care of what he has and will use it 
more carefully. By a small supply is meant enough material 
for general repair work and einergency repairs and enough tools 
to completely equip the gang. To cut down wasteful use of 
tools and to prevent them from being carried away the use of 
a miiTieograph form of tool report has been started. This foriu 
is similar to a material report and all tools are listed on it. 
The foreman is required to account for all broken and worn out 
tools. One column shows the tools which can be spared for 
other sections, and another column lists those which will be 
needed for the coming month. From these reports the road- 
master can make up his monthly requisitions and distribute the 

With the aim of receiving more credit for scrap released, the 
foremen have been urged to pay more attention to the picking up 
and handling of this material. In the past considerable scrap 
material has lieen stolen, but as a result of greater care on the 
part of foremen this trouble has been largely eliminated. After 
running the scrap car over the division the car department is 
always allowed to look over the material and pick out any which 
it can use. 

A frog repairer at $90 per month and his helper at $60 per 
month spend their entire time going over the division repairing 
broken and worn frogs in track and those which have been re- 
moved for repairs. They also repair all of each foreman's tools 
before leaving his section. The cost of frog repairs, including 
bolts, rivets, springs and rails, rarely exceeds $9 each. Before 
shipping scrap on sales orders it has always been necessary to 
cut frogs apart. Recently all the good parts have been saved 
for the use of the frog repairer. Recently while working over 
the scrap piles at division headquarters this frog repairer re- 
covered in one week enough material to more than pay the 
wages of himself and helper for three months. 

Considerable economies have been effected in the use of sta- 
tionery. The foremen are now furnished with blank instead of 
printed letterhead paper. They are also furnished with self- 
addressed envelopes for their correspondence with the road- 
masters, which envelopes are returned to them and used over 
and over. The roadmaster is provided with similar envelopes 
addressed to each foreman which he uses in the same way. This 
has decreased the use of the new envelopes in the roadmaster's 
department aliout 90 per cent. 

.Another thing which has been given attention this year is the 
maintenance of approaches to highway crossings at grade. In 
most cases track men have been maintaining these approaches in 
good condition out to the right of way line. Many times at the 
request of the township road supervisor a foreman will put in 
several hours with his entire gang on such work. With the in- 
crease in automobile traffic on the highways the maintenance of 

these crossings has become more costly. Following the receipt 
of 15 complaints regarding the conditions of such crossings at 
one time recently the Kansas law relating to this subject was 
investigated by the legal department which made the following 
ruling : 

"When the railway is constructed across a public highway, after 
the highway has been laid out and dedicated to public use, it is 
the duty of the railway company to restore the highway to it's 
foriTier condition, as nearly as practicable, and if in doing this 
it is necessary to construct approaches to the railroad track it 
should do that. If it is necessary to put drains in the approaches 
the railway is required to maintain these drains. 

"When a public or private road is opened across railway 
tracks it is not the duty of the railway company to construct the 
approaches or put in and maintain the drains in the approaches. 
It is, however, the duty to plank the crossing by placing a plank 
nn each side of each rail, these planks to be not less than 12 ft. 
long, 10 in. wide and not less than two in. thick, and shall fill 
the space between the two inside boards with gravel or broken 
stones, or shall floor the space with boards not less than two in. 
thick and 12 ft. long." 

It is now the practice on this division for the foreman to only 
maintain the portion of the crossing between the ties. Where- 
cver it is not a certainty that crossings were laid out and dedi- 
c^.ted to public use after the railroad was built they maintain the 
c'rains under the crossings. 


BV M. G.\.\I,EY, 
Roadmaster, Atchison. Topeka & Santa Fe, .Argentine, Kan. 

During the past year the following educational programme 
lias been carried out on this division w-ith good results and it 
is planned to continue it during the new year : 

Meetings for the foremen have been held at intervals of about 
six weeks in which each one of the men was called on for a 
discussion of some subject pertaining to his work or to the 
safety of the employees. We have also discussed in a general 
\- r.y methods of getting along with the public living along the 
line, and especially with the farmers, with excellent benefits. I 
liave found that by picking out subjects for some foremen whom 
it was difficult to interest otherwise and outlining the argument 
for them, and by assigning the opposite side of the same sub- 
ject to another foreman at tlic other end of the territory, very 
valuable discussions will be brought out in such meetings, and 
often points are emphasized which had not been thought of 
before. In this way some of the men who are not able to work 
ip a subject for the meeting bring out some of the most valuable 
discussions in debate. 

It has been found of advantage occasionally to bring a track 
walker into these monthly meetings. While most of these men 
are foreigners and do not fully understand the English language, 
they have a chance to learn track work here and the roadmaster 
and foremen are enabled to get in touch with them. Such con- 
tact with them gives the roadmaster opportunity to study the 
more intelligent ones and to determine where he can secure his 
next foremen. 

Last March I selected two of the foremen on the division and 
allowed them to attend the Railway Appliances exhibit at Chi- 
cago. This year the foremen will select two from their number 
to go, as it is believed that even better results will be secured by 
allowing the men to select their representatives. The men who 
attended the meeting last year noticed a great many new things 
in track material and tools which were of interest and value to 
them and which they have endeavored to explain to the other 
Another good method of educating the foremen to sec the 



Vol. 52, No. 3. 

difference in the work of other foremen is to tal<e them on an 
informal inspection trip over the division. Three or four of the 
foremen are gathered at one end of the division and go over it 
with the roadniaster on the rear end of some passenger train. 
In this way the small number of men does not annoy the 
passengers, while they secure all the benefits of a larger inspec- 
tion trip. 


Division Engineer, Michigan Central, Bay City, Mich. 

Reviewing the maintenance work of 1911 and considering the 
improvements made during this year as compared with the 
years gone by is undoubtedly of benefit. Is it not of equal or 
even greater service to consider now what improvements may 
be made in 1912 by the application of methods which have been 
tried in 1911 and found to be superior to those in use during 
former years? And may each one not benefit by some one or 
more of the "kinks" brought out through the agency of the 
Railway Age Gazette's contests during the present year? Im- 
provements in track maintenance on the northern division of 
the Michigan Central during the year 1911 as compared with 
former years have been sought chiefly along the lines of in- 
creased efficiency through a policy of progressive organization. 

The theory of scientific management, as applied to mainte- 
nance of railways, is at the same time plain and fascinating. It 
appears almost easy, at first glance. The putting of the theory 
into practice, however, reveals the real nature of the proposal. 
It is a matter of education, of man to man talks. It requires 
and demands the personal touch, toward a definite end. A be- 
ginning in this quest was made on this division in 1911. No 
startling innovations have been made. The roadmasters have 
been brought to the division office regularly once a month on 
the first Monday on or after the ISth and there have been no 
absentees. Efficiency methods have been discussed. Costs have 
been tabulated and compared. The knowledge imparted has 
been passed on to the section foremen, who take great interest 
in the matters considered. 

Sketch blueprints have been distributed to the foremen show- 
ing the approximate position of each siding and turnout on each 
section. The length of every siding or spur is shown in figures 
while a summary in miles of main, passing, yard and industrial 
tracks, number of switches and railway crossings on the section 
appears in a compact table on the face of the blueprint which is 
of note book size, about 3^4 in. x 6 in. In cases of sections in 
large yards, several blueprints, numbered to fit each other are 
necessary. Tracks joined with other roads are shown in colors. 
These prints are found very handy when describing the lo- 
cation of derailments or other happenings by the section fore- 
man. By sending in his blueprint with the location marked, he 
can often explain what he could not otherwise make clear, and 
thereby do away with the necessity for a trip by the roadmaster 
or assistant engineer or both to view the premises. These blue- 
prints have also been the cause of improvement of office records, 
the foremen being keen to observe errors in any detail. A most 
important result of the placing of these blueprints and cost data 
in the hands of the section foremen is their education in the 
reading of maps and masses of figures. The progress along 
these lines is remarkable. 

The ultimate object of our efforts toward education is of 
course to reach and teach the section man : in other words, to 
increase the efficiency of the working unit. It does not seem 
that the railway managements of this country recognize or 
realize that the section man is a skilled laborer. To be of any 
use as a section man, a laborer must possess skill and 

The section man is the working unit. He should be, and often 
is, a sound thinking unit. A maintenance force is valuable in 
direct ratio to the knowledge and skill of the unit of organiza- 

tion. It is, then, absolutely necessary to pick and train the 
section man if the efficiency of the department is to be increased 
as a whole and progressive results obtained. This must be done 
by daily instructions of all employees and officers. The knowl- 
edge gained must be passed down to the section men. But the 
superiority is not all on one side. There is often a passing up 
of knowledge, or even exchange of ingenious ideas and progres- 
sive methods. The roadmasters must bring the section foremen 
together. The foremen must bring the men together, to the 
mutual benefit of all concerned. These meetings and teachings 
must be persisted in and wisely carried out to be of value. There 
are altogether too many lines of cleavage in railway organization. 
They must be narrowed down, and gradually wiped out. In- 
dividual effort cannot avail. The best results are to be had from 
united effort — increased team work. 

It is desirable and necessary to bring the section men into our 
confidence, to give them hearings, to know their views and to 
have them more clearly understand all sides of this great problem 
of transportation to the solving of which they are giving the 
efforts of their waking hours as the working units. 

Here is the gist of the whole problem. Increased efficiency 
necessitates increased education in details of the work in hand, 
not only of the section man but of all the servants of the rail- 
ways from the lowest to the highest. Along these lines the 
work of 1911 has been wrought. The results are encouraging. 
The field is far-reaching. The task is only begun. But the 
pathway is plain and the near future cannot but bring vast im- 
provement. There will come a time when the value of the 
section man must be recognized by railway managements. Shall 
that recognition be forced upon unwilling ears or shall we set 
our house in order by recognition now of the true value of this 
working unit and by intelligent and constant effort toward its 
improvement for the lasting benefit of the employers? There 
is none too much time left. 


Assistant Supervisor, Northern Central, Baltimore, Md. 
One of the laborious and dangerous pieces of work which 
track forces frequently have to perform is that of unloading 
frogs or other heavy track material from gondola cars. In addi- 
tion to their weight, such articles are very awkward to lift be- 
cause of the poor grip which it is possible to secure and very 
frequently a man has a foot crushed or is otherwise injured. 
Having a number of carloads of frogs and switches, in addition 
to a number of heavy manganese knuckle rails for slip switches. 

' Shelter ^ 

^^,^</3^ L'"efor furning Masty" 

o o 



o o 

Derrick Car for Handling Track Material. 

to unload during the past summer, a derrick was secured from an 
adjacent division, but when it was received it was of very little 
use as it was equipped with a short steel boom of 10 tons capacity 
with a fixed radius of 10 ft The car was sent to the shops and 
the boom was replaced with one having a radius of 27 ft., which 
allowed the hoisting line to reach the center of a 34-ft. car when 
coupled to it. This boom was arranged so that when out of 
service it could be turned through 180 deg. and allowed to rest 

January 19, 1912. 



<3n the engine shelter, as shown in the drawing, in this way 
eliminating the idler car. No change was necessary for the 
■engine or drums as the derrick was provided with one drum for 
hoisting and another for turning the mast. An old hand crab 
was placed on the boom for raising and lowering it. A man 
was selected from one of the gangs to operate the derrick, thus 
•eliminating the steam engineer's wages. 

In addition to unloading the frogs and switches, this car was 
used during the past season to move a standpipe about 200 ft. 
Here the plumbers dismantled the standpipe and disconnected 
the cast-iron seat and slow-closing valve. The derrick trans- 
ferred the seat and valve to the new pit, requiring but a few 
minutes for work which would otherwise have required several 
Tiours for a gang of men. This car has also been used to good 
advantage in moving semaphore signal poles, only about 20 
minutes being required to move a pole. This did away with the 
necessity of erecting gin poles. 

The derrick was also found to be very convenient in loading 
a large quantity of rail for shipment. The chains were passed 
around several rails and they were hoisted into a car in one 
operation. Here two men were required on the rail pile and two 
in the car, with one man at the engine and one to give signals to 
the engineer. When loading by hand 16 men would have been 
required and would have made but one-third the progress made 
with the derrick. In such instances the use of a work-train is 
.expensive, and the advantage of a derrick car is as important 
in the reducing of this expense as in the reduction of labor. 
The above are but instances of the wide variety of uses to which 
.a derrick may be put with advantage. 


General Foreman, B. & B., C. & N. W., Fremont, Neb. 

"It is a good plan to hope for the best but a much better one 
to hustle for it." This is a fine maxim for anyone to follow, 
and the best way that one can obtain results is to keep his eye 
on his men and records, and hustle for a better record. 

At the opening of the season of 1911 we called our foremen 
into the office and went over the records of the work done the 
previous year. The cost of this work was compared with the 
cost of that done in 1909 and if the 1909 cost was found to be 
lower than that for 1910 that figure was taken for the record of 
the two years ; if the 1910 figure was lower we took that. An 
average cost for the dififerent classes of work was made up and 
we started out with the intention of beating the record if we 

It was not possible to eliminate all the undesirable men in 
our gangs at once, but we have made a reduction and believe we 
have reached a minimum. The men as a rule are taking pride 
in their work and are trying to make their respective gangs the 
test on the division. They have been given to understand that 
the word "efficient" does not mean spasmodic speeding up or 
poor work. It does mean the finding of a unit of work to be 
■done in a given time in the most workmanlike manner and at the 
most economical cost. To accomplish results it is absolutely 
necessary to proceed without friction and with the most effective 
team work. 

The men have been shown where head work can save unneces- 
sary labor. Where possible cheap men have been put on for 
flagging trains and placing tools conveniently near to those who 
are paid higher wages to save the higher priced men from 
running from the work to the tool box and otherwise wasting 

The foremen have taken a great deal of interest jn this work 
and a number have kept diaries or logs of each day's progress. 
These have been turned in and have been found to be of much 
use in deciding where savings may be made the coming year. 
This action on the part of the foremen is of distinct value, for 

we not only have a record of the work done with the method by 
which it was done and the cause for any extra cost, but we also 
have a record of any outside influence, such as delays caused by 
poor train despatching or poor work-train service. 

An analysis of the results secured by working under the above 
program shows that while we have paid a little higher wages 
than in 1909, we have beaten the records of both 1909 and 1910. 
We have made an average reduction of 6 per cent, in the labor 
cost of work done, not including work-train and other service, 
w hile the foremen have made a decided advance in their efficiency. 


Division Engineer, Missouri Pacific, Little Rock, Ark. 

In contrast with the customary method of relaying rail with 
a gang of from 70 to lOP men in charge of a foreman and assist- 
ant foreman, gangs of 35 men with foreman and assistant fore- 
man have been used on one division of the Missouri Pacific 
during the past year with excellent results. The detailed dis- 
tribution of the men and the method of handling the work are 
here given. 

On starting work in the morning six men begin adzing the 
shoulder of the tie on the outside of the rail and on a level with 
its base. At the same time nine men with claw bars are set 
to work pulling two spikes and starting the third spike, each 
man taking a rail and after finishing it going ahead to the 
ninth rail. Two men follow with spike mauls to drive down 
or pull out the stubs that the men in advance have left. Follow- 
ing this 16 men, under the direction of the assistant foreman, 
place the rails to be laid on the ends of the ties, heeling them 
in to the adjoining rails and directly opposite their final position 
in the track. These rails are turned on their sides with the ball 
towards the old rail and about 10 in. from it. One man carries 
water and one handles the tools. 

A gang arranged in this manner will have from 5,000 to 6,000 
ft. of rail in place by 10 o'clock. Such a gang should then be 
able to put in 160 rails in about three hours, with allowance 
made for at least six connections to permit trains to pass in this 
time. This still leaves four hours of a working day in which 
at least 40 more rails should be put in. 

When starting to relay rail after 10 o'clock the gang is organ- 
ized as follows : Two men flag trains ; two with claw bars pull 
the remaining outside spikes and one pulls the spikes inside 
where the new joints will come; four with small bars throw 
the old rail out over the top of the new rail on to the shoulder 
of the ballast. The assistant foreman and an engineer with 
expansion shims at the rear end, with a laborer at the forward 
end, throw the new rail into place with small steel bars. Two 
men hold this rail in place while eight full spike it and eight 
others put on the bolts. Two men look after compromise con- 
nections; three distribute angle bars, bolts, spikes and other 
material and two carry water and do other miscellaneous work. 

While daily records were kept showing the performance of 
various gangs it is almost impossible to arrive at accurate 
results by simply checking daily operations, which showed that a 
38-man organization was laying from 80 to 160 lineal feet of 
rail per man per day. However, the actual cost of relaying 18 
track miles of 75-lb. rail with 100-lb. rail, including the unloading 
and distributing of material and relaying 14 turnouts, is as fol- 
Relaying rail labor, including foreman, assistant foreman and 

engineer $3,066 

Relaying 14 switches — labor, including foreman, assistant foreman 

and engineer 490 

Labor unloading 18 miles of rail and 14 complete switches 216 

Work train, including fuel and engine house expense unloading 

rail and switches 620 

Total cost $4,392 

Cost per mile, including switches, and unloading $244 

Cost per mile excluding labor account laying switches and labor 

and work train account of unloading and distributing 177.33 



\'ui,. 52. Xn. 3. 

Cost per Hack foot .0335 

Daily expense: 

1 Foreman ($85.00 per month ) $3.J3 per day. 

1 Assistant foreman {$65.00 per morth) 2.50 

1 Assistant engineer ($65.00 per mor.tli) 2.50 " 

35 Laborers (15c. per hour) 52.50 

38 men, or 380 hours 60.73 

("ost of labor per man per day of 10 liours 1.60 

.\verage track ft. per man per day ($1.60 -^ .0335) 47.76 ft. 

Average lineal ft. per man per day of 10 liours 95.5 ft. 

The above work was performed willi negro lal)or under 
ordinary weather conditions during the early summer. The 
average number of trains between 7 a. m. and 6 p. m. was 12; 
while the average number of connections made per day was 8. 


The following articles of special interest to engineers and 
maintenance of way men, and to which readers of this section 
may wish to refer, have appeared in the issue of the Raihsjay 
■ige Gazette since December 15 : 

Shallozc Bridge Floors. — An abstract of a paper on this sub- 
ject by O. F. Dalstrom, read before the Western Society of Engi- 
neers, was published on page 1268 of the issue of December 22. 
TJie author analyzes the subject completely and shows the dif- 
ferences between the various types of shallow floors now in use 
on railway bridges. An editorial commenting on the same sub- 
ject appeared en page 1265 of the same issue. 

The importance of properly inspecting and maintaining high- 
ii'oy crossings over Raiki-ay Track was emphasized in an editorial 
note in the issue of December 22, page 1263. 

Xew Construction in ign. — The annual statistics compiled by 
the Railway Age Gazette showing miles of line built during the 
past year were published in the issue of December 29. The mile- 
age for the year coinpared with the mileage built during the pre- 
vious years as far back as 1893 is shown on page 1307, and a de- 
tailed statement of the mileage built arranged by states was pub- 
lished on page 1320. This issue also included statistics of mileage 
block signaled, cars and locomotives built and ordered, etc., and 
numerous expressions of opinion as to the outlook for 1912 1iy 
railway officers. 

Notes on Pile Protection. — An abstract of an article read be- 
fore the Boston Society of Civil Engineers by T. Howard Barnes, 
which includes a description of work done on wharf construction 
for the protection of piles, was published on page 1345 of the 
issue of December 29. 

Neiv Ore Dock at Tzvo Harbors, Minn. — The Duluth & Iron 
Range ore dock recently built at Two Harbors, Minn., is one of 
the best examples of recent tendencies in the construction of ore- 
loading docks on the Great Lakes. Its size and the number of 
special features involved in its desiga make it of particular in- 
terest. .\n illustrated description of the structural details and 
operating mechanisms of the dock was published on page 8 of 
the issue of January 5. 

The New General Office Building of the Union Pacific at 
Omaha. — The Union Pacific has practically completed a new 12- 
story office building at Omaha. .\ perspective view and floor 
plan of this building were shown in connection with a generp! 
description of its construction in the issue of January 5. page 18. 

Exhibitors at the Railit'ay Appliances Association March E.v- 
hibit. — The list of exhibitors for the March exhibition was pub- 
lished on page 65 of the issue of January 12, and an editorial 
note commenting on the outlook for this exhibit apiieared rn 
page 39 of the same issue. 

The Rail Situation. — An editorial, presenting additional facts 
in substantiation of the statements made in an editorial on the 
subject of rail breakages, published December 15. appears on page 
42 of the issue of January 12. This editorial includes summaries 
of the best statistics in existence on this subject. 

Effect of Cold Weather on Tonnage Rating. — An abstract of a 
paper on this subject by Edward C. Schmidt, read before the 

Central Railway Cli.b, appeared on page 44 of the issue of Jan- 
uary 12. It was illustrated by numerous curves showing the ef- 
fect of temperature changes on train resistance as determined by 
an extensive series of tests by the Engineering Experiment Sta- 
tion of the University of Illinois. 

Improved .Method of Treating Tics and Timbers. — W. F. 
(ioltra presents detailed plans for a timber preservation plant em- 
bodymg a number of advanced ideas and including approximate 
costs of the process outlined. 


The following appointments have been made for the commit- 
tees of the .Xmerican Railway Bridge and Building .Association 
for 1912: 

Fireproofmg Timber Trestles. — Lee Jutton ( C. & X. W.) ; 
W. H, Moore (N. Y. N. H. & H.). 

Derricks and Other .Appliances for Handling Material in Sup- 
ply Yards.— J. N. Pen well (L. E. & W.) ; A. S. Markov (C. & 
E. I.) ; A. Yappen (C. M. & St. P.) ; D. B. Taylor ( B. & O.) : 

E. A. Stanley ( M. P.). 

Sash — Size and Kind of Glass for Roundhouses and Shops. — 
A. A. Wolf (C. M. & St. P.) ; H. Bender (C. & X. W.) ; H. A. 
Horning (M. C.) ; F. L. Thompson (I. C.). 

Concrete Tank Construction. — F. E. Weise ( C. M. & St. P.) : 
W. H. Finley ( C. & N. W.) ; W. M. Clark (B. & O.) ; D. G. 
Musser ( Penna. Lines West). 

Best and Most Eccnomical Pumping Engines. — C. E. Thomas 
(I. C); J. Dupree (C. T. H. & S. E.) ; G. H. Jennings 
(E. J. & E.) ; J. B. White (C. & N. W.). 

Roofs and Roof Coverings. — T. J. Fullem (I. C); G. W. 
.Andrews ( B. & O.) ; C. W. Richey (P. R. R.) : C. A. Marcy 
(C. & N. W.); J. H. Nuelle (N. Y. O. & W. ) ; H. H. Kinzie 
(N. Y. N. H. & H.). 

Reinforced Concrete Culvert Pipe. — L. D. Hadweii ( C. M. & 
St. P.) ; H. H. Decker (C. & N. W.) ; R. O. Elliott ( L. & N.) ; 

F. O. Draper (I. C.) ; F. E. King (C. M. & St. P.); George 
Loughnane (C. & N. \\'.). 

The Construction and Maintenance of Long Pipe Lines for 
Locomotive Water Supply, Intakes, Pump Pits, Reservoirs, Etc. 
— B. J. Mustain (E. P. & S. W.) ; E. S. Hume (West. Aus- 
tralia Gov. Rys.) ; E. R. Floren (C. R. I. & P.) ; D. Burke (So. 
Pac): W. C. Dale (O. S. L.). 

The Development of Turntables to Meet Operating Crnditions. 
for the Modern Locomotive, Showing Most Improved Practice. 
— C. E. Smith (M. P.); J. S. Berry (St. L. S. W.) : F. G. 
Jonah (St. L. & San F.) ; A. S. Marklev (C. & E. I.): C. H. 
Fal*e (M. R. & B. T.). 

Track Scales — Construction and Maintenance. — A. M. Van 
Auken (M. D. & G.) : E. R. Wenner (L. V.): A. W. .Merrick 
(C. & N. W.); Wm. H. Vance (La. & Ark.); H. M. Jack 
(I. & G. N.). 

Painting and Structural Iron cr Steel, for Both Bridges and 
Buildings.— C. Ettinger (I. C.) ; R. H. Reid (L. S. & M. S.) ; 
E. E. Wilscn (N. Y. C. & H. R.) : O. F. Barnes (Erie) ; O. F. 
Dalstrom (C. & N. W). 

Relative Merits of Brick and Concrete in Railway Buildings 
and Platforms.— George W. Hand (C. & X. W.) ; H. .A. Horn- 
ing (M. C.I: G. H. Jennings (E. J. & E.) : Peter Hofecker 
(L. v..) : W. F. Strouse ( B. & O.) ; E. M. Dolan ( M. P.). 

The executive committee of the Roadmasters' and Maintenance 
of Way .Association has decided to publish an official pro- 
gramme, which will be ready for distribution by July 15, 1912. 
and wdiich will include the committee reports and papers which 
will be presented at the thirtieth annual convention at Buffalo 
in September. This will enable the members to study the re- 
ports before going to the cor.venti: n and they will be better able 
to discuss them. 

January 19, 1912. 




An example o£ the economies secured by the use of motor 
cars for section forces is afforded by the experience of the San 
Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake last summer. Although light 
motor cars have been used for inspection purposes by the super- 
intendent, engineer maintenance of way, roadmasters and fore- 
men of bridges and buildings for about eight years, section 
motor cars were first provided last year. Four Fairbanks, Morse 
& Company cars were bought and were placed in the hands of 
foremen, some of whom were white and some Japanese, and 
none of whom had had any previous experience with gasolene 
engines or motor cars. No attempt was made to pick out men 
to run them. As was to be expected, there has been some 
irregularity in their performance, partially due to the fact that 
they have net been continuously in the hands of the same men. 
The variations, however, have been such as may be readily 
understood and no difficulty is anticipated in reducing the per- 
formance to a fair degree of regularity. 

The cars are being used on grades as high as 3.6 per cent, 
and it is found that they will carry a gang of five or six men 
with their tools up such a grade with a little pumping on the 
part of the men, the engine itself being not quite strong enough 
to climb the hill alone with this load. Reports of their per- 
formance are made monthly to the roadmaster and the division 
engineer, from which the following figures are taken. It will be 
noted that the cars average about 22 miles per gallon of gaso- 
lene and that the total cost of operation has averaged $1.48 per 
100 miles. The reports are posted daily by the foremen and 
summaries are made at the end of tlic month. 

As a result cf the experience with these cars authority has 
been granted to equip three branch lines throughout with motor 
cars. These branches aggregate 101 miles and have heretofore 
been divided into 11 sections. With the motor car but seven 
sections will be required, thus relieving four foremen with their 
hand cars, push cars and some tools. It is estimated that it 
will cost about $1,500 to equip the seven sections with motor 
cars, and that the total cost of operating them for the first five 

months will bring this amount up to $1,800. The saving in wages, 
hand and push cars and tools will offset this expense, and after 
live montlis the annual saving in wages alone without reducing 
the number of laborers is estimated at a trifle over $3,000. In 
addition to this, the local officials lielieve that they will get more 
efficient track work. 


Tlie Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific has recently completed 
the reconstruction of a bridge over the Iowa river about 300 
ft. south of the junction of the Iowa and Cedar rivers, near 
Columbus Junction, Iowa, in which the erection of the steel 
work was handled by a new and original method. This work 
was described in a recent number of the Rock Ishiiid Employees' 
Magaciiie, from which the following informaticn is taken: 

The old bridge consisted of six 150-ft. through latticed trusses 
and one 58-ft. deck plate girder over the channel of the river 
proper, with a scries of 66-ft. deck plate girders on the ap- 
proaches. The girders on the approach spans were supported 
on stone masonry piers. Three of the piers supporting the 
truss spans were also of stone and were constructed over 40 
years ago. These piers were in such bad condition that they 
had to be replaced. The other piers supporting the truss spans 
were of concrete and v.-ere constructed about six years ago. 

Although the through truss spans were in good condition, 
they were constructed several years ago and were not designed 
for the present day heavy traffic. For this reason their renewal 
became necessary and they were replaced by 11 deck plate girder 
spans, two of which were 75 ft. long, six 78 ft. long, and three 
103 ft. long. These various lengths of girders were necessary 
in order to utilize the existing concrete piers. Six new concrete 
piers were built between the old ones in addition to the stone 
piers rebuilt, requiring in all 1,700 yds. of concrete. 

Instead of following the general practice of supporting the 
old bridge and erecting the new one on false work, a new 
plan was adopted, in order to eliminate the heavy cost of the 

Car Days 
No. in 

S770 14 

5617 28 

5624 29 


5770 31 

3476 31 

5617 31 

5624 31 


5770 30 

3476 30 

5617 30 

5624 30 


5770 31 

3476 31 

5617 31 

5624 31 


5770 30 

3476 27 

5617 30 

5624 30 


-\verage for 
5 months. . 
















Motor Car Performance on S. P. 

July, 1911. 

Miles per Cost per Supplies, 

gallon. 100 miles, other Repairs, 

than oil labor and 

and gaso. material. 

I.. A. & S. L. 












Lub. oil 










Cost per 
100 miles, 

oil and 

















August. 1911. 
SI. 82 






October, 1911. 





$0.13 $1.44 
November, 1911. 




Total cost 

per 100 





















18 days 

18 dcys 

10 min. 

Gasolene, $0.20 per gai. 
Lubricating oil, $0.30 per gal. 

Excessive oil used. 
Excessive oil used. 

Supply items are spark plugs ami 15 
cells, dry batteries. 

Cleaning engine. 

Clearing engine. 

Damaged in colHston. l-'ault of foreman. 

8 cells, dry batteries. 

Supply items are 1 spark plug and 20 

cells, dry batteries. 
Dirty spark plug. 



Vol. 52, No. 3. 

Copyright, J. G. Baker, Columbus Jet., Iowa. 

Old Rock Island Bridge at Columbus Junction, Iowa. 

Copyright, J. G. Baker, Columbus Jet., Iowa. 

Lowering 103-ft. Girders Into Place With Steam Wrecking Cranes. 

Copyright, J. G. Baker, Columbus Jet., Iowa. 

Completed Bridge Over Iowa River. 

January 19, 1912. 



false work and the clanger of its being carried away or injured 
by floods. The use of false work would have required this work 
to be done at low water stage. 

As many rivets as could safely be spared from the floor system 
of a truss were cut off in advance, and the top laterals and 
one portal were removed. Two heavy steel beams with steel 
pins from which block and tackle could be suspended were 
then placed on top of the trusses over the locations of the ends 
of the girders to be placed, as shown in the smaller photograph. 
. Two sets of blocks were suspended from each beam. The girder 
span to be placed was riveted up and placed on two flat cars 
with half the track ties in position on it. When everything was 
in readiness a train, consisting of an engine, a flat car arranged 
so that the lines from each set of blocks could be attached, 
two cars loaded with the span to be placed, and a derrick car, 
was run on to the bridge. The cars holding the girders were 
spotted so that these girders were directly above their final 
location, and block and tackle were hooked on to each end of 
the girders. Lines from these blocks were attached to the flat 
car next to the engine, which had been moved ahead three or 
four car lengths. The engine then moved slowly forward lift- 
ing the span clear of the cars, which were then shoved out of 
the way. The girders were held suspended by the engine until 
the track and floor system of the old bridge were removed. All 


Copyright. J. G. Baker, Colttmbiis Jet., lo'.vii. 

Lowering Girders Into Place by Block and Tackle. 

the remaining rivets in the floor system were taken out. Two 
runner lines from the derrick- car were then hitched to a floor 
beam and it was raised clear of the bottom chord of the trusses, 
when both the floor beam and stringers were quickly dropped 
into the river and recovered later. Aiter the floor system was 
out of the way, the girder span was lowered into place by the 
engine, the rails laid on the ties and traffic resumed. The best 
time made in placing one of the shorter spans was 1 hour and 
25 minutes from the time the track was blocked until traffic 
■was resumed. Because of their great weight, the 103-ft. girders 
were placed by two wrecking cranes, as shown. The longest 
time required in placing one of these girders was three hours. 
In placing these 11 new spans and taking down the eight old 
ones, no train was delayed, although it was necessary to handle 
a traffic of from 10 to 15 trains during working hours. 

When the girders which replaced the truss spans had been 
set the trusses were braced and supported from the new girders 
to provide for wind stresses until they could be taken down piece 
by piece by the derrick car. The practicability of this method, 
as compared with false work, is shown by the fact that three of 
the trusses were replaced during the highest flood stage of the 
river, at a time when false work would have been torn out by 
the ice and drift. The handling of this steel work was all done by 
company forces under the general direction of J. B. Berry, chief 
engineer, a;-id I. L. Simmons, bridge engineer. 

The new yard and terminal facilities of the Oregon-Washing- 
ton Railroad & Navigation Company at Seattle, Wash., are 
practically completed as far as they will be built at the present 
time, and most of them are now in regular service. They were 
made necessary by the inauguration of train service into Seattle 
by the Oregon-Washington Railroad & Navigation Company on 
Januarj' 1, 1910. The establishment of regular independent 
train service by the Harriman Lines between Seattle and Port- 
land forms the closing chapter in the history of the efforts of 
this system to enter the Puget Sound territory, which had been